SOC 100 Study Guide for Exam #2
SOC 100 Study Guide for Exam #2 SOC 100
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SOCIOLOGY EXAM 2 STRATIFICATION Stratification- structured social inequality or, more specifically, systematic inequalities between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships. Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that private property creates social inequality and that this inequality ultimately leads to social conflict. Social equality is a condition whereby no differences in wealth, power, prestige, or status based on non-natural conventions exist. Rousseau argued that there are two forms of inequality: 1) Physical (natural) – difference of age, health, bodily strength, and the qualities of the mind or of the soul 2) Social (political) - richness, more honored, or more powerful Ferguson and Millar agreed with Rousseau, but they also argued that this is good because it means that some people are getting ahead and creating assets (a form of wealth that can be stored for the future). Social developments resulting from the establishment of private property represent a huge improvement in society, because private property leads to higher degrees of social organization and efficiency. Thomas Malthus also had a positive view for inequality, but only as a means for controlling population growth. He thought that a more equal distribution of resources would increase the world’s population to unsustainable levels and ultimately bring about mass starvation and conflict. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel viewed history in terms of a master- slave dialectic. He believed that most social relationships were based on a master-slave model, and that over time, society would have more and more free people and the master-slave model would die out as the primary social relationship. Dialectic- a two directional relationship, one that goes both ways Ontological equality is the notions that everyone is created equal at birth. Equality of opportunity is the idea that everyone has an equal chance to achieve wealth, social prestige, and power because the rules of the game, so to speak, are the same for everyone. Bourgeois society is a society of commerce in which the maximization of profit is the primary business incentive. Equality of condition is the idea that everyone should have an equal starting point. Equality of outcome is a position that argues that each player must end up with the same amount regardless of the fairness of the “game”; everyone in a society should end up with the same “rewards” regardless of starting point, opportunities, or contributions. The free rider problem is the notion that when more than one person is responsible for getting something done, the incentive is for each individual to shirk responsibility and hope others will pull the extra weight. Forms of Stratification: 1) Estate system- politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility; clergy, nobility, and commoners; 2) Caste system- religion-based system of stratification characterized by no social mobility; stratified on the basis of hereditary notions of religious and theological purity 3) Class system- an economically based hierarchical system characterized by cohesive, oppositional groups and somewhat loose social mobility; implies an economic basis for the fundamental cleavages in society; class is related to position in the economic market; heavily influenced by Marx and Weber; according to Marx, there was the employing class (bourgeoisie) and the working class (proletariat); according to Weber, class is a group that has as its basis common life chances or opportunities available to it in the marketplace 4) Status hierarchy system- a system of stratification based on social prestige; for Weber, status is determined by what society as a whole thinks of a particular lifestyle of the community to which you belong Some sociologists include a fifth ideal type: 1) Elite-mass dichotomy- system of stratification that has a governing elite, a few leaders who broadly hold power in society; Vilfredo Pareto took a positive view of elite mass dictomy, whereas C. Wright Mills saw much dislike in such systems Pareto believes in meritocracy, which is a society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes, ability and achievement. Erin Olin Wright created the concept of contradory class locations, which is the idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure that fall in between the two “pure” classes. It can be difficult to define class because class means different things to different people and because people don’t always fit neatly into just one category. Peter M. Blau and Otis Dudley Duncan created the Index of Occupational Status by polling the general public about the prestige of certain occupations. How is America stratified today? Socioeconomic status is used to describe an individual’s position in a stratified social order. When sociologists use this term, they are referring to any measure that attempts to classify groups, individuals, families, or households in terms of indicators such as occupation, income, wealth, and education. The public generally divides society into the upper class, the middle class, the working class, and the poor. Income is money received by a person for work, from transfers, or from returns on investments. Wealth is a family’s or individual’s net worth (that is, total assets minus total debts) The upper class refers to the group of individuals at the top of the socioeconomic food chain, it is a term for the economic elite. Benefits of Wealth: 1) Well-being 2) Lower stress levels 3) Better Health 4) Political influence 5) Longer life In 1974, the top fifth of households earned 9.8 times more than the bottom fifth. In 2001, the top fifth earned more than half of all national income. The rich have been getting richer, and the poor have been getting poorer. The income gap between high-income and low-income individuals has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The middle class is a term commonly used to