NHM 101 Exam 1 Study Guide
NHM 101 Exam 1 Study Guide NHM101
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Matt Cutler on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NHM101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lebo Tan in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see NHM101-002 in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Study Guide Exam 1 (Chapters 1-3) Wednesday, January 27, 2016 9:18 AM 1. Chapter 1 a. Definitions i. Nutrition- the science of the nutrients in foods and their actions within the body. ii. Nutrients- chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials, and regulating agents to support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body's tissues. Nutrients help reduce the risk of certain diseases. 1) Essential Nutrients- nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body does not produce it on its own. (about 40 nutrients are classified as essential) iii. Functional foods- foods that have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis at effective levels. iv. Vitamins- organic (contain the element Carbon), essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health v. Minerals- inorganic elements(do not contain Carbon). Some minerals are essential to the body. vi. Malnutrition- any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients. b. Factors that influence food choices i. Preferences ii. Habit (Cereal every morning) iii. Ethnic Heritage iv. Social interactions v. Availability and convenience vi. Positive or negative emotions and associations vii. Values (such as religious beliefs, political views, or environmental concerns) viii. Body weight and image ix. Nutrition and Health benefits (look for Functional Foods) c. Six classes of Nutrients Organic Nutrients (Contain Carbon) i. Carbohydrates Inorganic Nutrients (Do not contain Carbon) ii. Lipids ○ Water iii. Proteins Second simplest iv. Vitamins ○ Minerals d. Categories of Nutrients Simplest of nutrients Macronutrients (Also referred to as Energy-Yielding Nutrients)- Required by the body in large amounts 1) Carbohydrates • 1Kcal=1000calories=1C a) Provide 4kcal/gram 2) Proteins a) Provide 4kcal/gram 3) Lipids (Fats) a) Provide 9kcal/gram (Highest Energy Density) ○ Know how to do simple Nutrition Calculations: If a granola bar has 19 grams of Carbohydrates, how many kcal come from Carbs? □ 19grams*4kcal/gram= 76kcal You plan a 2000kcal diet that contains 55% kcals from Carbs, 20% kcals from proteins, and 25% kcals from fats. Calculate the kcals and grams of each macronutrient your client should be eating. □ Carbs= 275grams or 1,100 kcals □ Proteins= 100grams or 400 kcals • For healthy foods, pick a food with a high □ Fats= approximately 56grams or 500 kcals nutrient density and a low energy density. Know how to read a nutrition label! Micronutrients- required in small amounts Do not provide energy, but some are required for the energy release process. 1) Vitamins a) organic, but do not provide energy. a) organic, but do not provide energy. b) almost every action in the body requires the assistance of vitamins c) require special care to keep intact 2) Minerals a) inorganic, therefore need not be handled with care to keep intact e. Dietary Reference Intakes i. A collection of four reference values related to intake of nutrients: a) Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) i) The average daily amount of a nutrient that is sufficient for half of the population ii) Only used to assess nutrient adequacy of populations b) Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) i) Daily amount of nutrient needed to meet the requirementsof almost all healthy individuals (about ~98% of the population) ii) Serve as goal intake for individuals c) Adequate Intake (AI) i) Sufficient scientific evidence is not available to determine RDA ii) Based on estimates of nutrient intake by a group of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate d) Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) i) The maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people ii) Beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effect One. Such as: too much of vitamin A causes liver damage f. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) i. A diet that provides adequate energy and nutrientsand reduces the risk of chronic diseases determined by a smart committee. a) 45-65% kcalories from Carbs b) 20-35% kcals from fat c) 10-35% kcals from protein 2. Chapter 2 a. The key to planning a healthy diet is to eat a variety different foods at numerous meals over time. (Overall eating pattern) i. Adequacy- Sufficient energy and enough nutrients 1) Lack of calcium (inadequacy) causes less dense bones ii. Balance- different types of foods in proportion to one another iii. Kcal (energy) Control- Energy input= Energy Output iv. Variety- select from different food groups v. Nutrient Density- Nutrient energy/kcal energy 1) Select foods that deliver the most nutrients for the least food energy 2) Avoid empty kcal foods such as donuts, rice krispies, and cookies, because they have kcal energy but lack nutrients vi. Moderation- Anything is acceptable in moderation. b. My Plate i. Current dietary guideline for Americans, contains 5 food groups: 1) Fruit 2) Grains i) Refined ◊ Lost many nutrients during processing ii) Enriched ◊ Have had some nutrients added back iii) Whole grain ◊ Have all the nutrientsand fiber found in the original grain 3) Vegetables 4) Proteins 