Policing in Society: History and Organization Vocab & PowerPoint Notes
1. Tithing- In medieval England, a group of 10 families who collectively dealt with minor disturbances and breaches of the peace.
2. Hue and Cry- In medieval England, a call for assistance. The policy of self help that prevailed in village demanded that everyone respond if a citizen raised a hue and cry to get their aid.
3. Hundred- In medieval England, a group of 100 families responsible for maintaining order and trying minor offenses.
4. Constable- In medieval England, an appointed official who administered and supervised the legal affairs of a small community.
5. Shire Reeve- In medieval England, the senior law enforcement figure in a county; the forerunner of today's sheriff.
6. Sheriff- The chief law enforcement officer in a county
7. Watch System- During the Middle Ages in England, men were organized in church parishes to guard at night against disturbances and breaches of the peace under the direction of the local constable.
8. Justice of the Peace- Established in 1326 England, the office was created to help the Shire Reeve in controlling the county; it later took on judicial functions.
9. Vigilantes- Groups of citizens who tracked down wanted criminals in the Old West
10.Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)- The arm of the US Justice Department that investigates violations of federal law, seeks to protect America from terrorist attacks, gathers crime statistics, runs a comprehensive crime laboratory, and helps train local law enforcement officers.
11.Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)- The federal agency that enforces federal druga control laws
We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between an ionized and non-ionized amino acid?
12.Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)- Federal agency with jurisdiction over the illegal sale, importation, and criminal misuse of firearms and explosives and the distribution of untaxed liquor and cigarettes.
13.US Marshals Service- Federal agency whose jurisdiction includes protecting federal officials, transporting criminal defendants, and tracking down fugitives.
14.Department of Homeland Security (DHS)- Federal agency responsible for preventing terrorist attacks within the United States, reducing America's vulnerability to terrorism, and minimizing the damage and assisting in recovery form attack that do occur.
15.Customs and Border Protection (CBP)- Federal agency responsible for the control and protection of America's borders and ports of entry. It's first priority is keeping terrorists and their weapons out of the United States.
16.Secret Service- Federal agency responsible for executive protection and for investigation of counterfeiting and various forms of financial fraud. 17.DNA Profiling- The identification of criminal suspects by matching DNA samples taken from their person with specimens found at the crime scene.
Early English Policing
Mutual Pledge System consisted of...
Watch and ward system- created to protect property, only watching at nighttime. Watchman report to the constable
-Statute of Winchester started the watch and ward system.
-This system mandated a draft for all eligible males to be a watchman. If you want to learn more check out What environmental factors have an effect on prenatal development?
-Institutionalized the "human cry"(if you hear a cry and do nothing you get criminally penalize)
-Mandated that citizens are required to keep firearms to answer to that call Justice of the Peace If you want to learn more check out How is memory tied to music?
Bow Street Runners...
Created by Henry Feilden
Only exercised their legitimate power
New Police Bobbies...
Founded by Sir Robert Peel
Formed what many of us consider to be the first modern police force
Walked around instead of just standing on a street corner. Goal was to be proactive and stop crime before it happened
Early American Policing
Main goal was to capture escaped slaves
Huge unchartered territory made it difficult to track and punish offenders Important Dates
1658: First paid watchman in 1658 in NYC
1693: First police officer in NYC
1731: First neighborhood station in NYCIf you want to learn more check out What happens in a competitive industry when permanent change in demand occurs?
1838: First formal US Police Department in Boston
Early 20th Century Police History
International Association of Chiefs of Police (FIRST TO DO UCR)
August Vollmer- required all police officers have University training, WANTED TO USE SCIENCE TO HELP W POLICING We also discuss several other topics like How health relates to age, culture, and personal responsibility?
OW Wilson- change up jurisdictions to beat corruption, wrote textbook called 'Police Administration'
Alice Stebbins Wells- First female police officer. Argued that women are able to provide services to women and children that male officers can't, and it also protects the male officers (especially when it comes to patting down and searching victims)
Fraternal Order of Police- the police labor union. They don’t support strikes
Prohibition and Police Corruption- Lots of corruption such as paying off officers happened during Prohibition
Wickersham Commission- This commission had the biggest impact to end prohibition
Modern History of Policing
Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA)- government involvement in PD's, funnels funding from the government to each cities If you want to learn more check out How do you find the proportion of a population?
National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals New Policing Philosophies
1. Community policing
2. Problem-oriented policing
Rodney King Incident- Drastically changed policing. Instead of focusing on the crime fighting ability, they should worry about trying to be helpful, build a better community, be a role model
US Justice Department
2. DEA (Drug Enforcement Agency)
3. ATF (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives)
4. US Marshals Service –tracks fugitives, protects officials, etc
Homeland Security Agencies
1. Customs and Border Protection
2. Coast Guard
3. Secret Service
1. Protecting the president
2. Investigating counterfeit currency
State Law Enforcement Agencies
1. Created primarily to address rural crime
2. Assistance to local agencies
3. Half of the states have comprehensive agencies
4. The other half are limited to highway patrol
County Law Enforcement Agencies
1. Functions are predominantly jail and prisoner functions, control the jail 2. 350k sheriff's employees, 183k are sworn officers
Metropolitan Law Enforcement Agencies (city)
1. The majority of police officers are employed by these agencies 2. The policing task is as diverse with each community it serves a. Core Functions
i. Law Enforcement (reducing crime just by being present,
ii. Order Maintenance (resolving conflicts, 'keeping the police', pedestrian and traffic order, etc)
iii. Service (aid individuals needing assistance, emergency health services, recruiting, training, crime resolution programs
Evidence Based Policing
Definition: “the use of the best available research on the outcomes of police work to implement guidelines and evaluate agencies, units, and officers”
LEAA funded a lot of research
-Led to the tradition of scientific police management (using social science techniques to evaluate criminal activity and reduce citizen complaints).
Ford Foundation established the Police Development Fund in 1970 -Led to the establishment of the Police Foundation
Today, federal support for criminal justice research and evaluation continues under these two things:
1. National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
2. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS)
Kansas City Experiment
Studied preventative control (if the number of police patrols affected or did not affect crime rates)
Year long experiment
1. Citizens did not notice when the level of patrol was changed 2. Increasing/decreasing the level of police patrol had NO significance on crime rates
3. The rate at which crimes were reported to the police did not differ 4. Fear of crime was not affected by different levels of patrol, nor was citizen satisfaction with police
2 Models are Centralized and Decentralized
1. Centralized- All information regarding cases and arrests are sent to one main source
2. Decentralized- Clear distinction between types of crime prevention (traffic patrol portion is different than investigation portion of the PD)
Private Protective Services
Self employed individuals and privately funded business entities use this Private Police are not under the same legal constraints as public police
"The New Structure of Policing", NIJ
-in most countries private police outnumbered public police.
-People spend more time in their daily lives in places where visible crime prevention and control are provided by nongovernmental groups.
-The reconstruction of policing is occurring worldwide despite differences in wealth and economic system.
Technology and Law Enforcement
-The use of technology allows law enforcement to better do their job. -Enhances 2 things..
1. Their ability to predict and detect crime
2. Better allocate resources.