describe those with nonmanual jobs that pay significantly more than the poverty line – though this is a highly debated and expansive category, particulary in the United States, where broad swathes of the population consider themselves middle class. Michael Hout explains that even though there has been a stagnation in the number of people receiving bachelor’s degrees, the value of those degrees is increasing. What is holding the students back from getting the degree is that the cost of college is increasing and a larger proportion of the cost is borne by individuals rather than states. Poverty has an official, government definition, but there are also less official categories, such as the working poor and the nonworking poor. Poverty is a state that families usually shift in and out of throughout their history, and often a clear distinction does not exist between the working class and the poor. The poor are said to resemble the rich in being more oriented towards the present and therefore less worried about the future than their middle class and working class counterparts. Day to day survival keeps the poor clearly planted in the present. Global Inequality: 1) 1/5 of the world’s population lacks shelter 2) More than 1/5 lacks safe water 3) 1/3 of the world’s people are without electricity 4) More than 2/5 lack adequate sanitation 5) There are still about 27 million slaves in Mozambique, Sudan, and other African countries One of the main reasons for rising income and wealth inequality in the Unites States is globalization. Global inequality has greatly increased over the past 500 years. Jeffrey Sachs explains that Africa’s geography made it much more difficult for an agricultural revolution to occur, high disease burden, and impacts of colonialism. The “American Dream”: We are all taught that if we work hard and persevere, we can become anything, we can become one of those millionaires. -We strive for Vertical Social Mobility (movement up or down the stratification system). Keep in mind that in these uncertain economic times, there are a large number of people moving down the stratification system. Social mobility is the movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society. Pitirim A. Sorokin emphasized the importance of not just looking at the mobility of individuals but also examining group mobility. He also noted that social mobility can be horizontal or vertical. Horizontal social mobility means a group or individual transitioning from one social status to another situated more or less on the same rung of the ladder. Vertical social mobility refers to the rise or fall of an individual or group from one social stratum to another. Structural mobility is mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy, such as expansion of high-tech jobs in the past 20 years. Exchange mobility is mobility in which, if we hold fixed the changing distribution of jobs, individuals trade jobs not one to one but in a way that ultimately balances out; it occurs when people are essentially trading positions- the number of overall jobs stays the same, with some people moving up to better jobs and other moving down into worse ones. The status attainment model is an approach that ranks individuals by socioeconomic status, including income and educational attainment, and seeks to specify the attributes characteristic of people who end up in more desirable occupations. 1) An ascription based stratification system is one in which the allocation of rank depends on the characteristics a person is born with 2) An achievement based stratification system is one in which the allocation of rank depends on a person’s achievements The caste system is an almost pure ascription based stratification system in which occupation and marriage partners are assigned on the basis of caste position. A caste system based on race existed in South Africa from 1948-1992: 1) Consigned that large black majority to menial jobs 2) Prevented marriage between blacks and whites 3) Erected separate public facilities for members of the two races The poverty threshold is set at three times the cost of an economy food budget and adjusted for: 1) The number of people in the household 2) Annual inflation rate 3) Whether adult householders are younger than 65 Myths about the poor: 1) Poor people are trapped in poverty (only about 12% of the poor remain poor 5 or more years in a row) 2) Welfare encourages married women with children to divorce so they can collect welfare, and it encourages single women on welfare to have more children (women on welfare have a lower birthrate than women in the general population; welfare payments are very low and recipients suffer severe economic hardship) 3) Welfare is a strain on the federal budget (“means tested” welfare programs require recipients to meet an income test to qualify; such programs accounted for only 6% of the federal budget in 2012) The estate tax in the United States is related to the issue of stratification because it goes to the heart of questions about how to promote business growth, how wealth should be distributed, how to encourage meritocracy, and how to build a more equitable society. GENDER Feminism is a consciousness raising movement to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life. The underlying belief that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities and respect. Feminism: 1) Seeks to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life 2) Gender structures social relations on unequal ground, and thus power is fundamentally at play when we talk about gender differences Sex is typically used to describe the biological differences that distinguish males from females. Your sex depends on whether you were born with female or male genitals and a genetic program that released male or female hormones to stimulate the development of your reproductive system. Intersexed people have ambiguous genitals resulting from a hormone imbalance in the womb or some other cause (about 18 out of every 100,000 babies) Sexuality refers to desire, sexual preference, sexual identity, and