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UTA / Business / Bus 4325 / follower influencing characteristics

follower influencing characteristics

follower influencing characteristics


Josh Radclif

What Does it Mean to Be a Leader?

MANA 4325

Test 1 Study Guide

Dr. Hall

Chapter 1 – What Does it Mean to Be a Leader? 

∙ Focus on these topics for test 1: 1) Know the definition of leadership, its  components, and be able to recognize those components in an example o 2) Know the 6 fundamental transformations of leaders today o 3) Know the primary reasons for derailment and what new paradigm  skills you can adopt to avoid it

o 4) Know the diferences between management and leadership  Be familiar with direction, alignment, relationships, personal  qualities, and outcomes

o 5) Know the evolution of leadership and how the historical approaches  apply today

∙ The Need for Leadership

o It seems that everywhere we look these days in the newspaper,  television, etc. that some prominent leader of a business or  

organization has been caught doing something they shouldn’t be  doing.

what are the needs for leadership?

 Ex: director of CIA General David Petraeus left his position  

because of an extramarital afair with his biographer causing the CIA to lose trust in him and investigate potential leaks of  

classified information (much like Kevin Spacey’s character in the  Netflix show House of Cards, if anyone has seen it). If you want to learn more check out class scanner ucla

 Ex: Religions televangelists caught with Rolls Royces and private jets bought with money from donations

o Because of all the negative news we hear about every day, the general public feels a strong lack of leadership exists in our nation. This played  a big role in Obama’s election in 2008 because he made people feel  hopeful in a time of uncertainty.

o Leadership – an influence relationship among leaders and followers  who intend real changes and outcomes that reflect their shared  purposes.

 The leader and follower influence each other.

What is the Great Man Theories?

 Leaders may not necessarily dictate the desired change  

∙ But the leaders and followers must have the same  

purpose for the change.

 Leaders influence others to come together around a common  vision

 The traits of a good leader are the same as traits of a good  


∙ Think for themselves and carry out assignments with  


∙ Committed to something outside their own interest.  

∙ Have courage to stand up for what they believe

 Good leaders are also good followers

o Everyday Leadership

 You don’t have to be famous and nationally known to be a great  leader.

 Leadership is an everyday way of acting and thinking that has  little to do with your position in a group, organization, or  


 Examples are given on page 6 of the textbook.

∙ The New Reality for Leaders

o Because of the age of technology where communication between  anyone around the globe is becoming so instantaneous, the paradigm  of a leader is shifting We also discuss several other topics like enes 102
Don't forget about the age old question of psyc 384 class notes

o Paradigm – a shared mindset that represents a fundamental way of  thinking about, perceiving, and understanding the world. The paradigm of a leader has changed as follows:

 Old paradigm: Stabilizer  New paradigm: Change  Manager 

∙ Before: if it’s working, don’t change a thing. Just maintain  the success

∙ Now: Change and crises are inevitable. We must adapt  If you want to learn more check out mawds heart failure

and move forward

 Old paradigm: Controller  New paradigm: Facilitator ∙ Before: Hierarchy of power in a company. The leader and  

leader only made decisions and everyone else listened  

and obliged

∙ Now: A leader shares power and increases an  

organizations success by getting everyone involved and  


∙ This has changed because ideas are now more important  than materials and success today depends on the  

intellectual capacity of all employees

 Old paradigm: Competitor  New paradigm:  


∙ Before: Leaders head a company that is competing  

against anyone and everyone. The company is on their  

own. They promote competition within the company to  We also discuss several other topics like pace math

motivate employees to work harder

∙ Now: Leaders stress teamwork, compromise, and  

cooperation. Horizontal collaboration spreads knowledge  

and information throughout the organization

∙ This is because social media has hyperconnected the  

world, so it’s easier to collaborate and people want to do  

that more than compete

 Old paradigm: Diversity Avoider  New paradigm: Diversity  Promoter 

∙ Before: Everyone in an organization who thinks alike, acts  alike, and has similar skills should work together because  

they will communicate best and be the most successful

∙ Now: Bringing a diverse group of people together can  

bring in broad mindsets to thrive in a multinational world.  

