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Chapter 1 & 2 Key Terms

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by: Shailee Shah

Chapter 1 & 2 Key Terms PSYC207

Marketplace > University of Delaware > Psychlogy > PSYC207 > Chapter 1 2 Key Terms
Shailee Shah

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About this Document

These key terms are very useful for the first exam. It is important to understand the concept of the terminology because of the application of it on the exam. Examples are provided to give a better...
Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology
Megan Bookhout
Study Guide
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"I love that I can count on (Shailee for top notch notes! Especially around test time..."
Heath Rohan

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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shailee Shah on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC207 at University of Delaware taught by Megan Bookhout in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Delaware.


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I love that I can count on (Shailee for top notch notes! Especially around test time...

-Heath Rohan


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Date Created: 02/04/16
Chapter 1 Vocabulary and Study Guide Applied research – done with a practical problem in mind; researchers hope their findings will be directly applied to the solution of that problem in a particular real world context. Applied research can be about metal disorders; researchers may explore new treatments for depression, autism, etc Basic research – not intended to address a specific, practical problem. The goal of basic research is to enhance the general body of knowledge. Researchers may want to understand the structure of the visual system, capacity of human memory, motivations of a depressed person, etc Data – set of observations. For ex, Harlow’s data were the amount of time baby monkeys stayed with each mother Empiricism – approach of collecting data and using it to develop, support, or challenge a theory. It involves using evidence from our senses (sight, hearing, touch), or instruments that assist our senses (timers, photographs, scales). Empirical evidence refers to data being collected through direct observation or experiment and it does not rely on argument or a belief. (Internet) Falsifiable – a second component to a good theory is that it’s falsifiable. A theory leads to predictions that, when tested, could be wrong and challenge the theory. The theory must be stated in a way that makes it possible to reject it (spark notes). Theory – a statement or set of statements which describe general principles about how variables relate to one another *Difference between theory and hypothesis*: A hypothesis is an attempt to explain phenomena. It is a proposal, a guess used to understand and/or predict something. A theory is the result of testing a hypothesis and developing an explanation that is assumed to be true about something. A theory replaces the hypothesis after testing confirms the hypothesis, or the hypothesis is modified and tested again until predictable results occur. (Internet) Hypothesis – it’s a way of stating the specific outcome that researchers expect to observe if the theory is accurate Journal – when scientists want to tell about the results of their research, whether basic or applied, they write a paper and submit it to a scientific journal. They contain articles written by various contributors and are PEER REVIEWED. When an editor receives a manuscript, the editor sends it to 3-4 experts. The general public usually never reads scientific journals, only scientists Journalism – it includes the kinds of news and commentary that most of us read or hear on TV, magazines, newspapers, and internet sites Parsimony – it’s the last feature of good theories. If two theories explain the data equally well but one is simpler, scientists will opt for the simpler, parsimonious theory. Parsimony sets a standard for the theory-data cycle Translational research – represents a dynamic bridge from basic to applied research. Translational research activities are intended to bring knowledge from the lab into practice, and ideally, allow practice to influence what occurs in the laboratory; “the process of applying ideas, insights, and discoveries generated through basic scientific inquiry to the treatment or prevention of human disease.” (Internet) Weight of evidence – rather than thinking of a theory as proved or disproved by a single study, scientists evaluate their theories based on weight of evidence Chapter 1 Quiz 1. What was Harlow’s theory about the monkey? Correct B) Contact-comfort theory 2. What was the most important feature of a good theory? Incorrect A) It has research data My answer: It doesn’t prove anything 3. What did the “Mozart effect” prove? Correct D) Journalists don’t always have the right information 4. What scientific process was not mentioned in Chapter 1? Correct but tricky B) Peer review process Other choices: producer/consumer, theory-data cycle Chapter 2 Vocabulary and Study Guide Comparison group – enables you to compare what would happen with and without the thing you’re interested in – both with and without tanning beds, energy drinks, or punching bags Confounds – they are alternative explanations. A confound occurs when you think one things caused an outcome but in fact other things changed too, so it’s not clear what the cause was. You may think an energy drink helped you attention span, but since you got extra rest that could be a factor Confederate – an actor playing a specific role for the experiment Probabilistic – interferences are not expected to explain all cases all of the time. Your experience may be an exception to what research finds. The exception shouldn’t undermine the general results Present/present bias – it’s easier to notice what is PRESENT. This bias is related to comparison groups. Regarding anger, the present/present bias means that we will easily notice the times we expressed anger by arguments, frustrations, etc. We notice the times both the treatment (catharsis) and the desired outcome (feeling better) are present. But we’re less likely to notice when we didn’t express anger and still felt better Pop up principle – thinking the easy way, formally known as availability heuristic, which says things that easily come to mind tend to guide our thinking. When events and memories are vivid, they seem more correct and therefore bias our thinking Confirmatory hypothesis testing - the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses while giving disproportionately less attention to information that contradicts it (wiki). For example, enabling ourselves to think what we want by asking questions that are likely to give the desired or expected answers Empirical journal articles – they report for the first time the results of an empirical research study. Empirical articles have details about the study’s method, statistical tests used and the numerical results. These articles must be PEER REVIEWED Review journal articles – they provide a summary of all the research that has been done in ONE research area. Sometimes review articles uses meta-analysis, which combines results of many studies and gives a number that summarizes the magnitude of a relationship (effect size). These articles must be PEER REVIEWED *Components of Empirical Journal Article*: Abstract, Intro, Method, Results, Discussion and Conclusion - Abstract: provides concise summary of the article, about 120 words long and tells you the study’s hypotheses, method, and major results -Introduction: the first section of regular text. Topic, theoretical and empirical background for research, and introduction states questions, goals or hypotheses of study (first, middle and last paragraph order) -Method: explains how researchers conducted their study. It has subsections of participants, materials, procedure and apparatus -Results: describes quantitative and qualitative results of study. It usually has tables and figures to summarize key results -Discussion: summarizes the study’s research question and methods and indicates how well the data supported the hypotheses. After this, the authors usually promote the study’s contributions -Reference List: contains a full bibliographic listing of all articles the authors cited in their article Chapter 2 Quiz 1. Give two reasons experience is a faulty source of evidence Correct A) Confounds and C) no comparison group 2. Availability heuristic means: Correct C) What easily comes to mind 3. Empirical journal articles are: Correct C) Report results for the first time 4. Psychology trade books are useful and reliable when: Correct A) When information is based on research and cited


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