behavior. Gender denotes a social position, the set of social arrangements that are built around normative sex categories. Your gender is your sense of being male or female and playing masculine or feminine roles as defined by your culture and society. Transgendered people defy gender norms and blur accepted gender roles (1 in every 5,000-10,000 people). Transsexuals want to alter their gender by changing their appearance or medical intervention (1 in every 30,000 people). In Paradoxes of Gender, Judith Lorber claims that gender is a social institution that establishes patterns of expectations for individuals, orders the social process of everyday life, is built into the major social organizations of society, and is also an entity in and of itself. Sex: A Process in the Making The study of gender boils down to seeing how the two spheres, nature and nurture, overlap, penetrate, and shape each other. Dr. John Money operated on a mutually exclusive two-sex model of human body types, a lesser known but equally plausible “one-sex” model dominated western biological thought from ancient Greeks until the mid eighteenth century. Many people believe that there are only two sexes- male and female- and that all people fall into one group. Essentialism explains social phenomenon in terms of natural ones. The hallmarks of essentialism are fixity, lack of history, absolutism, and biological determinism. Biological determinism is a line of thought that explains social behavior in terms of who you are in the natural world. Feminist philosopher Elizabeth Grosz proposes that we view the relationship between the natural and social sex and gender as existing on a Mobius strip. The Mobius strip is an old math puzzle that looks like a twisted ribbon loop, yet it has just one side and one edge. Gender is also a crucial part of how we define ourselves; it frames our identity. Plastic Surgery: Breast augmentation and liposuction have flip flopped in previous years. 1) Breast augmentation regained the top spot in 2012 2) Liposuction 3) Rhinoplasty 4) Facelifts However, if we include non-invasive procedures, botox is the leader (3.2 million botox procedures compared to 370 thousand breast augmentations). Hegemonic masculinity is the condition in which men are dominant and privileged, and this dominance and privilege is invisible. In Manhood in America, Michael Kimmel traces the development of masculinity in the West and finds that in the 18 century, the ideal man was not associated with physical fitness, money making endeavors, or sports. Over time and from place to place, gender roles are fluid, changing, and context-specific. Gender roles are sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one’s status as a female or male. Evidence shows that gender roles have more to do with social status than biology. Patriarchy is a nearly universal system involving the subordination of femininity to masculinity. Anthropologist Gayle Rubin was one of the first to argue that the nearly universal oppression of women was in need of an explanation. She proposed the sex/gender system. In this system, the raw materials of biological sex are transformed through kinship into asymmetrical gender statuses. Structural functionalism is theoretical tradition that claiming that every society has certain structures (the family, the division of labor, or gender) that exist in order to fulfill some set of necessary functions (reproduction of the species, production of goods, etc); doesn’t allow for the possibility that other structures could fulfill the same function or for the fact that structures change throughout history Talcott Parson offered a widely accepted functionalist account of gender relations. According to Parsons’s sex role theory, the nuclear family is the ideal arrangement in modern society because it fulfills the function of reproducing workers. --Theory that men and women perform their sex roles as breadwinners and wives/mothers, respectively Social constructionalism is the theory that gender differences reflect the different social positions occupied by women and men. Psychoanylytic Theories: 1) Focus on individualistic explanations for gender differences as opposed to societal ones 2) Inherent in these theories is the notion that there are natural differences between men and women that dictate how they behave The father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, famously equipped “anatomy is destiny”. Although biological determinism plays a major role in Freudian theory, so does the idea that gender develops through family socialization. Carol Gilligan also adapted Freudian psychology to make the case that men and women have different ways of thinking. By her account, women make major life decisions based on ethics of care. Conflict theories argue that patriarchal capitalists benefit through systems that subordinate women. Socialist feminists, also known as radical feminists, claimed that the root of all social relations, including relations of production, stemmed from unequal gender relations. Social constructionalists argue that gender is a process, and they view gender roles as having open-ended scripts. Black Feminism: 1) Pointed out that gender doesn’t function in a vacuum and that gender studies must take into account that there is not single category of women or men 2) They also pointed out that some women are not only more privileged than other women but also more privileged than other men Middle range theories may be the most useful in addressing the complicated subject of gender because they connect people’s day to day experiences to larger social forces (Robert Merton). Marxist feminists argue that sexuality in America is an expression of the unequal power balance between men and women. Much like gender differences, sexual practices vary across time and place, supporting the notion that sexuality is as much a social construct as gender. Homosexuality is the social identity of a person who has sexual attraction to and/or relations with other persons of the same sex. It was around 1850 when the homosexual identity