Because things are so global now, organizations need to  

be able to adapt to anything, and a more diverse group of

people makes that more likely We also discuss several other topics like solvency ratios measure the short-term ability of the company to pay its maturing obligations.

 Old Paradigm: Hero  New paradigm: Humble 

∙ Before: Celebrate the leader as a hero who stands out  

above all

∙ Now: People have begun to associate that attitude with  

arrogance, and many people with that mindset have

proven to be at the forefront of some of the biggest  

ethical scandals and business failures. These people  

become cocky and selfish.

o Now, we’d rather a leader who often seems shy and

has no need to be in the limelight. They are more  

concerned with the successes of the team or  

company rather than their own success. They  

accept responsibility for mistakes, but give credit  

for successes to other people or the organization as

a whole

∙ How Leadership Difers from Management

o Management – The attainment of organizational goals in an efective  and efficient manner through planning, organizing, staffing, directing,  and controlling organizational resources

o Both leadership and management do the following:

 Provide Direction

 Align Followers

 Build Relationships

 Develop Personal Leadership Qualities

 And Create Outcomes

o But they do so in diferent ways. The following exhibit simplifies it best.

o Vision – A picture of an ambitious, desirable future for the organization  or team.  

 Ex: “Become the premier phone company in the world”

 Ex: “Provide afordable furniture for people with limited budgets” ∙ Evolving Theories of Leadership – How the view of a leader has changed over  time

o Great Man Theories – A leader was a man who was born to be a leader  to put everything together and influence others based on his strength  of inherited traits

o Trait Theories – Leaders had certain traits or characteristics that others  don’t that can be isolated as contributed to their success

o Behavior Theories – Studied what it is leaders do on the job, what  efective leaders do diferently than inefective leaders, and how they  behaved toward their followers

o Contingency (AKA Situational) Theories – Leaders analyze their  situation and tailor their behavior to improve leadership efectiveness.  Variables in situations include characteristics of their followers, the  work environment, and the task at hand

o Influence Theories – Studies how a leader influences others. It could be charismatic leadership, which is leading via the way they conduct  themselves; or it could be the vision they instill in others or the culture  they foster within their realm of leadership

o Relational Theories – Leadership viewed as a relational process that  meaningfully engages all participants and enables each person to  contribute to achieving the vision. Related are transformational  leadership and servant leadership

∙ A Model of Leadership Evolution – Putting the above theories into diferent  eras over time

o Leadership Era 1 – Things were smaller and simpler at this time, so it  was easy for one man to run the show

o Leadership Era 2 – Hierarchy forms, managers emerge, and people are  expected to do as they’re told

o Leadership Era 3 – Rational management stopped being as successful,  and ideas of small groups and teamwork began to surpass the old  methods because they responded better to a changing world

o Leadership Era 4 (TODAY) – Enter social media and digital age.   Agile leader emerges – a leader who is open to learning and  change and encourages the growth and development of others

o Exhibit below is good depiction of the Leadership Eras

∙ Leadership Can Be Learned

o Leader Fatal Flaws – Learn to be a leader in today’s era by taking note  of what people have done wrong so you don’t make the same mistake  yourself

 Derailment – When a manager with an impressive track record  

reaches a certain level but goes of track and can’t advance  

because of a mismatch between job needs and personal skills  

and qualities

 The biggest leader mistakes are people mistakes rather than  

technical ones.  

 Managers fail more frequently because they are deficient with  

soft, human skills rather than a lack of hard work or technical  


o Five Fatal Flaws That Cause Derailment:

o Leader Good Behaviors

 The best leaders are those who are genuinely interested in other

people and find ways to bring out the best in them.

∙ Mastering the Art of Science and Leadership

o Knowing about


research helps

people analyze

situations from a

variety of

perspectives and

learn how to be

more efective


o Learning to be a

leader 

∙ True / False Questions

o Leadership involves downward influence enacted by a person with a  higher position on a person with a lower position

 FALSE: Leadership involves reciprocal, multidirectional influence

o Leadership can exist without followers provided that the leader has  significant expertise

 FALSE: There must be followers, per the definition stated above o Leadership involves agreed upon goals, missions, outcomes, etc.  TRUE: Leadership requires that followers understand, support,  and share the leader’s purpose for action

o Leadership involves maintaining existing structures, systems, and  processes

 FALSE: Leadership involves change and challenge to the status  quo

o Regardless of how talented an individual is, leadership is never  accidental

 TRUE: Leadership reflects purpose and intention

o Leaders are of the highest moral and ethical quality

 FALSE: Should be true, but it’s not, unfortunately. There are good leaders and bad leaders and both can be efective in their  

“influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend  real change and outcomes that reflect shared purposes.”  

