SOC 100 Study Guide for Exam #3
SOC 100 Study Guide for Exam #3 SOC 100
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SOCIOLOGY EXAM #3 EDUCATION The fact that Hashemi (opening story) was admitted to an Ivy League university and this upsetting Americans suggests two things: 1) Americans believe elite schools offer more opportunities to their graduates than less selective institutions do 2) That given the advantages such as a degree provides, Americans think those admitted to the most prestigious schools should be the most academically deserving Sociologists define education as the process through which academic, social, and cultural ideas and tools, both specific and general, are developed. Schools are supposed to teach basic skills and impart knowledge. Functional illiteracy is the inability to read or write well enough to be a functioning member of society. It plagues about 14% of the nation’s population 16 years or older. Innumeracy is having insufficient mathematical skills to function in society. It affects 22% of the population 16 and older. Vocational programs might focus on carpentry or mechanical skill, whereas professional schools train doctors and lawyers. These skills from the programs can be seen as an investment in your future. Investing in knowledge and skills (human capital) can be achieved in a number of ways: going to college, taking a night class, or learning a trade. Functions of schooling: 1) Get an education 2) Socialize young people What’s important about universal schooling is that most students in the country go through more or less the same socialization process. It gives them a common background that is useful when they enter the workforce and must function collectively. Hidden curriculum, coined by Phillip Jackson, describes the nonacademic and less overt socialization functions of schooling. Because of the ability to instill similar values in students, schools have been viewed as excellent places to integrate immigrants and other outsiders and instill dominant cultural values. The Carlisle Indian Industrial School took children as young as six away from their families to teach them more “civilized” ways of life. They did this by: 1) Forbidding the children from speaking their own language 2) Placing the schools far from children’s homes 3) Disparaging native practices 4) Encouraging Christianity 5) Praising the superiority of white ways Many complained that it was too expensive and encouraged dependency rather than self-sufficiency. Initiatives for educating the native populations was not native only to the Unites States. In Australia (1910-1970), 100,000 children were taken from their families and placed into camps or schools, they were the “stolen generation”. This was dramatized in the book Follow the Rabbit Proof Fence written by Dorris Pilkington. According to Marxist theorists, schools are unwitting pawns of the capitalist classes and teach the skills that are conductive to maintaining dominant and subordinate positions in the workforce, such as self-discipline, obedience, punctuality, and dependability. Some theorists suggest that schools first sort students according to their future jobs and then teach them the necessary skills for this position. In the work Power and Morality, Pitirim Sorokin argued that schools are sorting machines: 1) They test students for ability, talent, and social and moral character 2) Eliminate students 3) Students are then taught different skills and socialized in ways deemed most appropriate Jonathon Kozol toured public schools and recounted his observations in Savage Inequalities. He noticed that students were taught the skills that educators thought would best prepare them for their specific futures. The Coleman Report discovered that determined that achievement differences most likely exist between schools, but few of the differences between schools actually effects educational outcomes. To put is succinctly, the researcher found that differences in resources didn’t matter, the data indicated that school characteristics explained only a tiny amount of the differences in educational outcomes. The researchers determined most of the differences among schools could be attributed to two factors: family background and peers. Project STAR showed how schools affect educational achievement. It was a four year study by Tennessee State. It provided evidence that schools with smaller classes significantly benefited their students. Students in the study assigned to smaller classes experienced fewer disciplinary problems and higher achievement test scores. The results were strongest from low income and minority students. Private vs. Public Schools Shamus Khan studied St. Paul by accepting a teaching position there to conduct research. He reports his findings in Privilege: The Making of an Adolescent Elite at St. Paul’s School. Several studies have shown that school sector is associated with educational outcomes even after the students different backgrounds are taken into account. Catholic schools are the most successful in preparing students academically. James S. Coleman and Thomas Hoffer that the strong effects of a catholic school stems from the large amounts of social capital in the community. Social capital is the information of people, and connections that help individuals enter, gain power in, or otherwise leverage social networks. What’s going on inside schools? Tracking is a way of dividing students into different classes by ability or future plans. Dividing students into different tracks is instrumental in both preparing them for their future positions and explaining the large differences we observe among students within schools. Tracking is intended to create a better learning environment, and has significant impacts even after controlling for background characteristics. Negative aspects of tracking: 1) The in between track seems to provide no benefits 2) Students from privileged backgrounds are significantly more likely to be in college tracks even after taking into account variables that should predict track placement 3) Higher class whites are usually overrepresented Steven Morgan looks at students in private catholic schools to see is he could tease out the relationship between academic achievement, religiosity, and parental involvement. He looks at the non-catholic students in catholic schools. Jeannie Oakes suggest that tracking may be bad because there are stark differences in the quality of teaching and content of materials between tracks. She also demonstrates the importance of teacher-student and peer-to- peer dynamics in student experiences. The classroom pressure cooker describes the amount of time that Students and teachers spend together in the classroom under their teacher’s juristrictions. Components of a classroom that affect student experiences: 1) The teacher – some are more effective than others, motivate students, instructional methods 2) Peers Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson visited an elementary school at the beginning of the year and administered IQ tests. Amanda Lewis studied elementary schools; students in one class would sit in a circle and give each other compliments, but if the class became rowdy, they were instructed to offer insults instead. Teaching methods supported by extensive research are called best practices. Donald Langois and Charlotte Zales came up with a list of the most effective