was born. Homosexuality was listed as a mental illness until 1973 when the American psychological association removed it from the DSM. Sexual orientation added to the list of features in which a sentence enhancement can be sought. Passed 11 years after the brutal attack at Laramie, WY. Gives DOJ the power to assist or prosecute crimes. Michel Foucault led the way to poststructuralist notions of the body and sexuality as historical productions- The History of Sexuality. Kinsey found high rates of bisexual activity, sexual positions, preferences, desires, and extramarital activity among men and women. Paula England surveyed students about their sex lives. Sexism occurs when a person’s sex or gender is the basis for judgment, discrimination, and hatred against him or her. Studies have shown that gender inequality is rampant in schools. Boys and girls are treated differently by teachers, and there are different expectations for their behavior and performance. The textbooks and other materials used in schools often reinforce gender stereotypes. Women still face many challenges in the working world today, including unequal pay, sexual harassment, sexism, tracking to certain kinds of jobs, the “feminization” of jobs, the glass ceiling, and more. Sexual harassment is and illegal form of discrimination, involving everything from inappropriate jokes on the job to outright sexual assault to sexual “barter”- all intended to make women feel uncomfortable and unwelcome, particularly on the job. The glass ceiling is an invisible unit on women’s climb up the occupational ladder. Causes of the earning gap: 1) Gender discrimination 2) Heavy domestic responsibilities reduce women’s earnings 3) Women tend to be concentrated in low wage occupations and industries 4) Work done by women is commonly considered less valuable than work done by men because it viewed as involving fewer skills The glass escalator is the promotional ride men take to the top of a work organization, especially in feminized jobs. “Opting out” refers to a perceived trend among mostly middle class women of leaving the work force to be full time wives and mothers, in large part because of frustrations with the many obstacles they face on the job and the sense that they can find fulfillment in the home. RACE Race refers to a group of people who share a set of characteristics- typically, but not always, physical ones- and are said to share a common bloodline. Americans categorize themselves into 36-75 different races. In 1790, Congress passed the first naturalization law, limiting the rights of citizenship to “free white persons”. Racism is the belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits. Racist thinking is characterized by three key beliefs: 1) That humans are divided into distinct bloodlines and/or physical types 2) These bloodlines or physical traits are linked to distinct cultures, behaviors, personalities, and intellectual abilities 3) That certain groups are superior to others Race is a social construct that changes over time and across different contexts. Many scholars believe that we belong to one human race, which originated in Africa. Migration, geographical separation, and inbreeding led to the formation or more or less distinct races. The Greek philosopher Hippocrates, believed that physical markers such as skin color were the result of different environmental factors. Modern racial thinking developed in the mid seventeenth century in parallel with global changes such as the protestant reformation in Europe, the Age of Exploration, and the rise of Capitalism. When the divine right of conquest lost its sway, science led the way as an authority behind racial thinking, legitimating race by scientific mandate. Scientific racism is the 19 century theories of race that characterize a period of feverish investigation into the origins, explanations, and classifications of race. Francois Bernier proposed a new geography based on the body. He devised a scheme of four or five races based on geographic regions. Scientific racism sought to make sense of people who were different from white Europeans- who constituted the norm, according to Comte de Buffon. This way of thinking, called Ethnocentrism, has plagued scientific studies of otherness. Many historical efforts to explain race were biased due to ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own culture or group is superior to others and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one’s own. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach- founder of anthropology and believed in phrenology. Phrenology is categorizing variation of race based on head formation. Johann Lavater popularized physiognomy, which correlated outside appearances to inner virtues. Humanity has experienced so much intermixing that race as a biological category has lost meaning. Lamarckism; the basic tenet of Lamarckism is that acquired traits can be passed down across generations. Charles Darwin published his theory of Natural Selection in 1859. He argued that acquired attributes could not be transmitted, instead change can occur only through the positive selection of mutations. Social Darwinism is the application of Darwinian ideas to society, namely, the evolutionary “survival of the fittest”; was the notion that some groups or races evolved more than others and were better fit to survive and even rule other races. Monogenists believed that humans were one species, united under God. Polygenists believed the different races were distinct species. A new movement, eugenics, took the idea of very distant origins and ran with it. Eugenics literally means “well born”, the theory of controlling the fertility of populations to influence inheritable traits passed on from generation to generation. Backers of eugenics claimed that traits could be traced through bloodlines and bred into populations or out of them. Nativism is the movement to protect and preserve indigenous land or culture from the allegedly dangerous and polluting effects of new immigrants. The one-drop rule is the belief that “one drop” of