However, not all leaders take personal responsibility or exercise  integrity

Chapter 2: Traits, Behaviors, and Relationships 

∙ Know these topics for test 1:  

o 1) Be able to outline personal traits and characteristics of leaders o 2) Know how to identify your own traits to turn into strengths o 3) Know the diferent roles that leaders can play

o 4) Recognize autocratic vs. democratic leadership behavior and the  impact of each

o 5) Know the diference between people-oriented and task-oriented  leadership and when each should be used

o 6) Describe some key characteristics of entrepreneurial leaders ∙ The Trait Approach

o Traits – The distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader,   The main characteristics discussed in class were: 1) optimism 2)  self-confidence 3) honesty 4) integrity and 5) drive

o The Great Man approach that thought leaders inherited or were born  with leadership traits began the study of trait approach, but the  diversity of traits that efective leaders possess indicates that  

leadership ability is not genetic.

o Stogdill research in 1948 found these as some of the most common  traits leaders share:

 General intelligence, initiative, interpersonal skills, self

confidence, drive for responsibility, personal integrity,  

aggressiveness, independence, and tolerance for stress

 The value of each of those traits depends on the situation  


o Some other leader characteristics are provided in exhibit 2.1 below

o Optimism and Self-Confidence

 Optimism – A tendency to see the  

positive side of things and expect that things will turn out well. ∙ Being able to see the glass half full has proven to be vital, and it should be an important trait to focus on if you  

struggle to see the positives in even tough situations

 Self-Confidence – Assurance in one’s own judgments, decision  making, ideas, and capabilities

∙ A leader who has a positive self-image and displays  

certainty about his or her own ability to achieve an  

outcome (known as self-efficacy) fosters confidence  

among followers, gains respect and admiration, and  

creates motivation and commitment among followers for  

the mission at hand.  

o Honesty and Integrity

 Be ethical. Don’t be Bernie Madof and commit the biggest Ponzi  scheme in history.

 Honesty – Truthfulness and nondeception; having a certain  openness about yourself

 Integrity – The quality of being whole, integrated, and acting in  accordance with solid ethical principles; staying true to your  


 Both are a foundation of TRUST, which is vital in any type of  relationship.

o Drive – High motivation that creates a high efort level by a leader  Leaders set high standards and high goals because they have  ambition to achieve greatness. This is usually accompanied by  lots of energy and time devoted to their work

∙ Know Your Strengths  

o Leaders will face challenges that they aren’t equipped to handle on  their own. It is crucial for them to be interdependent and know when  something is out of their league so they can take appropriate action to  delegate responsibilities.

o What are strengths?

 Strength – A natural talent or ability that has been supported  and reinforced with learned knowledge and skills

 When you find out what interests you or what you are good at,  pursue them. Practice them. Enjoy them. The more you focus on  your strengths, the better you will get at them, and the happier  you will be. Take on tasks where you can utilize your strengths.  

 Do what you love and have 1) energy 2) enthusiasm and 3)  efectiveness doing it.

o Trombone Player Wanted video watched in class

 Be specific at describing your strengths

 Signs of your strengths:

∙ 1) You look forward to doing whatever it is; there’s a  

passion and desire; there’s a yearning quality to them

∙ 2) You are naturally inquisitive about it and always so  

focused on it

∙ 3) It gives you a restorative quality that you feel when you are done. You feel fulfilled

∙ 4) You feel strong and magnificent afterwards

o Matching Strengths with Roles

 Leaders have diferent strengths, and it is important to match  those strengths with the type of leadership role that fits them  best. There are three diferent roles

 1) Operational role – A vertically oriented leadership role in  which an executive has direct control over people and resources  and the position power to accomplish results  

∙ Best in vertical management positions that focus on  

delivering results and following protocols

∙ Strengths would be high self-confidence, assertiveness,  

knowledgeable, and ability to get others to believe in their


 2) Collaborative role – A horizontal leadership role in which the  leader often works behind the scenes and uses personal power  to influence others and get things done

∙ They are team leaders and have great people skills to  

network, build relationship, and obtain agreement through

personal influence. They are also highly tenacious and  

proactive, exhibiting flexibility to cope with uncertainty

 3) Advisory role – A leadership role that provides advice,  

guidance, and support to other people and departments in the  organization

∙ Examples would be lawyers, financial advisors, and  

human resource managers.

