New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Psych 131 MT1

by: Carolyn Smullin

Psych 131 MT1 Psych 131

Carolyn Smullin
GPA 3.78

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover what will be tested on the first midterm.
Developmental Psychopathology
Study Guide
Psychology, Developmental Psychopathology
50 ?




Popular in Developmental Psychopathology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carolyn Smullin on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 131 at University of California Berkeley taught by Hinshaw in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychopathology in Psychlogy at University of California Berkeley.


Reviews for Psych 131 MT1


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/04/16
PSYCH 131 MT1 1. DP Core Principles a. the study of normal development is necessary for the study of atypical development b. continuous vs discontinuous development of behavior c. multiple levels of analysis d. context and evolution e. transactional models f. risk and protective factors g. equifinality (many roads lead to the same outcome) vs multifinality (one cause leading to many outcomes) 2. Models of Mental Illness a. statistical model b. social norms model c. moral model d. impairment/ecological fit model e. medical model f. harmful dysfunction g. developmental psychopathology i. definition: mental disorder is a result of deviation in normal development, shaped by biological vulnerabilities and environmental risk factors 3. Conceptual Issues a. risk factors: precede a negative outcome and predict it i. spurious: related to the disorder only through association with another risk 1. e.g. black is related to aggression, black is also related to low SES, thus low SES is related to aggression ii. fixed (gene) iii. malleable (parenting) iv. causal b. protective factors: reduce the impact of risk factors and promote better than expected outcomes i. resilience: better than expected outcomes c. comorbidity: overlap of independent conditions d. correlation: overlap of related conditions e. homotypic continuity: continuity of underlying cause and behavioral manifestation f. heterotypic continuity: continuity of underlying cause, but behavioral manifestations change through stages of life 4. Heritabilty and Genes x Environment Interactions a. behavior genetics: attempts to parse sources of variation in behavior i. heritability effects, shared environmental affects, and non- shared environmental effects b. heritability: proportion of the variance in a trait attributed to genes i. refers to a population (e.g. height) ii. methods: family/pedigree studies, twin studies, adoption studies iii. heritability = 2 x (MZ concordance – DZ concordance) iv. problems: heritability is destiny, means the trait never changes, means heritability of a trait is the same across social classes and across generations c. GxE Correlation i. Passive: environment is an expression of the genes ii. Active: child actively selects an environment that fits their genes iii. Evocative: child’s behavior elicits responses that maintain current environment d. GxE Interaction: an individuals response to an environmental insult is moderated by their genetic makeup e. Molecular genetics: identify specific genetic polymorphisms that confer vulnerability i. methods: linkage studies and association studies f. Moderator: factor that occurs before the risk factor and moderates the effect of the risk factor on the outcome i. Variations in 5HTT (serotonin transporter) moderate the influence of stressful life events on depression ii. Variations in MAO allele moderates the affect of maltreatment on adolescent antisocial behavior iii. Race moderates the affects of parenting style on aggression in kids g. Mediator: factor that occurs in between the onset of the risk factor and outcome, and explains why the risk factor and outcome are related i. parenting style is a mediator between SES and aggression ii. SES is a mediator between race and aggression 5. Temperament and Attachment a. temperament: individual differences in emotional reactivity, self regulation, attention, and behavior i. temperament and environment together shape a personality ii. personality: organized patterns of emotional and behavioral responding throughout life iii. temperament emerges within the first year of life and is predictive of later behavior iv. temperament has been related to the functioning of the amygdala and dopamine systems v. executive attention is related to the anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal areas b. Rothbart’s 6 Dimensions of Temperament i. fear, frustration, negative affect, extraversion, orientation/perceptual sensitivity, effortful control ii. effortful control: ability to choose a course of action under conditions