black blood makes the person black, a concept that evolved from US laws forbidding miscegenation. Miscegenation is the technical term for interracial marriage; literally meaning “a mixing of kinds”; it is politically and historically charged- sociologists generally prefer exogamy or outmarriage; multiracial marriage Today, DNA testing is used to determine people’s racial makeup, and while this process may be more accurate on some level than 19 th century racial measures, it still supports the notion of fixed, biological racial differences. Racialization is the formation of a new racial identity in which ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of people. Race is imposed, hierarchal, exclusive, and unequal. Ethnicity is one’s ethnic quality or affiliation. It is voluntary, self- defined, non-hierarchal, fluid, and multiple, and based on cultural differences, not physical ones per se. Symbolic ethnicity is a nationality, not in the sense of carrying the rights and duties of citizenship but of identifying with a past or future nationality. For later generations of white ethnics, something not constraining but easily expressed, with no risks of stigma and all the pleasures of feeling like an individual. Straight-line assimilation is Robert Park’s 1920s universal and linear model for how immigrants assimilate: they first arrive, then settle in, and achieve full assimilation in a newly homogenous country. For Milton Gordon, an immigration population can pass through or stall in seven stages of assimilation: cultural, structural, marital, identificational, attitude receptional, behavior receptional, and civic assimilation. Minority-Majority Group Relations: Primordialism is Clifford Geertz’s term to explain the strength of ethnic ties because they are fixed in deeply felt or primordial ties to one’s homeland culture. Pluralism is the presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society. Segregation is the legal or social practice of separating people on the basis of their race or ethnicity. Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people based on racial, ethnic, or religious traits. Forms of response to oppression: withdrawal, passing, acceptance, and resistance. Passing is blending in with the dominant group. Acceptance is where the oppressed group feigns compliance and hides its true feelings of resentment. Collective resistance is an organized effort to change a power hierarchy on the part of a less-powerful group in a society. Prejudice is having thoughts or feelings about an ethnic or racial group. Discrimination is a harmful or negative act (not mere thoughts) against people deemed inferior on the basis of their racial category without regard to their individual merit. Robert Merton developed a diagram for prejudice and discrimination: 1) Active bigot – prototypical racist who acts on his beliefs 2) Timid bigot – one who is prejudiced but doesn’t discriminate 3) Fair-weather liberal – not prejudiced but does discriminate 4) All weather liberal – are not prejudiced nor discriminatory While overt racism is, for the most part, considered unacceptable in America today, there is a new kind of racism on the rise in America and elsewhere that focuses on cultural and national differences, rather than racial ones. The 2000 census created separate categories for race and ethnicity. Expulsion and genocide best describe the treatment of Native Americans bye European settlers in the 19 century. Chinese Americans have experienced considerable upward mobility in the last half century. Crime incidents motivated by a person’s race, religion, or ethnicity. In 2003, the FBI recorded 7489 hate crimes, each incident may involve multiple offenses. The most frequent victims of hate crimes are African Americans. Institutional racism are institutions and social dynamics that may seem race-neutral but actually disadvantage minority groups. The new color line is black-nonblack, according to Jennifer Lee. POVERTY Poverty can be defined as a condition of deprivation die to economic circumstances that is severe enough that the individual in this condition cannot live with dignity in his or her society. The administration of Lyndon Johnson established a wide range of anti poverty programs in the 1960s. For example, programs for education, job training and placement, housing—as a part of its "War on Poverty". At the core of the debate about poverty in America is the question of whether poverty is the cause of social ills such as crime, poor educational outcomes, divorce, and so on, or whether it is their result. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the United States conducted its most ambitious social experiment to date. At several sites around the country, scientists enrolled poor people in treatment and control groups. The control groups got their welfare checks or their wages as before, whereas the treatment group received a guaranteed check. The government reclaimed the money through taxation until a certain crossover point at which households would start paying “positive” taxes – hence the term, negative income tax. The studies results: women left their marriages because they were no longer financially dependent on the man, and unemployment spells increased in duration. Ken Auletta inaugurated the concept of the underclass, which is the notion, building on the culture of poverty argument, that the poor not only are different from mainstream society in their inability to take advantage of what mainstream society has to offer but also are increasingly deviant and even dangerous to the rest of us. Charles Murray argued that the underclass thesis was flawed: the poor are no different from the rest of us; they respond rationally to economic incentives. The poor, he argued in Losing Ground, were the victims of an everexpanding welfare state that provided the wrong longterm incentives. Perverse incentives are reward structures that lead to suboptimal outcomes by stimulating counterproductive behavior Unintended consequences are results of a policy that were not fully anticipated at the