∙ They focus on broad capabilities of the organization as a  


∙ Strengths include great people skills, influence through  

communication and personal persuasion, honesty, and  

integrity because they build trust and keep the  

organization on solid ethical ground

∙ Behavior Approaches – can be learned more readily than traits, enabling  leadership to be accessible to all

o Autocratic vs. Democratic Behaviors

 Autocratic – A leader who tends to centralize authority and  derive power from position, control of rewards, and coercion

∙ A child study showed they performed great with this  

leader present but not as good with the leader absent,  

and a feeling of hostility arose

 Democratic – A leader who delegates authority to others,  encourages participation, relies on subordinates’ knowledge for  completion of tasks, and depends on subordinate respect for  influence

∙ A child study showed they didn’t perform quite as well as  the kids under the autocrat, but they performed just as  

good with the leader absent as with the leader present.  

They were also happier.  

 There is a nice sliding scale between full autocrat and full  democrat shown below:

 The use of these two behaviors could be situational

∙ It may be better to be autocratic if your employees tend  to be young with little experience and a high turnover  

rate, like in fast food restaurants

∙ High end companies with employees with lots of  

intelligence and experience may need less “watching  

over” and thus a more democratic approach could be  


o The Ohio State Studies

 Did a lot of surveys and determined two main categories of  leader-behavior:

 1) Consideration – The extent to which a leader is sensitive to  subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes  mutual trust

 2) Initiating Structure – The extent to which a leader is task  orientated and directs subordinates’ work activities toward goal  achievement

 While the initiating structure has proved to be more efective on  paper, subordinates tend to have better morale under leaders  who lean towards the consideration side.

o University of Michigan Studies

 Studied behaviors between efective and inefective leaders and  found two more types of leadership behavior:

 1) Employee-centered – A leadership behavior that displays a  focus on the human needs of subordinates

∙ Underlying dimensions: Leader support and interaction  facilitation, meaning they facilitate positive interaction  

among followers and seek to minimize conflict. Related to  “consideration” behavior in The Ohio State study

 2) Job-centered - A leadership behavior in which leaders direct  activities toward efficiency, cost-cutting, and scheduling, with an emphasis on goals and work facilitation

∙ Subordinates can direct this behavior as well, enhancing  performance

∙ Underlying dimensions: Goal emphasis and work  


 These two behaviors do not overlap; you have one or the other,  but not both.  

o The Leadership Grid (UT Austin Study) – A two-dimensional leadership  model that describes major leadership styles based on measuring both concern for people and concern for production

 Concern for people and concern for results were placed on an X  and Y axis, and scores were plotted on a grid depicting five of  the seven major leadership styles

 1) Team Management – most efective style because members  work together to accomplish tasks

 2) Country Club Management – Primary emphasis on people over output

 3) Authority-Compliance Management – Efficiency is the  dominant focus

 4) Middle-of-the-Road Management – focus on a little on both  people and production

 5) Impoverished Management – No leadership present 

o Theories of a “High-High” Leader

 Just like The Ohio State and Michigan studies, this Leadership  grid revealed two main behaviors:

 1) Concern for People  

 2) Concern for Results  

 The exhibit below summarizes all of the studies

 Are people-oriented behaviors and task-oriented behaviors the  most important behaviors?

∙ Three diferent independent studies revealed similar  

results, proving they must be pretty darn important.

 Can both people and task-oriented behaviors exist in the same  leader and how?

∙ Both are present when people work with or through others to accomplish an activity

 Can people actually change themselves into leaders from one  orientation to the other?

∙ Yes.  