teaching methods. David Figlio determined that more behavioral problems in the classroom significantly increase other student’s disciplinary problems and reduce their test scores. Research from studies suggest that when students are in a classroom with others of high ability, all students profit. Higher Education: In 1910, fewer than 3% of men and women over the age of 25 had a college degree. By 2012, this number jumped to 19.4%. According to functionalists, the rise of education boils down to supply and demand. According to the theorists of conflict perspective, the dramatic increase in college may be traced to Amerthan views on education and the expansion of the school system in the 20 century. Conflict perspective also provides and explanation for the rise of credentialism, which is an overemphasis on credentials for signaling social status or qualifications for a job. According to College Board, the SAT is a vital part of the admissions process because it helps predict a student’s potential for college success above and beyond typical matters, such as high school GPA and class rank. Oppostitions to standardized tests: 1) The SAT doesn’t predict college outcomes above and beyond high school grades and class rank 2) The SAT accurately predicts the college outcomes only for white students 3) How meritocratic is the SAT actually is 4) Most of the predictive power of the SAT stems from the correlation between the test and family background Negative stereotypes of minority groups play an important role in explaining at least some of the differences in test scores, which is called a stereotype threat (a particular form of test anxiety). Affirmative action is a set of policies that grant preferential treatment to a number of particular subgroups within the population – typically, women and historically disadvantaged racial minorities. Myths of affirmative action: 1) It is the only form of preferential treatment 2) Takes away the opportunities from deserving white kids 3) That African American and Hispanic students who gain entrance to selective schools through affirmative action are unprepared and will flounder in the competitive environment In Shape of the River, William Bowen and Derek Bok demonstrate that minority students admitted with lower SAT scores than their counterparts perform equally well in some aspects, but not so well with income. In The Game of Life: College Sports and Educational Values, James Shulman and William Bowen tell us that student athletes are admitted with the lowest average SAT scores of all groups and perform worse. IQ Tests aren’t reliable because: 1) It measures only one type of intelligence 2) They are culturally biased toward those with white, middle-class knowledge 3) They don’t measure innate (genetically determined) intelligence Minority and lower class students are disproportionately placed in low tracks, are subject to less favorable teacher expectations, and consistently score lower on the SAT. Ways background characteristics affect educational outcomes: 1) Class – socializes students into different achievement profiles and distinct schooling trajectories 2) Cultural capital – symbolic and interactional resources that people use to their advantage in various situations Social class or socioeconomic status is an individual’s position in a stratified social order; combination of parental educational attainment, parental occupational status, family income, and family wealth. According to Annette Lareau, working class parents more often believe that educational responsibility falls solely on teachers, and thus they may not be involved. Bill Cosby is fighting against black underachievement in the American school system. In 2010, 84.2% of blacks ages 25 and over had a high school diploma, compared to 87.6% of whites. Only 19.8% of blacks over the age of 25 had a college degree, compared to 30.3% of whites. In 2009, 25.8% of blacks lived below the poverty line, compared to 12.3% of whites. In the same year, 35.3% of blacks under 18 lived below the poverty line, compared to 17% of whites. Underporformance of African Americans can be caused by: 1) Not wanting to be portrayed as “acting white” 2) Negative stereotypes 3) Racial differences are genetic Stereotype threat occurs when members of a negatively stereotyped group are placed in a situation where they fear they may confirm those stereotypes. Arthur Jenson claimed that the differences in IQ tests between blacks and whites likely resulted from genetic differences between groups. In The Bell Curve, Herrnstein and Murray claimed genes are the biggest influence. Asians find themselves succeeding more due to: extremely close ties exist between adults and they support each other’s parenting rules. Girls are now surpassing boys in their educational outcomes. Inequality starts in the home. Parents may not recognize the delicate balance that exists between the number of children they have, their spacing, and their gender composition. Yet all three impact educational achievement. The resource dilution model is a hypothesis stating that parental resources are finite and that each additional child dilutes them. The middle child is the one who suffers from less parental monetary investment and runs a greater risk of being held back a grade – particulary boys. Studies have studied the affect of birth weight on educational attainment. Low birth weight decreases opportunities. CAPITALISM AND THE ECONOMY Capitalism is an economic system in which property and goods are primarily owned privately; investments are determined by private decisions; and prices, production, and the distribution of goods are determined primarily by competition in an unfettered marketplace. Early stages of capitalism between 15 and 19 centuries. Before capitalism, the dominant economic system was feudalism. Feudalism is an precapitalist ecnonomic system characterized by the presence of lords, vassals, serfs, and fiefs. 1) Lords – nobleman who owned land 2) Vassal – was granted the land (fief) by a lord, provided military protection to the lord 3) Serfs – bound to the land and required to give the lord a portion of their production in turn for protection Commons are open fields that existed for the public good. The evolution of capitalism is heavily influenced by the development of technology. According to Marxists, the history of social relations is a history of humankind’s struggle to control and dominate nature through the use of technology. The technological conditions of a given epoch, in turn, determine our mode of social relationships. The “enclosure movement”, the lords often bounded the commons with hedges. Because this was land that had been publicly available for grazing and planting, the enclosures led to the eviction of many people working the land. They then migrated to cities to find work. This would eventually lead to the rise of both the city and the wage system. This is the groundwork being laid for industrial capitalism. The agricultural revolution was a period around 1700 marked by the introduction of new farming technologies that increased food output in farm production. Spice routes led to new methods of preservation of meat. The enclosure movement, more people, and technological improvements led to the displacement of more and more peasants from agricultural labor. th th In the end of the 18 and beginning of the 19 centuries, an economy once dominated by small scale