time the policy was implemented, particularly outcomes that are counter to the intentions of the policymakers. Al Gore argued for universal day care, the idea of making Head Start available to all American families, as was Social Security, and thus removing the stigma that derives from income requirements. During a recession, poverty rates may be higher. A recession is a period of economic decline lasting half a year or more. Oscar Lewis published an article “The Culture of Poverty” which served as the capstone to a long career devoted to studying the lives of poor Mexicans. The culture of poverty theory argues that poor people adopt certain practices, which differ from those of middle class, "mainstream" society, in order to adapt and survive in difficult economic circumstances. While it may be true that reliance on welfare generates a sense of helplessness and dependency in some people, there are also structural reasons why it can be difficult to transition from welfare to work. Sociologist William Julius Wilson turned the focus from welfare to Factors such as deindistrialization , globalization, suburbanization, and discrimination as causes of urban poverty. In the past 20 to 30 years, policies to combat poverty have focused on encouraging work and offering benefits that directly serve children. In her book What Money Can't Buy, sociologist Susan Mayer writes that she found very little evidence to support the widely held belief that parental income has any affect on the children. In The Bell Curve, Charles Murray and Richard Hernstein argues that children's future is determined by genes. James Rosenbaum’s study of the Gautreaux Assisted Living Program in Chicago and the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) study began in 1994. Designed to see if moving to less impoverished communities might affect quality of life. MTO study in particular seemed to show that living in a quieter, less stressful environment did have very positive effects on children. Absolute poverty is the point at which a household’s income falls below the necessary level to purchase food to physically sustain its members. The official poverty line in the United States is calculated using a formula developed in the 1960s by Mollie Orshansky. Estimates food costs for minimum food requirements to determine whether a family can "afford" to survive Can be problematic, as the cost of food has decreased but the cost of living (rent, utilities, etc.) have increased There are three basic theories about how poverty negatively affects children: 1) The material deprivations cause day a family's low socioeconomic status 1) Bad parenting practices that are related to a family's low socioeconomic status 1) Differences between poor parents and higher income parents, but without much faith that anything can be done to affect these differences Relative poverty is a measurement of poverty based on a percentage of the median income in a given location. The United States has a much broader range of inequality than any other developed nation in the world, as well as higher poverty rates. Lopsided economic rewards is what drives poverty in America Gated communities are an example of economic segregation. Parenting stress hypothesis is a paradigm in which low income, unstable employment, a lack of cultural resources, and a feeling of inferiority from social class comparisons exacerbate household stress, in turn, leads to detrimental parenting practices such as yelling and hitting, which are not conductive to healthy child development. The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income distribution of a nation's residents. A higher score means more inequality. HEALTH AND SOCIETY Doctors have more power than any other professionals in America and most other societies. Doctors have an enormous amount of social power, political power, and prestige; we defer to our doctors in ways we don’t defer to other people. The Black Death in 1346, rumors reached Europe of a plague sweeping the east the epidemic spread along trade routes to china and Russia within two years, the Black Death, killed 1/3 of Europe The average age of death of the members of the population. life expectancy in the United States was 47 years in 1900. In 2004, it was 77 years. the maximum average human life span is the average age of death for a population under ideal conditions it is currently about 85 years Doctors have a great amount of social power, political power, and prestige for a variety of reasons: 1) they offer a universally valued product— health and longevity 1) There is a limited number of doctors due to the extensive education and training and the strict regulation of the profession Doctors are very concerned with their standing among their peers. people trust doctors with very personal information and expect individualized treatment; and doctors use specific props and scripts to assert their power Talcott Parsons he developed the concept of the sick role, which assigns a sick person rights and obligations however, this conception is very individualistic and does not take into account how social conditions can affect a person's health Rights: 1) Not to perform normal social roles 2) Not to be held accountable for his or her condition Obligations: 1) To try to get well 2) To seek competent help and comply with doctor’s orders Like many other seemingly universal or stable concepts, illness is a social construct; what it means to be sick (and healthy) has changed throughout history and differs from one place to another. Unlike many other indistrialized nations, the United States does not offer universal healthcare. The four main types of health care coverage in the United States are: feeforservice (set billable rate; you can go to the doctor and pay $25 for the visit) health maintenance organizations (the medical provider receives a capitation, meaning fee per person as opposed to per treatment) Medicare (for people 65 and older) Medicaid (for poor people with limited resources) Technological advances in medicine have allowed for: 1) the detection of