∙ Individualized Leadership – A theory stating that a leader develops a unique  relationship with each subordinate or group member, which determines how  the leader behaves toward the member and how the member responds to the leader.

o The leader has a diferent relationship or leadership style with each  subordinate

o Dyads - a series of two-person interactions; focuses on exchange, or  what each party gives to and receives from the other

o This theory has developed in three stages overtime:

o 1) Vertical Dyad Linkage Model – A model of individualized leadership  that argues for the importance of the dyad formed by a leader with  each member of the group

 Because of the individual relationship, some people are  

considered part of the “in-group” while others are the “out

group.” The diferences are in the below exhibit

o 2) Leader-Member Exchange – Individualized leadership model that  explores how leader-member relationship develop over time and how  the quality of exchange relationships afects outcomes

 In-group subordinates tend to have the same characteristics of  the leader and be more successful and happier.

o Partnership Building – Focuses on the ability to the leader to develop  positive relationships with a large number of subordinates so there is  no sharp division between in-group and out-group subordinates.

 Organization can be damaged if the out-group people start to  resent other peers for their in-group relationship with the boss. ∙ Entrepreneurial Traits and Behaviors

o Entrepreneurs need strong  

 1) drive

 2) enthusiasm

 3) future vision,  

 4) Persistent and willing to take risk.  

o They are persistent, independent, and action-oriented.  

o Drawn to new opportunities and are more concerned with innovation,  creativity, and creating new processes rather than with maintaining the status quo

∙ QUIZ 1 Questions

o 1) The definition of leadership involves six key elements. Five of these  are explicitly stated in the definition used in your textbook. Which of  the six elements is implied but NOT directly stated in the definition?  A) Change

 B) Followers

 C) Influence

 D) Personal responsibility and integrity

 E) Shared Purpose

o 2) Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics that is  considered highly important for leadership efectiveness today?  A) Drive B) Honesty C) Integrity

 D) Realism E) Self-Confidence

o 3) You excel in life by maximizing your strengths, not by fixing your  weaknesses.

 A. True B. False

o 4) An important diference between the two University of Michigan and  Ohio State studies is that the UM approach says managers fall on a  continuum and are either people focused or task focused. However,  

the Ohio State approach allows for leaders to be varying levels of both.  A. True B. False

Chapter 3 – Contingency Approaches to Leadership 

∙ Know these topics for test 1:

o Understand how leadership is contingent (AKA it depends) on the  people and/or the situation

o Apply Hersey-Blanchard’s theory to follower readiness

o Apply Fiedler’s model to relationships between leader style, situational  favorability, and group task performance

o Explain the Path-Goal theory of leadership

o Be able to use the Vroom-Jago model to determine how much follower  participation should be allowed in specific decision situations

o Know how to use the power of situational variables to substitute for or  neutralize the need for leadership

∙ The most efective leadership approach depends on many factors, and  understanding the contingency approaches can help a leader adapt his or her approach

∙ The Contingency Approach – Theories that explain the relationship between  leader styles and efectiveness in specific situations

o Contingency – A theory meaning one thing depends on another thing. o The contingency approach looks at three main variables that relate to  efective leadership, explained by the exhibit below:

 1) The Leader 2) The Follower and 3) The Situation

o The main behaviors (aka meta-categories) that can be adjusted based  on the situation were discussed in the last chapter:

 1) Task-oriented behavior and 2) Relationship-oriented  behavior

 The exhibit below gives types of situations in which you would  want diferent amounts of task or relationship-oriented behavior: 

∙ Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory – An extension of the Leadership  Grid focusing on the characteristics of followers as the important element of determining efective leader behavior

o Basis is that followers vary in readiness 

 People with low task readiness or capability need a diferent  leadership style than those with high readiness or capability.

o Leader Style

 Leader can adopt one of four leadership styles based on  

relationship and task behavior

∙ 1) Directing style – high concern for tasks, low concern for people

o Leader provides detailed objectives and explicit  


∙ 2) Coaching style – High concern for both relationships  

and tasks

o Leader provides task instruction and personal  

support to the followers

∙ 3) Supporting style – High relationship, low task behavior

o Leader encourages participation, consults with  

followers, and facilitates decision making

∙ 4) Entrusting style – Low concern for tasks and  


o Leader gives little direction or support because  

complete responsibility is given to the followers

∙ More detailed graph explaining these four styles below:  


o Follower Readiness Contingency – Explained both in the exhibit above  and the bullets below; Leader needs to diagnose a follower’s readiness  and select the appropriate leadership style for the readiness level  Low Readiness – Leader uses directing style; leader tells  

followers exactly how and when to do it with lots of detail

 Moderate Readiness – Leader uses coaching style; follower lacks  skill but is hard working and eager to learn