artisan labor transitioned into one dominated by manufacturing, machinery, and unskilled factory work. Major innovations of the industrial revolution: 1) Power loom 2) Steam engine With the rise of large scale factory production, the influx of peasants to urban areas to find work, and the rise of a system of wage labor, along came monetization, the establishment of a legal currency. This led to the formation of social institutions and organizations, such as corporations. A corporation is a legal entity unto itself that has a legal personhood distinct from that of its members, namely, its owners and shareholders. In the US, corporations are legally recognized persons and share many of the rights of an individual. Limited liability is a form of ownership that creates a division between the individual and the business entity. Theorizing the Transition: Capitalism’s greatest advocate was Adam Smith, the father of liberal economics. In Wealth of the Nations, Smith wondered how societies, groups of individuals pursuing their own self interests, manage to stay intact and not fall into the chaos of civil strife. He determined that individuals self interest in an environment of others acting similarly will lead to situation of competition, as long as basic laws and contracts are honored. Competition is where rules constraining the game are followed. Conflict is where no holds are barred. “Cash nexus” is monetization, as dubbed by Thomas Carlyle. According to Smith, the barter system was often unefficient and unwieldy. Positives of using money: 1) Only requires two people 2) Money allows us to get back change 3) Money can store value Georg Simmel also took a positive view of capitalism. Unlike Smith, however, he didn’t view money as an agent of social change. He saw the development of monetary payment systems as part of a historical evolution, a depersonalization of exchange. Systems: 1) Payment per unit 2) Wage labor 3) Salary 4) Honorarium An honorarium is seen as distinct from the product itself; providing a service independent of the money. Simmel argues that it is through these increasingly depersonalized forms of monetary payment that capitalism makes true friendship. Simmel argues that in precapitalist times people mixed business with pleasure. In modern capitalist society, there is a strong norm against mixing business with pleasure. Simmel argues that it is only by maintaining a monetized, economic public sphere that we can enjoy a private sphere that truly is private, where we actively exclude market and monetary relations in order to experience pure sociability. Carl Marx: 1) Considered capitalism both fundamentally flawed and inevitably doomed 2) Saw alienation – a condition in which people are dominated by forces of their own creation that then confront them as alien powers; according to Marx, the basic state of being in a capitalist society 3) Saw alienation as taking four forms under capitalist production: alienation from the product, the process, other people, and one’s self 4) Believed that the working class would rise against the employing (capitalist) class, and would eventually usher in a new mode of production termed socialism, followed swiftly by communism Alienation from: 1) The product – they do not know it or have complete knowledge of what they are producing 2) The process – they do not control the process at all, it controls them 3) Other people – because capitalism turns all relations into market relations; our relationships with others becomes conditioned by the ethic of capitalism: profit maximization 4) Ourselves – capitalism stifles our natural creativity Socialism is an economic system in which most or all the needs of the population are met through nonmarket methods of distribution. Communism is a political ideology of a classless society in which the means of production are shared through state ownership and in which rewards are tied not to productivity but to need. Max Weber: 1) Believed that not just technology but also ideas in and of themselves generate social change 2) Claimed that capitalism wouldn’t have arisen if it weren’t for the Protestant Reformation, which according to Weber, created the necessarily social conditions for capitalism by promoting theological insecurity and instilling a doctrine of predestination (the notion that only the elect will go to heaven). 3) Modern industry and its associated bureaucracy and rationality create an “iron cage” from which we cannot escape America is dominated by services, rather than goods. The better one does, the greater the pressure one feels to work, because although higher earnings can theoretically be used to purchase leisure in what’s called the income effect by economists, the same higher wages mean that the opportunity cost of not working, the amount of earnings she is missing out on if she declines work opportunities has also risen (creating what economists call the substitution effect). Causal workers are those not employed full time but working on a contract to contract or freelance basis. Henry Ford waved the banner of family wage, which is a wage paid to male workers sufficient to support a dependent wife and children. The sociological analysis of the family wage reveals the ways work and family are connected by gender inequality, both in the workplace and at home. Married men in the “sociology department” would drop by unnanouced and check on workers’ private lives. Ford insisted that those who received the family wage had to live in the “right” kind of families. Feminist socialists charge that the family wage is a patriarchal bargain. Alice Kessler-Harris shows that a worker’s wage reveals the social value we put on his or her worth. When economists and politicians did consider single working women, they maintained that a women’s wage need meet only the barest of necessities, lest women turn away from the morality of family life. The different wages for men and women reflected deeply entrenched attitudes about gender and work that became self confirming myths and enforced women’s dependence. At the most basic level, the unfair family wage: 1) Pushed heavy incentives on women to marry in order to survive economically 2) Impelled women to stay married Barbara Risman argues that marriage is one of the linchpins of inequality in American society. Heidi Hartmann argued that men still have a vested interest in maintaining their privileged position as exclusive living wage earners. They have a material advantage over women, they benefit from women’s unpaid domestic labor in the home, and their advantage further gives them a superior sense of self. Nancy Folbre argued that not just men but also employers and capitalist owners stand to gain from women’s weaker position in the labor market. Women could be used as a flexible reserve army to keep the peace among white male workers. That is, by dangling the threat of cheaper women employees before male workers, employers were better able to break strikes, defy unionization, and assert control over labor. Women are not “unorganizable.” By 2005, 43% of unionized work force consisted of women. Few families can afford a full time stay at home mom. Dual-income families are the majority. Workplace organization has failed to keep up and typical American parents have less disposable income now than they did in the 1960s, when a sole breadwinner could comfortably support a family of four. Americans