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Food For Thought, Exam 3, Study Guide Spring 2015

by: Alicia Burtha

Food For Thought, Exam 3, Study Guide Spring 2015 ANFS102

Marketplace > University of Delaware > ANFS102 > Food For Thought Exam 3 Study Guide Spring 2015
Alicia Burtha

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About this Document

Study Guide consists of complete notes taken between exam #2 and exam #3 as well as important vocabulary and study guide concepts underlined under the heading "resources"
Food For Thought
Dr. Kali Kneil
Study Guide
foodforthought food for thought anfs102 anfs spring spring2015 food processing foodprocessing proteins study guide studyguide exam3
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alicia Burtha on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANFS102 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. Kali Kneil in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 320 views.


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Date Created: 02/04/16
March 27 2015 External chemicals affect internal chemicals and dumb food testing in class Food Quality  Consumer preferences are important to food manufacturers  Objective testing of quality: chemical and nutritional analysis o Essential for quality control o Uses equipment, physical and chemical techniques, repeatable results  Subjective testing of quality: sensory testing Appearance  Color, structure, stability Texture  Index of quality, personal judgment o Rheology – how a food reacts when a force is applied to it  Elastic, viscosity, plastic Flavor – taste, smell, and maybe sight  Salt, sweet, sour, bitter, umami Sensory Evaluation  Olfactory receptors  Taste receptors  Visual receptors  Taste panels evaluate food using… o Difference tests o Acceptance/preference tests  Hedonic scale  Triangle test  Ranking test o Threshold testing/blind testing  tho Time consuming and expensive w/ results April 6 2015 Food Product Development International Food Information Council (IFIC) Processing – any deliberate change made to a food from the time of origin to the time of consumption 1. Minimally processed 2. Processed for preservation 3. Processed with a mixture of combined ingredients 4. processed ready-to-eat foods 5. prepared meals NHANES study shows 1. Processed foods contribute to a wide range of nutrients at all levels of processing 2. Food processing does not have a clear association with the health of a food 3. the most important determinants of diet quality is the type of food consumed not their processing level 4. consumers should not let the level of processing define their perception of the healthfulness of a food Concept  Consumer Video, Food Product Development Resources: Proteins large molecules  Most abundant molecule in food (>50% dry weight)  Made up of amino acids joined by peptide bonds  Polypeptide  N-C-C units  Enzymes (catalysts help speed up reactiions in our bodies) Amino Acids  Different properties depending on structure/comp. (and side chains)  Central atom = C (carbon) o Attached to carboxyl group, amino groups, H atoms, and another side chain Charge Properties  Side chains allow for different properties o Nonpolar uncharged side chains = hydrophobic (don’t want to interact with water) o Polar uncharged side chains = hydrophilic (interact with water)  Positively charged AA (basic) o Extra amino group o Lysine, arginine, histidine  Negatively charged AA (acidic) o Extra carboxyl group o Aspartic acid, glutamic acid o Ionic interactions between the two groups form strong bonds Conformation  Due to side chains  Provide function Structure (important in food prep, prod, cooking, and bio)  Primary – amino acid sequence; does not exist in nature  Secondary – 3D organization of segments of polypeptides; alpha- helix; randomly coiled coil  Tertiary – 3D structure of a molecule o Spatial arrangement  Quarternary – larger assembly of several protein molecules or polypeptide chains o Non-covalent association of protein chains o Stabilized by various interactions (knowledge of specific proteins impacts processing) Properties  Properties can impact food  Useful in product development  Impact can restrict processing methods Amphoteric  Proteins able to act as acid or base depending on pH  Can resist small pH changes  Buffering capacity Isoelectric Point – pH at which the protein is electrically neutral (pl)  Charge is 0  Proteins will precipitate out of a solution and no interaction with each other Water-Binding Capacity  Water molecules bind to protein backbone  Side chains impact binding capacity o Charged and polar groups increase water-binding capacity o Hydrophobic groups reduce this  Close to pl proteins bind less water o Reduced charge = less affinity for water o Bound water allows for protein dispersion Salting-In – salt solution increases the dispersability of a protein  Charged proteins bind to anions and cations of salt and then these ions bind water Salting-Out – insufficient water available to bind proteins causing precipitation  Occurs at high salt concentrations when salts compete for water  Proteins less soluble at high salt Denaturation – protein unfolding  Does not break peptide bonds  Due to heat, pH change, ionic strength change (salt concentration), freezing, surface change  Loss of functional properties (desirable or undesirable) Hydrolysis – breaking peptide bonds to form smaller peptide chains Mailard Browning  Brown color of baked products Enzymes  Catalyze reactions that affect color, flavor, texture, and quality of foods o Desirable reactions: cheese making and meat tenderizing o Undesirable reactions: enzymatic browning in fruits and veggies Summary: proteins are abundant, have specific conformations and functions April 8 2015 Carbohydrates  Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen  Monosaccharaides – basic, simple sugar, glucose and sucrose  Disaccharides – two sugar molecules linked together forming a chemical bond  Polysaccharide – carbs that have many sugars bonded together and store energy  Produced by plants and animals for storing chemical energy  Simple sugars and starches store energy, pectin cellulose and cell-wall carbs are the plants’ structure  Popular carbohydrates are hydrocolloids Hydrocolloid – a substance that forms a gel in the presence of water Rheology – the study of the deformation and flow of matter under the influence of an applied stress  How the product feels in the mouth, tongue against palate, or how the product pours out of a bottle, or clings to a piece of lettuce, is critical to success Starch – used to carry particles, give good viscosity, take up water, thicken, and increase solubility, adhesiveness, and temperature use Cellulose – similar to amylose, a linear plan polysaccharide composed of glucose  Linkages are different yielding different properties o Cooking dissolves starch but leaves cellulose fibers  Structural support for plant cell walls  Durable  Rarely digestible (indigestible fiber is more important and healthful) Gums – polysaccharides composed of sugars other than glucose


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