diseases, genetic abnormalities in fetuses which raise difficult ethical questions and have major social implications 1) Multiple births and premature births, which present further radical and ethical dilemmas There are numerous health discrepancies between races in the United States, with whites having the best outcomes overall. While some of the discrepancy is due to differences in socioeconomic status. There are still significant differences in blacks and whites with the same income and education level, which implies that race has an effect. Selection theory the connection between low income and poorer health has mediating factors. For instance, either factors, like genetics, might affect both socioeconomic status and health. The drift explanation states that there is a connection between income and health. If you have poor health, you might be less likely to find gainful employment. Social determinants theory states that social status can determine a person's health. Married people tend to live longer, but it is not clear whether marriage actually benefits a persons health or if healthier people tend to get married. Women live longer than men, which can be attributed in part to the types of illnesses each sex is more susceptible to as well as to how willing each sex is to seek medical care. Large families and children born close together are both associated with higher child mortality rates, due to greater demands on parent's financial and emotional resources. The DSM provides a standard categorization of mental disorders and their definitions. changes in this manual, particularly from its second to third editions, have strongly influenced how mental illness is treated The tendency for medical definitions of deviant behavior to become more prevalent over time. What used to be considered willful deviance is considered involuntary. a person prone to drinking sprees is likely to be declared an alcoholic a person predisposed to violent rages is more likely to be medicated There has been a significant increase in the use of pharmaceuticals to treat mental illness. Some negative aspects of this change include: devaluation of the benefits of talk therapy overprescribing or misprescribing of pharmaceuticals stigma attached to taking medication for mental illness increasing power of pharmaceutical companies, which have benefited from the growth of the diagnostic approach Health disparities between groups within the United States are dwarfed by the disparities that exist between the United States and developing countries. Many developing countries are still struggling to provide their citizens with safe drinking water, sanitation Americans pay more for prescription drugs than anyone else in the world. In 2002, prescription drug prices in other rich countries were 37% to 53% below American prices. Between 1998 and 2002, the price of prescription drugs in the United States increased three times faster than the rate of inflation and faster than any other item in the nations healthcare budget. The sociology of the body: 1) food production 1) Anorexia 1) Obesity epidemic Medicalization is the process by which problems or issues not traditionally seen as medical come to be framed as such. Homeopathy is “poison is the cure”; you are given a little bit of poison, a little bit of disease, in order to cure or prevent an illness Ka Liu conducted research on the rapid rise of autism diagnoses among US children. Morbidity means illness in a general sense. Mortality means death. Human growth takes place in three spurts – infancy, ages 6-8, and adolescence Lower income leads to higher morbidity and lower general health: 1) The psychosocial interpretation focuses on individuals social class status relative to that of those around them (feelings of low worth wear down their bodies) 2) The materialist interpretation asserts that the different access of healthy life is a result of socioeconomic factors 3) The fundamental causes interpretation, how social factors shape illness and health Elderly and income are negatively related; as income increased, elderly mortality decreased. Married people tend to live longer, especially married men. Women live longer than men. The label of metally ill was formerly reserved for people whose behaviors were considered bizarre or other wise “unnatural”. With the work of Freud, mental illness came to be seen, as one end of a continuum rather than one category in a dictomy of sane versus insane. The leading killer worldwide is waterborne illness. Americans drank, on average, 29 gallons of bottled water per person in 2007. We spent $11.7 billion on bottled water. Bottled water is often more expensive to gasoline. For $1.7 billion a year in addition to what is already being spent on water projects, everyone on earth could have access to clean water. For another $9.3 billion a year, everyone could have better sanitation. HIV/AIDS is very much a heterosexual disease in the US. Currently, African American women have the highest rate of HIV contraction in the US. HIV is carried in bodily fluids; shared intravenous needles, unprotected sexual activity, and mother to infant exchange are the most common transmissions. FAMILY Our choice of a romantic or life partner doesn't depend solely on our attraction to someone, how well we get along with him or her, or our shared life goals. Whether we realize is or not, there are also legal and cultural factors that affect our decisions. A nuclear family or traditional family is a family consisting of a father and mother and their biological family. Extended family refers to familial networks that extend beyond the nuclear family There is no real typical family in Western society today. multiple generations can live together families can consist of step siblings and half siblings, there are many single parent families Individuals and couples can choose not to get married or not to have children Functions of marriage and the nuclear family: 1) sexual regulation 1) Economic cooperation 1) Reproduction 1) Socialization 1) Emotional support Endogamy refers to marriage to someone