∙ Leader gives direction and also explains and clarifies them as opposed to merely saying how it should be done

 High Readiness – Leader uses supporting style; Followers have  necessary skills but are uncertain of themselves

 Very High Readiness – Leader uses entrusting style; Followers  have lots of ability and confidence and can accept responsibility  for their own task behavior

∙ Leader provides a general goal and lets the follower take  

it from there, with little assistance from the leader.  

o In Hersey-Blanchard model, leaders can tailor their type of leadership  to each individual, much like the leader-member exchange theory from Chapter 2.

∙ Fiedler’s Contingency Model – A model designed to diagnose whether a leader is task-oriented or relationship-oriented and match leader style to the  situation.

o Leadership Style – measured with a questionnaire known as the least  preferred coworker (LPC) scale 

 16 bipolar adjectives on an 8 point scale (the one we took in  class).

 If the leader describes their least preferred coworker using  positive concepts, he or she is considered relationship-oriented  If the leader describes their least preferred coworker using  negative concepts, he or she is considered task-oriented o Situation – three diferent situations that can be either favorable or  unfavorable to a leader

 1) Leader-member relations – looks at a group’s attitude of  acceptance towards a leader

∙ If they trust and respect the leader, leader-member  

relations are favorable

∙ If they distrust and don’t respect the leader, leader

member relations are favorable

 2) Task Structure – Evaluates if tasks are defined, involve  specific procedures, and have clear goals

∙ Well-defined tasks like assembly line workers’ jobs have a  high degree of structure (favorable)

∙ Creative, ill-defined tasks like strategic planning have low  degree of structure (unfavorable)

 3) Position Power – Evaluates how much formal authority a  leader has over a subordinate.

∙ High position power (favorable) – Leader can plan, direct,  evaluate, or reward/punish the subordinate

∙ Low position power (unfavorable) – Leader has little  

authority over subordinates and can’t evaluate, reward, or punish them.

 Measuring Favorability

∙ Highly favorable situations = all three favorable points  mentioned above = Task oriented leader is more efective ∙ Moderately favorable situations = there is a mix of  

favorable and unfavorable situations = Relationship  

oriented leader is more efective

∙ Highly unfavorable situations = all three unfavorable  mentioned above = task oriented leader is more efective o Contingency Theory – To use Fiedler’s theory, a leader must know if he  or she is…

 1) relationship or task oriented and  

 2) If leader-member relations, task structure, and position power are favorable or unfavorable

o It is criticized a lot because

 If you are put in one situation and the company starts to change  for the better because of your leadership, the situation will  change, so will you no longer be a good leader?

 It doesn’t address people who fall in the middle of the LPC score.  The favorableness is arbitrary

 There was weak support for this model

∙ Path-Goal Theory – A contingency approach to leadership in which the  leader’s responsibility is to increase subordinates’ motivation by  clarifying the behaviors necessary for task accomplishment and rewards

o Leader can either 1) clarify a worker’s path to follow in order to achieve a goal or 2) increase the rewards a worker will receive for fulfilling the  organization’s goals

o Leaders change their behaviors to match the situation


o Leader Behavior – 4 types of behaviors that leaders can learn  1) Supportive Leadership – Concern for worker’s well-being and  personal needs

∙ Leader is open, friendly, and approachable

∙ Leader creates a team environment and treats everyone  

as equals

∙ Similar to consideration and people-oriented leadership

 2) Directive Leadership – Tells workers exactly what they’re  supposed to do

∙ Leader plans, makes schedules, sets performance goals,  


∙ Similar to initiating structure or task-oriented leadership

 3) Participative Leadership – Consults with coworkers about  decisions

∙ Leader asks for suggestions and encourages participation  in decision making

∙ Similar to coaching or supportive style in Hersey

Blanchard model

 4) Achievement-oriented Leadership – sets clear and challenging goals for subordinates.

