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Study Guide for Exam 1

by: Poshita Nigam

Study Guide for Exam 1 CHM 115-06

Poshita Nigam

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About this Document

This study guide goes over what could be covered on the final exam
Principles of Chemistry I
Dr. Heidi Cuticchia
Study Guide
CHM 115, exam, Exam 1
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Poshita Nigam on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHM 115-06 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Heidi Cuticchia in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry I in Chemistry at Grand Valley State University.

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Date Created: 02/04/16
Thursday, February 4, 2016 Exam 1 Study Guide Unit 0 - Physical Properties: can be measured WITHOUT changing the composition/identity of the substance • Physical Change: a change in physical properties of a substance w/out a change in chemical composition. • Examples: bending metal, grinding rock, phase changes (melting, freezing etc.) - Chemical Properties: can be measured only when a chemical change occurs • Chemical Change: involves the formation of one or more new substances; change in composition; different than original • Examples: chemical reactions - Mixture: combination of 2 or more substances; keep their individuals properties, can be separated by physical means. • Example: Pepsi - Compound: 2 or more elements, chemically combined in fixed ratios; more than one type of atom is involved • Example: Water (b/c Hydrogen and Oxygen combine) - Element: cannot be separated into simpler substances • Example: Copper, Iron, Fluorine etc. - Accuracy: nearness to the true or standard value - Precision: closeness of two or more values to each other • You can be precise without being accurate. - Example: all darts are close to each other but not close to the desired bullseye. • You can be precise and accurate at the same time. - Example: all darts are close to each other and the desired bullseye. • You can be accurate without being precise. 1 Thursday, February 4, 2016 - Example: some darts are in the desired bullseye but some are all over the place. - Sig. Fig Rules • Any non-zero number is significant • Any zero between two significant numbers is significant • Zeroes to the right of both the decimal place and another significant digit are significant Zeroes used only to be placeholders are NOT significant: • - Zeroes to the left of the first significant number - Numbers with out any decimals ( i.e: 600 only 6 would be significant but in 600. all three numbers would significant) • Addition/ Subtraction: use the least number of decimal points • Multiplication/ Division: use least number of sig figs. • Counting number do not count in determining sig figs. ( i.e: 5 peaches) - An atom is made up of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. • The proton is positively charged: 1.60 x 10^ -19 C • p+ • The neutron is neutral: 0 C • n • The electron is negatively charged: -1.60 x 10^-19 C e- • The number of protons defines the element. • • Atomic Number (Z): (number of p+) • * the number of protons in an atom are equal to the number of electrons in neutral atoms • Mass Number (A): (number of p+) + (number of n) • Example (Use periodic table) • Phosphorus: P-31 2 Thursday, February 4, 2016 Mass Number: 31 • • Number of Protons: 15 • Number of Neutrons: 31-15 = 16 - Know how to balance equations • Remember what goes in must come out. Matter can be neither created nor destroyed. Unit 1 I. Building the Atom (sections 1.8-1.9 and 2.8 in textbook) A. Coulomb’s law 1. See Image Sheet at the end B. Mole Map Conversions 1. See Image Sheet at the end II. Interaction of Light and Matter (sections 3.1-3.6 in textbook) A. Nature of Light 1. Wave-Particle Duality: light has some properties best described by thinking of light in terms of wavelengths and some properties best described by thinking of it in terms of a particle. 2. Electromagnetic radiation: type of energy exhibited in oscillating electric and magnetic fields. See Figure 3.1 in text pg. 64 3. The height of waves, vertically is the amplitude. 4. The distance between two waves horizontally is the wavelength 5. Wavelength is represented by the Greek letter lambda: λ 6. Frequency is the number of times a wave passes a fixed point in one second. 7. Frequency is measured in Hertz or Hz. Hz also equals 1/sec. 8. The symbol representing is the Greek letter nu: ν *not to be confused with “v” for velocity 9. c is the speed of light—> 3.00 x 10^8 m/s 3 Thursday, February 4, 2016 10. Wavelength will often be given in nanometers (nm) so for conversions remember 1m=10^9nm B. Quantum Theory 1. quantum particles (i.e: electron) can be in 2 different states simultaneously 11. Photoelectric Effect: metals emit electrons when light shines on them. See Figure 3.8 in textbook 12. E=h ν (units J/photon) 13. h= Plank’s constant= 6.626 x 10^-34 J(sec) 14. photon: a discrete bundle of electromagnetic energy (light) 15. See Image Sheet for energy states of electrons 16. Rydberg Equation; see image sheet 17. de Borglie’s Wavelength Equation; see image sheet 18. The Uncertainty Principle: cannot know where exactly an electron is (its position) and where it is going (velocity) at the same time. 19. Quantum Numbers a) Principle Quantum Number (n) (1) energy-level (1 through infinity) (2) determines size and energy of an orbital b) Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l lowercase L)) (1) determines shape of the orbital (a) l = 0—>s (b) l = 1—>p l = 2—>d (c) (d) l = 3—>f c) Magnetic Quantum Number (m subscript l ) (1) specifies the orientation (direction) of the orbital 4 Thursday, February 4, 2016 (2) ranges from -l through l d) Spin Quantum Number (m subscript s) (1) specifies the spin of the electron (2) +1/2 : spin up (3) -1/2 : spin down e) Pauli’s Exclusion Principle: no two electrons in an atom have the same set of 4 quantum numbers. Periodic Trends and Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Experimental Evidence for Compounds SEE Images at the end! 5


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