work longer hours than the citizens of most industrialized nations. Juliet Schor reported in The Overworked American, Americans have added an extra 164 hours to his or her work year. For such long hours, Americans receive little vacation compared with workers in other countries. Around the globe, 127 countries guarantee some form of paid leave for parents. The US is not among them. In 1993, Bill Clinton signed the much celebrated Family and Medical Leave Act, giving American workers the right to 12 weeks of leave to care for a newborn baby or attend a family emergency. However, the leave is not necessarily paid, and it applies only to half of the nation who work for a company of more than 50 employees. It also doesn’t apply to part-timers. In The Time Binds: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work, Arlie Hochschild finds that people’s lives increasingly center on the world of work, and as a result, families are suffering. She studied “Amerco”, a Midwestern corporation that offered generous pro-family policies, such as part time hours and flexplace. But despite the environment, Hochschild found that most workers ended up working longer hours during the course of their employment. Working parents don’t take advantage of family-friendly corporate policies because they prefer to avoid their homes and families. The workplace has become a haven from the chaos and the emotional and physical disarray of the second shift at home. Hochschild suggests a reversal of the sacred and profane, in which home has fallen from grace, with its members seeking relief and refuge at the workplace. In The Time Divide: Work, Family, and Gender Inequality, Jerry Jacobs and Kathleen Gerson argue that workers do not take advantage of family friendly policies for a number of reasons: they are afraid to lose their jobs. Studies show that working mothers are happier than housewives. Women today share what Judith Stacey calls “post-feminist expectations” for family and work. While the demands of work impinge on life at home, the growing cost of America’s middle-class lifestyle means that many families feel they have no choice but to send both parents into full time workforce. Elizabeth Warren suggests that it isn’t American’s greedy consumer spending habits that are putting them in a financial bind but rather that they are pinched by the cost of safe housing in good school districts combined with the high cost of health care and destabilizing career paths. In the past few years the personal bankruptcy rate in America has been higher than ever. Approximately one in ten families now find no other way out of their financial quagmires. Changing gender roles and work-family tensions are two important features of the current version of capitalism, but they aren’t the only ones. The service sector, or the section of the economy that involves providing intangible services, has grown rapidly over the past 30 years. The services range from restaurant work, to health-care provision, to higher education, to legal or financial advice, to computer tech support, to deep tissue massages. Globalization is the multidimensional set of social processes that create, multiply, stretch, and intensify worldwide social exchanges and interdependencies. For capitalism, it means an increase in trade and economic exchanges among individuals, corporations, and states in different areas of the globe. There are four recent phenomena that make the current period of globalization novel: new markets, new means of exchange, new players, and new rules. New markets can include financial markets where anyone with the proper equipment can participate. New means of exchange allow for almost instantaneous transactions. The new players are all transnational, which makes them unique to this epoch of globalization. Fourth, new rules are at play. There has been a proliferation of multilateral trade agreements (NAFTA & CAFTA). Multilateral means they don’t result from the negotiations between two nation-states, but rather are the end result of negotiations among multiple players, and thus enforce rights, impose sanctions, or encourage business at a regional or worldwide level. Globalization has exposed the global divide. The unbalanced distribution is often referred to as a champagne-glass distribution of inequality. Reports show .5 percent of the global adults hold more than a third of the world’s wealth whereas the majority 68.4 percent have 4.2 percent of the wealth. Nitsan Chorev, in her book Remaking US Trade Policy: From Protectionism to Globalization. Corporations are the institutions that structure economic life in every corner of the planet displacing the roles of powerful former ruling institutions such as monarchies, religions, and perhaps even governments. Legal scholars call it a juristic person because it has all the formalized rights, duties, and responsibilities of a person. A corporation is a body of people that has authority to act as an individual. In 1886, the US Supreme Court found that the 14 amendment intended to protect the rights of freed slaves, also granted corporations the legal status of persons, thus establishing a distinction between corporations and their owners. Corporations are vilified for their greed, injustices, and callous ecological devastation. Milton Friedman remarked in his article “There is only one social responsibility of business – to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game. In Weber’s theory, bureaucracies flourish because of their efficiency and rational means to achieve profit driven ends. But there’s a cost that comes with the increased power of the specialized bureaucracy: People become alienated from any sense of right and wrong and from a human connection, what Weber called the “parceling out of the soul”. Monopoly is the form of business that occurs when one seller of a good or service dominates the market to the exclusion of others, potentially leading to zero competition. An oligopoly is the condition when a handful of firms effectively control a particular market. Corporations can shut out their competitors in a couple ways: 1) Microsoft way – continually upgrading with new standards that force all computer users to adopt its software to obtain certain computer services. 2) Government back door – some companies use political arbitrage (the use of insider political knowledge to earn profits), and some hire political officials so they can influence government decisions on spending and policy in its own favor. One publicly unfavorable way of reducing labor costs is offshoring, which is a business decision to move all or part of a company’s operations abroad to minimize costs. When a group of workers gets together for collective bargaining, they form a union (an organization of workers designed to facilitate collective bargaining with employers), which makes them better able to promote and protect their collective interests than each worker would be alone. When a company assaults its worker’s union, for example, refusing to negotiate or renew a union contract in the hope of breaking it up, it is called union busting. Unionization in America is protected under freedom of association, a right that is generally considered implicit in the First Amendment and was recognized as a human right by the Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention in 1949. Unionization has been on the decline in the United States