within one's social group Exogamy refers to marriage to someone from a different social group Loving vs Virginia is the 1967 Supreme Court case that ended antimiscegenation laws (laws that said interracial couples couldn't marry) Monogamy is the practice of marrying (or being in a relationship with) one person at a time Polygamy is a system of marriage that allows people to have more throne spouse at a time The more common form of polygamy is polygyny, a system of of marriage that allows men to have multiple wives. Polyandry, a system of marriage that allows women to have multiple husbands, is a more rare form of polygamy. About 8 percent of all households are occupied by couples who are cohabiting (living together as a romantically involved, unmarked couple). A 14 year study assessed 25 young adults who were the offspring of lesbian families and 21 young adults who were the offspring of heterosexual families. The researchers found that the two groups were equally well adjusted and displayed little difference in sexual orientation Early modern families depended heavilily on kinship networks, which are systems of relationships between people related by blood and marriage. These networks weakened as families became more mobile. The industrial revolution created a division between work and home. men were associated with the public world of wage earning work That traditional nuclear family is not a timeless and universal concept. It developed on response to conditions in a specific time and place: the postWWII economic boom in the US. Several factors have brought about significant changes in the organization of work and family life since the 1970s. increasing divorce rates decreasing marriage and fertility rates increasing participation of women in the workforce Feminist theorists suggest gender roles are learned in the family. The family can be a battleground for power over decisions about chores, housing, raising, etc. Women today have two jobs: paid labor outside the home and unpaid labor inside the home. Second shift refers to unpaid labor inside the home that is often expected of women after they get home from working at paid labor outside the home. African American women have often taken a leading role in providing for their families. African American communities tend to have expanded notions of kinship, including even no blood relationships. Latinos come from many different countries and cultural backgrounds. But some characteristics can be identified as common to Latino families, including: strong family and community ties adherence Single, nonworking mothers face many challenges, among them the attitudes of critic of welfar The size of a family and its resources can affect how parent relate to each of their children and can create inequalities among siblings. Birth order and "natural" abilities also play a role, but the bottom line is that in the home, a status hierarchy often fosters inequality. Divorce is a constant in our society, and debates will continue about its effects on children. The only certainty may be that high levels of parental conflict—whether between married or divorced parents— are not good for children. Families today come in many forms— blended families with step siblings or half siblings, families headed by same sex partners, interracial families, inter generational families— so perhaps the optimal description of the ideal family is that it best serves the needs of all its members. Marriage resources financial assets, status, values, tastes, and knowledge Third parties families, neighborhoods, communities, and religious institutions Demographic factors size and sex ratio of groups you belong to and the social composition of the local marriage markets According to psychologist Robert Sternberg, love can be built from passion, intimacy, committment. In longterm relationships: 1) passion peaks quickly and tapers off 1) Intimacy rises gradually but remains at a higher plateau 1) Commitment develops most gradually but plateaus at a high level Factors underlying marital satisfaction: 1) economic forces 1) Divorce laws 1) Family life cycle 1) Housework and child care 1) Sex Four main reproductive technologies: 1) artificial insemination 1) Surrogate motherhood 1) In vitro fertilization 1) Various screenings pick which sex the child will be Every nine seconds, a woman in the us is assaulted or beaten. Common couple violence occurs when partners have a specific argument and one partner lashes out physically Intimate terrorism is a general desire of one partner to control the other. Violent resistance typically involves a woman violently defending herself against a man who has engaged in intimate terrorism Endogamy is marriage to someone within one’s social group. Exogamy is marriage to someone outside one’s social group. Monogamy is the practice of having only one sexual partner or spouse at a time. Polygamy is the practice of having more than one sexual partner at a time. Polyandry is the practice of having multiple husbands simultaneously. Polygyny is the practice of having multiple wives simultaneously. Extended families are kin networks that extended outside or beyond the nuclear family. Cohabitation is living together in an intimate relationship without formal legal or religious sanctioning. Kinship networks are strings of relationships between people related by blood and co-residence (marriage) Cult of domesticity is the notion that true womanhood centers on domestic responsibility and child rearing. Betty Freidan led the assault against the limits of being a homemaker with her classic The Feminine Mystique. American marriage rates have decreased. Blended families are families that may have been split and then connected to another family; Stepfamily; result of not only divorce, but also death. Civil unions legally recognized unions explicitly intended to offer similar state-provided legal rights and benefits of marriage. Domestic partnerships are legally recognized unions that guarantee only select rights to same sex couples.
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