∙ Leader stresses high quality performance and  

improvement over time

∙ Show confidence in workers and help them achieve the  


o Situational Contingencies

 1) Personal characteristics of group members – Similar to  Hersey-Blanchard’s readiness

∙ A worker with low ability may need a leader who provides  additional training or coaching

∙ A worker who is self-centered may want a monetary  reward as motivation

∙ A worker who needs clear authority may want a directive  leader

∙ A worker who wants more freedom may want a  

participative leader

 2) The work environment – Includes the degree of task structure, the nature of the authority system, and the work group itself ∙ Task structure much like Fiedler – tasks are either laid out  in detail or workers have more freedom

∙ Formal authority system includes the amount of  legitimate power used by leaders and the extent to which  the policies restrain the workers’ behavior

∙ Work group characteristics consist of educational level of  the workers and the quality of relationships among them.  Use of Rewards

∙ Supportive leadership increases a worker’s confidence to  achieve the goal and receive the reward

∙ Directive leadership specifies the path a worker needs to  follow to get the reward

∙ Achievement-Oriented leadership sets a diferent and  higher goal for the worker than the current goal in place in order to get the reward

∙ Participative leadership clarifies the worker’s needs and  sets diferent rewards pertaining to those needs

∙ Vroom-Jago Contingency Model – A contingency model that focuses on  varying degrees of participative leadership, and how each level of  participation influences quality and accountability of decisions; three parts of  this model:

o 1) Leader Participation/Decision Styles – There are five levels of a  worker’s participation in decision making

 1) Leader decides (autocratic)

 2) Consult Individually

 3) Consult Group

 4) Facilitate

 5) Delegate; scale shown below


o 2) Diagnostic Questions – Use these 7 questions to decide how much  group participation there should be (mentioned above) to use  1) How significant is the decision?

∙ High significance = more autocratic w/ the leader making the decision

 2) How important is subordinate commitment to carrying out the decision?  

∙ High subordinate commitment – more democratic w/  

group involved

 3) What is the leader’s expertise with the problem?

∙ High expertise = more autocratic decision

 4) If leader decided alone, would subordinates have a high or  low commitment to the decision?

∙ High commitment = more autocratic

 5) Do the subordinates support the goals of the organization? ∙ If yes, then be more democratic

 6) What is the group members’ expertise on the problem? ∙ High expertise = be more democratic

 7) How skilled and committed are the group members to  

working as a team?

∙ High skill and commitment = more democratic

o 3) Selecting a Decision Style – Two decision matrixes: 1) Time-based  model and 2) Development-based model; in other words, does the  leader need to get the job done in a timely fashion or does he or she  have time to use the job as a chance to develop the subordinates into  better employees with better skills and knowledge?

 The following two exhibits demonstrate these two matrixes. It  looks complex, but if you read it carefully, it’s quite simple. The  ‘H’ stands for “High” while the ‘L’ stands for “Low.” Each matrix  goes through the 7 questions above and ends with one of the 5  decision style (mentioned above) you should use.

 Time-Based Model – Used when time is an important factor in  completing job

 Employee Development-Based Model – When the importance of  the job is to develop the employee

∙ Substitutes for Leadership

o Substitute – A situational variable that makes leadership unnecessary  or redundant

 For example, in situations where the organization is already very structured, a task-oriented leader doesn’t have to use his/her  task-oriented leader skills because the organization is a  

substitute for that form of leadership

o Neutralizer – A situational characteristic that counteracts the  leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain  behaviors

 When the leader has a certain leadership style but can’t use it  because it would be bad for a particular situation

o In other words, when certain leadership characteristics are already  implemented in the situation, the leader should try to adopt the  characteristic that is lacking in the situation.

 Example: The work situation for bank tellers provides a high  level of formalization, little flexibility, and a highly structured  task. The head teller should NOT adopt a task-oriented style  because the organization already provide structure and

direction. The head teller should concentrate on a people oriented style.

o More examples are given in this exhibit


∙ 30-40 Questions

∙ ½ Multiple Choice

∙ ½ T/F

∙ There will be scenario-based questions. Know what type of leadership  behavior is best in X situation.

∙ Know questions like “according to XYZ theory…”

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