since the 1950s, with 6.9% today. Many believe that unions are outdated, corrupt, and a drag on business. Some complain that government is inefficient, hinting that the high rate of public-sector unionization (36.8%) may be the blame. Workers have taken a toll in the form of increasing income inequality and decreasing health and pension benefits; worker’s wages have also failed to continue rising as they did during the postwar glory years. Unions hurt productivity because they impose workers rules that obstruct the free market, thereby making workers less efficient. Workers claim that the biggest disadvantage of having a union was worse relations between employees and management. AUTHORITY AND THE STATE Political sociology studies politics, which are the power relations among people or other social actors, be it at a governmental level or an interpersonal level or any level in between. Authority is the justifiable right, not just the ability, to exercise power. To classify the kinds of legitimate authority or domination, Max Weber used three accounts of a ruler’s “superiority and fitness to rule”. These claims are sometimes referred to as “claims of legitimacy”, or the legitimation of authority and domination. The first type of authority, charismatic authority, rests on the personal appeal of an individual leader. Charisma means having specific qualities that inspire loyalty and obedience in others. In Freakanomics, Steven Levitt and Stephen Dubner verify Weber’s intuitions about charisma with numbers, finding that no amount of money will help a candidate win if the electorate doesn’t like him or her. Weber anticipated that this form of legitimate authority would be particularly difficult to maintain or pass on. Traditional authority, as the name implies, rests on appeals to the past or traditions. Rule based on traditional authority dominates “by virtue of age-old rules and power” and leaders are “designated according to traditional rules and are obeyed because of their traditional status. EX – hereditary monarchies and customs/ceremonies in the torah. Unlike charismatic authority, traditional authority does not suffer from succession. But traditional authority is not very adaptable. Legal-rational authority – the brand of authority that is supposedly most pervasive in modern society – is based on legal, impersonal rules; the rules rule. Formal roles and rules overshadow the personal attributes of individuals and traditional ways of doing things. EX – abiding by the law Legal-rational authority is highly routinized, based on a standard, regular procedure. In the context of authority, routinization refers to the clear, rule- governed procedures used repeatedly for decision-making. Legal authority is also highly rationalized or subject to ever-expanding modes or organization. Legal authority is also attached to roles, not individuals. A bureaucracy is a legal-rational organization or mode of administration that governs with reference to formal rules and roles and emphasizes meritocracy. For example, Cheryl Horsfall was technically murdered by a state bureaucracy. Characteristics of Bureaucracies: 1) Hierarchal structure – the bureaucratic organization has many levels, and there are frequently multiple people working at each level of administration 2) Highly specialized positions – each worker has small and related set of specific functions 3) Impersonality – the person working in a bureaucracy is detached from the role he or she plays 4) Meritocracy 5) Highly efficient – the application of practical, specialized knowledge to specific goals is a trademark of bureaucratic administration Specialization is the process of making work consist of specific, delimited tasks. Taylorism or scientific management is an example of the specialization or division of labor, referring to the methods of labor management introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor to streamline the processes of mass production in which each worker repeatedly performs one specific task. A bureaucracy is a meritocracy, which is a society that assigns social status, power, and economic rewards on achievement, not ascribed, personal attributes or favoritism. Weber said that bureaucracy was the “iron cage” of modern life. He criticized bureaucratic administration and its effects on individuals and modern society. He complained about specialization, hierarchy, and meritocracy. In 1961, Stanley Milgram devised a test, the Milgram Experiment, to see how far ordinary people would go to obey an authority figure. Authority is key to our understanding of statehood. According to Weber’s Economy and Society, a social actor has power if he or she is able to “carry out his own will despite resistance”. Domination is a “special case of power”. Weber defines it as the “probability that a command with a given specific content will be obeyed by a given group of persons.” Two types of domination: 1) Domination by economic power - oil refining 2) Domination by authority – the will of the ruler influences the conduct of the ruled According to Weber, a state is “a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory”. Coercion is the use of force to get others to do what you want them to do. The paradox of authority states that although the state’s authority derives from the implicit threat of physical coercion strips the state of all legitimate authority. Relations among European states lead to the development of the international state system, which is a system in which each state is recognized as territorially sovereign by fellow states. Each state tacitly agrees to mind its own business when it comes to the internal affairs of other sovereign countries as long as borders are respected. This is the principle of noninterference. John Maynard Keynes postulated that government intervention in the form of social expenditures could pull the economy out of a recession by stimulating demand for products and services. Starting with the postwar years, it is more accurate to think of states as “organizations that extract resources through taxation and attempt to extend coercive control and political authority over particular territories and the people residing in them”. A welfare state is a system in which the state is responsible for the well-being of its citizens. In practice, this usually entail providing a number of key necessities, such as food, health care, and housing, outside the economic marketplace. One theory, the logic of industrialism thesis, holds that nations develop social welfare benefits to satisfy the social needs created by industrialization. In this view, the state intervenes to take care of people who are not needed in the labor market: children, people with disabilities, and the elderly. Simply, “economic growth is the ultimate cause of welfare state development”. Another view of the development of the welfare state, called the neo-Marxist theory, starts with the question of how democracy and capitalism can coexist. This theory is concerned with explaining the contradictions between formal legal equality and social class inequality. In this manner, the welfare state is seen as the mediator of class conflict. Third, state-centered approaches emphasize the role of state bureaucracies in formulating welfare state policies. Statist theories tie the development of the welfare state not to economic or political factors but to government bureaucrats