of conflict, plan for the future, and detect errors c. Attachment: representation of relationship and security i. internal working model: representations of relationships and security that the infant brings to subsequent social relations d. Strange situation: preplanned separations and reunions, observe reunion behavior to determine attachment (temperament predicts separation behavior but not reunion) i. secure attachment: preceded by warm and responsive parenting ii. insecure avoidant: sullen and distant from mom in the reunion; preceded by distant parenting iii. insecure ambivalent: wants to be near mom, but cannot be soothed; preceded by inconsistent parenting iv. disorganized: preceded by frightening/abusive parenting 6. Parenting Styles a. authoritative: high warmth, high control  best overall outcome b. permissive: high warmth, low control  creative or chaotic children c. authoritarian: low warmth, high control  compliant or aggressive children d. neglectful: low warmth, low control  poor outcomes across the board e. issues with the 2x2 model i. moderation by race: authoritarian parenting in black families leads to less aggressive kids, but in white families it leads to more aggressive kids ii. consistency of parenting: within the same parent and between parents iii. transactional relationship between parents and child f. facets of parenting i. malleable and spurious risk factor ii. monitoring: ability to become more permissive as child ages iii. scaffolding: attuned instruction iv. coercion: Kid is pushing the limits, until parent reaches their limit with the child’s dismissive behavior and reacts with abuse  involves permissive and authoritarian parenting g. family systems i. distant boundaries: predicts externalizing temperament (noncompliant/aggressive) ii. enmeshed boundaries: predicts internalizing temperament (withdrawn/depressive) 7. Peers and Neighborhoods a. peers: the people we choose to associate with b. sociometrics: measurements of how liked/disliked you are i. average, popular, neglected, rejected, controversial ii. peer rejection: the single best predictor of delinquency, dropout, and mental illness c. neighborhoods: community level factors that affect the onset/development of delinquent behavior i. social economic status (SES) ii. stability vs transiency of who lives there iii. ethnic/racial diversity iv. levels of violence v. collective efficacy: protection for each other d. selection bias: is it the characteristics of the peers/neighborhood that influence the individual, or is it the characteristics of the individual that shape their selection of peers/neighborhood  peers affect us, but we choose the peers with whom we hang out 8. ADHD (part 1) a. Categories i. ADHD PI: predominately inattentive (family history)  requires differential diagnosis with anxiety, learning disorders ii. ADHD PH: predominantly hyperactive/impulsive (young children) iii. ADHD C: combined (adolescents) b. Applying a Model i. statistical, ecological, harmful dysfunction? c. criteria for diagnosis i. developmentally extreme, cross situational, early onset (<12 years), persistant (>6 months), impairing ii. impairment of the striatum b. prevalence i. equal opportunity across race, SES, gender ii. 3:1 ratio in boys to girls (girls predominantly inattentive) iii. 5-7% worldwide iv. 0.7-0.8 heritability v. salient with compulsory education vi. US and Israel highest rates because of high expectations for performance and achievement c. Rise in diagnosis i. 41% increase in dx since 2003 ii. 1/9 kids (11%) are diagnosed iii. 70% of those dx are medicated iv. variation across US is correlated with public school test scores d. Developmental issues i. children: first predictor is severity of hyperactivity; secondary risk factor is peer rejection, academic difficulty, discordant parent-child interactions; secondary protective factor is positive peer relationships, academic ability ii. Adolescence: >80% persistence, adolescents more at risk for driving accidents, delinquency iii. Adults: low prevalence with self reports; ratio is more like 1.5:1 men to women iv. ADHD is heterotypic continuity 9. ADHD (part 2) a. Comorbidities (ADHD rarely occurs alone) i. ODD, CD, anxiety, bipolar disorder b. Causes i. genetic (0.7-0.8 heritability) ii. low birth weight iii. maternal alcohol and drug use iv. discordant parent child interactions v. child reared in chaotic or under stimulating environment vi. neural development: delay in frontal cortex that resembles “immaturity” d. Treatment i. evidence based: stimulant medication (dopamine effects) and behavior therapy (integration of home and school components) ii. not evidence based: restriction of additives in diet, cognitive training, supplements


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.