5) Milk c. Nutrition Facts Label and Ingredients Label i. Nutrition Facts include: i. The serving size and number of servings per container i. The serving size and number of servings per container ii. Energy information and quantities per serving, in actual amounts iii. Quantities of nutrients as %daily values based on a 2,000- Kcalorie energy intake ii. Ingredients Label i. Listed on the label in decreasing order of predominance by weight. d. Nutrition Claims i. Nutrient claims i. Claims on food that must meet FDA requirements such as: 1) Cholesterol free- must contain less than 2mg of cholesterol AND no more than 2 grams of saturated fat and trans fat combined per serving ii. Health Claims i. Describe a relationship between a food and a disease or health-related condition (Must have scientific evidence) 1) Ex: Diets low in sodium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure iii. Structure-Function Claims i. Can be made without any FDA approval 1) Ex: products can claim to "slow aging" and "increase memory" with no proof iv. Label definitionsto Remember i.Fat-free □ Less than 0.5g of fat per servings ii.Low fat □ Three grams of fat or less per servings iii.Trans fat- free □ Less than 0.5g of trans fat and less than 0.5g of saturated fat per serving iv. Light or lite 1) 1/3 fewer kcal than comparison food v. Organic □ At least 95% of the product ingredients have been grown and processed according to USDA regulations. e. Highlight 1: Best source of Nutrition information i. Qualified Nutrition Professionals i. Registered Dietitians • 2/3 of adults use the internet to get □ Requirements health information 1) Bachelor's degree from accredited college university 2) 1,200 hour internship 3) Must past national registered dietician exam 4) Must follow up and maintain education every 3-5 years 5) Most states require a license ii. Some Physicians ii. Determine whether a source is reliable i.If its internet, look for i. .org, .gov, .edu ii.If it's trying to promote or sell something i. Be skeptical! 3. Chapter 3 a. Definitions: • Digestion- the process by which food (mostly macronutrients: carbs, proteins, lipids) is broken down into absorbable smaller units • Absorption- the uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for transport into either the blood or the lymph system. • Gastrointestinal (GI) tract: the digestive tract ○ A flexible, muscular tube that runs from the mouth to the anus ○ Lumen- the inner space within the GI tract and is continuous from one end to the other. b. Anatomy of Digestive Tract i) Mouth a. Digestion begins b. Anatomy of Digestive Tract i) Mouth a. Digestion begins b. Functions i. Secretions from salivary glands blend with food for easy swallowing ii. Carb digestion begins here ii) Esophagus a. No digestion occurs b. Food just moves through iii) Stomach a. Strongest muscle of the GI tract; thickest walls b. Food slowly transfers from the upper portion to the lower portion i. Juice released by the stomach walls are added to the food and ground into a semi-liquid mass called chyme ii. Digestion of protein and fat begin in the stomach c. Pyloric sphincter opens about 3 times per minute to let chyme into small intestine iv) Small intestine a. Major location for nutrient absorption b. Three segments i. Duodenum ii. Jejunum iii. Ileum c. Movement of food through the Digestive Tract i. Peristalsis i. Wavelike muscular contractions of the GI tract: occurs continuously ii. Sphincters i. Control the movement of food throughout the body ii. Muscles open and close periodically, controlling the pace of the food contents moving through the GI tract d. Secretions in Digestive tract i. Saliva i.Contains water, salts, mucus, and enzymes ii.Moisten food; breaks down starches in food via salivary amylase iii.nitiates carbohydrate digestion ii. Gastric juice i. Gastric glands secrete gastric juice ii. Made up of water, enzymes, and hydrochloric acid, which acts primarily in protein digestion iii. pH of 2 iii. Pancreatic enzyme i. Contains enzymes that act on all three of the energy nutrients ii. Contains sodium bicarbonate which helps neutralize the chyme that has entered from the stomach iv. Bile i. Produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder ii. Is an emulsifier that suspends fats in water so that enzymes can break them down into their component parts. e. Absorption of nutrients in digestive tract • Emulsifier- a substance with both water-soluble and fat-soluble i. Villi i. Fingerlike projections of the small intestinal wall portions that promotes the mixing i. There are absorptive cells on the surface of the villi of oils and fats in watery solution ii. Microvilli i. Tiny, hair-like projections on each cell of the villi that can trap nutrient particles and transport them into cells. iii. Diffusion iii. Diffusion i. Simple diffusion- does not require a carrier ii. Facilitated Diffusion- requires specific carrier to transport them from one side of the cell membrane to another iii. Active transport- same as facilitated but requires energy f. Prebiotics/ Probiotics i. Probiotic i. Beneficial bacteria found in the gut ii.Bacteria found in foods and supplementsthat are beneficial to our health iii.Alleviate diarrhea, constipation, ulcers, allergies, IBS (irritable bowel symptom) ii. Prebiotic i. Non-digestible carbohydrates (such as fiber) ii.Food/Fuel for probiotics iii.Encourage the growth and activity of bacteria.
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