who design policies based on perceived social conditions because bringing home the pork enhances their power in society. Two prominent exponents of state-centered approach – Theda Skocpol and Edwin Amenta. They argued that the state may act autonomously to formulate social policy – meaning that state bureaucrats are solely or primarily responsible for creating or modifying social policy. Citizenship rights are the rights guaranteed to each law abiding citizen in a nation-state. Sociologist T.H Marshall has defined three broad types of citizenship rights: civil rights, political rights, and social rights. Civil rights are the rights guaranteeing a citizen’s personal freedom from interference, including freedom of speech and the right to travel freely. Political rights are the rights guaranteeing a citizen’s ability to participate in politics, including the right to vote and the right to hold an elected office. Social rights are the rights guaranteeing a citizen’s protection by the state, including “protection from the free market in the areas of housing, employment, health, and education.” Social rights to public assistance may be of two broad types: 1) The right to contributory programs – Social Security; “citizens earn their rights through tax contributions” 2) The rights to means-tested programs – Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) and food stamps; contingent on proof of insufficient financial resources Steven Lukes describes power as 3D. The first dimension of power is visible when different agendas clash, conflict results, and one side prevails. The second dimension of power occurs when the power is so formidable that no conflict results from competing interests because one side is convinced it’s a losing battle. The third dimension is that it is the power not only to persevere despite overt or veiled resistance but to “prevent such conflict from arising in the first place by influencing, shaping, or determining desires, wants and preferences”. One way to yield invisible power is by shaping the choice set. One reason that our choices are constrained is that it is impossible to decide among all alternatives at any given time. The economist Kenneth Arrow won the Nobel Prize for proving this “impossibility theorem,” which states that there is no system of voting that will consistently yield the top choice of the most voters when there are more than two alternatives. John Gaventa (Power and Powerlessness) describes his investigation of the synergistic effects of power’s three dimensions on the lives of coal miners in the Clear Fork Valley in Appalachia. Hard power is the use of military or economic force to influence behavior in international politics. Joseph Nye has proposed that the exclusive use of hard power in international politics is out of date. Nye is a proponent of “soft power”, which is power attained through the use of cultural attractiveness rather than the threat of coercive action (hard power). In Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes suggests that in the absence of an agreed-upon authority figure (a state), life would be hideously chaotic and violent. According to Hobbes, we need a strong, central authority in order to live in peace and harmony with our neighbors. In Second Treatise of Government, John Locke says that before the emergence of a sovereign authority, individuals lived in a happy, conflict free state of nature as equals. Locke believed that the sovereign state emerged because individuals needed help adjudicating discord, in particular, conflicts over personal property. According to Locke, the state of nature is primarily peaceful, as natural law regulates interpersonal relations without the interference of a cumbersome sovereign authority. A democracy is a system of government wherein power theoretically lies with the people; citizens are allowed to vote in elections, speak freely, and participate as legal equals in social life. A dictatorship is a form of government that restricts the right to political participation to a small group or even to a single individual. Weber believed that these two are merely different breeds of the same animal. Barrington Moore’s Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy, sets out to answer the question by investigating the history of several nations. He hypothesized that the fate of each nation is determined by the struggle between social classes. He believes that the emergence of modern capitalism is important to the development of political democracy. Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson’s The Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy, they produce an answer using game theory, which is the study of strategic decisions under conditions of uncertainty and interdependence. To play the democratization game and make coherent demands of the elite, ordinary people must first overcome a collective action problem, which is a theory by Mancur Olson in The Logic of Collective Action, asserts that the difficulty in organizing large groups because of the tendency of some individuals to freeload or slack off. Robert Michels concluded that even if they win the game and secure democratic governance, all organizations, no matter how democratic in principle, face coordination problems. In large and complex organizations, the power structure will inevitable begin to resemble an oligarchy, which is a form of government in which power lies within a small group of leaders. Michel calls this inevitablility “the iron law of oligarchy”. In the United States, we have three branches. The executive branch is led by the president, who is also the head of state (meaning the official representative of government to other states). The legislative branch is composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate, which together make up the US Congress. The US Supreme Court and lower federal courts are the judicial branch. Elected officials select members of the judicial branch; the president and all senators and representatives are chosen in regularly held elections. A political party is an organization that seeks to gain power in a government, generally by backing candidates for office who subscribe (to the extent possible) to the organization’s political ideas. Generally, the democrats seek a secular government with a relatively high level of economic and social intervention, and the republicans seek a smaller, laissez-faire government and the upholding of religious ideals through state regulation of morality. An interest group is an organization that seeks to gain power in government and influence policy without direct election or appointment to office. EX – trade unions, corporations, and single-issue groups The US has a voting rate of only around 60% in presidential elections and much lower in nonpresidential elections. Most people who don’t vote are prohibited to voting. Political participation is any activity that has the intent or effect of influencing government action. The civic voluntarism model points to three components to explain political participation: political orientation, resources, and mobilization efforts. Political orientation is the strength of an individual’s political commitments. Resources include money to donate to parties or causes as well as civic skills such as leadership, communications, and organizational abilities that “make it easier to get involved and enhance an individuals effectiveness as a participant. Mobilization efforts by political parties or nonpartisan groups can boost political participation. These include mass mailings, phone calls, or door to door canvassing to encourage eligible citizens to vote or get involved in some other meaningful way. The civic voluntarism model suggests that individuals have certain preexisting attributes that predispose them to participation or nonparticipation. RELIGION Nearly 10% of the population is atheist or agnostic, but church membership is growing, especially at evangelical megachurches with congregations of 10,000 or more. In America, the mingling of patriotism and piety takes on the form of what is called civil religion, which is a set of sacred beliefs so commonly accepted by most people that it becomes part of their national culture. Americans are more religious than any other industrialized nation in the world. The universal presence of religion can be found not just in politics but also in other social institutions such as family, race and gender relations, and social movements. Peter Berger noted that this is a dialectic relationship, one balanced by the opposition of religious doctrine on the one hand and the realities of the physical and social world on the other. Religion is a system of beliefs, traditions and practices around sacred things, a set of shared “stories” that guide belief and action. The sacred realm refers to holy things that are put to special use for the worship of gods or supreme beings, things kept separate from the profane or everyday realm. The sacred realm is unknowable and mystical, so it inspires awe and wonder. Profane is the things of mundane, everyday life. Religion takes three major forms: 1) Theism – the worship of a god or gods, as in Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism 2) Ethicalism – the adherence to certain principles to lead a moral life, as in Buddhism and Taoism 3) Animism – the belief that spirits roam the natural world, as in totemism Christianity is the most prevalent world religion: 33% Christian, approx.. 2.1 billion. The largest groups are Catholics (17.3%), protestants (5.8%), and eastern orthodox (3.4). Christianity is split among denominations, which are big groups of congregations that share the same faith and are governed under one administrative umbrella. Congregations are groups of people who gather together, especially for worship. Muslims follow Islam, the second largest religion with 22.5%, approx.. 1.5 billion. It focuses on the Qur’an and Allah as revealed to Muhammad in the 7 th century. The population of Muslims has grown to around 6 million. Sunni muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. They believe in the four caliphs. Shiites believe in Ali as the successor. Secularism is the general movement away from religiosity and spiritual belief toward a rational, scientific orientation, a trend adopted by industrialized nations in the form of separation of church and state. Hindus make up the next largest group, 13.6%. It is a type of polytheism. They believe in reincarnation, a cycle which ends in salvation only by following the rules of caste, decency, and prayer. They believe in karma (“act”). Buddhism is the most prevalent form of ethicalism, in which moral principles are the sacred sources of belief. They make up about 7%. They believe in karma. They also believe in “four noble truths”: all existence is suffering, suffering is caused by desire, nirvana can be achieved by giving up cravings, and this is achieved by the Noble Eightfold Path of right living. Judaism is the 11 largest religion (.22 percent/14 million). It is not monolithic, meaning that it doesn’t have just one form (like Christianity and Islam). The major denominations are orthodox, conservative (masorti), and reform. They have the Torah. About 12% of the world’s population is nonreligious or atheist. Makes up the third largest religious category. They hold beliefs such as agnosticism, the belief that theological claims are not provable. Humanists embrace a type of ethical philosophy that puts faith in humanity’s own rules of right and wrong. Karl Marx used a conflict theoretical approach, the basis of his social theory called dialectic materialism, which is the struggle between contradictory, interacting forces that eventually results not in victory for one of the forces, but in the creation of a third force that replaces the two opposing forces. He believed a major force of change was conflict. In Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, Marx remarked that religion is the “opiate of the masses”. He believed that religion was a means of stratification. Religious convictions hold sway over people with promises of happiness in the afterlife, keeping them duped into remaining exploited workers in factory jobs. Marx agreed with “man makes religion, religion doesn’t make the man.” Marx’s conflict theory links: inequality and faith Marx saw religion as part of an ideology stemming from class interests. Max Weber emphasized Verstehen, which gives credence to the power of ideas. Ideas are so powerful. Weber begins with the observation that different regions of Europe that counted proportions of protestants had corresponding rates of capitalist activity. In Franklin’s new philosophy, Weber identified the “spirit of capitalism” – you work very hard, but you cannot enjoy the fruits of your labor. Weber believed that Protestantism was a necessary condition for the emergence of capitalism. Daniel Charot argues that Protestantism was not the only or most important driving force behind the spread of capitalism. Emile Durkheim’s functionalist approach finds both purpose and power in religious belief. He argued that sociologists must treat every religion as real and find what commonalities they share. He also argued that our categories of thought are created from religion. He believed that the “skeleton of thought” is something that every human should possess in order to function in the world as a product of religious thought. He thought religion was a “eminently social thing”. For Durkheim, scared things acquire power because their owners have invested them with it. He argued that religion perpetuates social unity or solidarity by strengthening the collective conscience. Religious participation affects crimes. There is also evidence of social solidarity on individuals well being. Peter Berger considered secularization the result of a larger sociostructural crisis in religion caused by pluralism, which is the presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society. Pluralism threatened to tear apart the sacred canopy, which is a term by Peter Berger used to describe the entire set of religious norms, symbols, and beliefs that express the most important thing in life, namely, the feeling that life is worth living and that reality is meaningful and ordered, not just random chaos. The US is highly religious and pluralistic. Two-thirds believe in God, 2.2% do not. 77% believe in heaven, 63% in hell, and 58% in the devil. About 1/3 believe the bible is the word of God. More than 280 denominations and 300,000 congregations exist. Protestants outnumber Catholics, although it has shrunk from 80% to 51.3%. 26.3% of the US are white evangelicals. Evangelicals are members of any denomination distinguished by four main beliefs: the bible is without error, salvation comes from jesus, personal conversion is the only path to salvation, and others must also be converted. They proselytize by engaging with wider society. Fundamentalists also follow the bible as literal text but do not necessarily try to spread the gospel to the extent of evangelicals. Conservative protestant is often used to refer to both of these groups, as well as Pentecostals, a nonmainstream group that believes in otherworldly phenomena such as speaking in tongues. Identification with a religious denomination is currently high in America, religious participation has increased. 40% of Americans report going to service every week. – social desirability bias. Service attendance has been declining from 40% to now at 25% Religious experience, as the psychologist William James defined it, involves “feelings, acts, and experiences of individual men in their solitude, so far they apprehend themselves to stand in relation to whatever they may consider the divine.” Nancy Ammerman says the job of sociologists is to better understand the meaning and uses of religion in peoples lives. Kelly Besecke found that people practice reflexive spirituality – they look to religion for meaning, wisdom, and profound thought and feeling rather than for absolute truths about how the world works. Two elements, public confession and national sin, converged into what Michael Young calls “confessional protest”. Conservative protestants are more likely than catholics to embrace corporal punishment and hierarchal and authoritarian relationships between parents and children, but they also yell less frequently at their kids and give them more affection than other parents. Domestic violence are no different in religious communities than secular ones. Evangelical protestants embrace a patriarchal family structure. Churchgoing evangelical married men have the lowest number of domestic abuse, whereas nonchurchgoing evangelical married men have highest rates of domestic violence. Only 8% of churches are racially mixed. Catholic churches are more likely to be mixed. Only 2 to 3% of protestant churches are racially mixed. The church has played a more secular role in the black congregations than the white. This resulted from three conditions: 1) They share a legacy of racial discrimination, violence, and injustice. 2) No other secular institution has never organized and helped the black community as much as the church 3) The black community has substantial social needs that necessitate an effective social helping hand Women are more active in religious organizations than men. Hindus, Jews, and Buddhists, along with athiests and agnostics tend to be the most highly educated, while evangelical protestants and black churches are less educated. While people with more education tend to have less attachment, higher education spurs increased participation in religious organizations. Associational involvement (Lenski) refers to the frequency of church attendance whereas communal involvement refers to how much of your primary group interactions are restricted to followers of your own faith. Lenski argues that the pull of the congregation is much stronger and more influential on behavior and attitudes and outlook than the associated pull of the church. A megachurch is a typically conservative protestant church that attracts at least 2,000 worshippers per week. The average income is 4.6 million. Supernatural compensators are promises of future awards, such as salvation or eternity in heaven. Competition makes all religions shape up and maintain high quality in order to attract consumers. Therefore, pluralism results in high levels of religiosity. Lessons from religious entrepreneurship: 1) If you can’t beat em, join em – they have stripped away traditional dogma and added interesting things 2) Bigger is better – megachurches 3) Speed pleases- several quick services in one day 4) Sex sells – The Biblezine (a magazine bible) Most megachurches are in the American Sunbelt. 54% are nondenominational. They stress family values above religious traditions and are known for being flexible and creative. In The Social Sources of Denominationalism, H. Richard Niebuhr set out to explain why so many religious groupings exist under one faith. Churches are religious bodies that coexist in a relatively low state of tension with their social surroundings. They have mainstream or “safe” beliefs and practices relative to those of the general population. Sects or sectarian groups are high-tension organizations that don’t fit so well within the existing social environment. They are usually most attractive to society’s least privileged – outcasts, minorities, or the poor – because they downplay worldly pleasure by stressing otherworldly promises. A cult is a religious movement that makes some new claim about the supernatural and therefore does not as easily fit within the sect-church cycle. Traditionalists and centrists each account for 40 to 50% of evangelicals; modernists make up the remaining minority. Emerging or postmodern churches, also called “alt-worship” have tapped into a generation of religious dropouts, those with little or no formal attachment to the church. 1) Traditionalists – very orthodox beliefs, little adaptation to modern times 2) Centrists – conservative beliefs, more mainstream political stance 3) Modernists – less strict adherence to orthodoxy, more diverse beliefs and practices Dean Kelley (“strict church thesis”) claimed that conservative sects were outpacing mainline churches because of their strictness. The stronger the community, the better it works. Intelligent design posits that biological life is too complex to have happened randomly, so it could only be the work of a higher being. The idea has its roots in creationism, the beliefs that humans and the universe were created by a supreme being. In 1987, it was ruled unconstitutional. SCIENCE, THE ENVIRONMENT, AND SOCIETY Sociologists of science look at the interactions between science and society. Normative science is the idea that science follows objective rules of evidence and is unaffected by the personal beliefs or values of scientists. In practice, social factors like funding, government policies, interest groups, and international pressure or competition can affect choices about what scientific research is pursued. Sociologists of science look at the interactions between science and society. A paradigm is the framework within which scientists operate. There are particular paradigms for particular branches of scientific research. Thomas Kuhn theorized that scientific revolutions, also called paradigm shifts, occur when enough anomalies accrue during the practice of normal science to challenge the existing paradigm. Boundary work refers to research conducted on the border between legitimate and non legitimate science, either within a specific scientific discipline or between disciplines. The Matthew effect, coined by Robert Merton, refers to the notion that certain scientific results get more notice and have more influence based on the existing prestige of the researchers involved. The majority of scientists agree that the roots of global warming can be linked to human activity such as deforestation and the burning of coal, gas, and oil. At the same time, global warming is predicted to have a strong impact on human society, primarily through devastating natural disasters such as prolonged heat waves, more and bigger hurricanes, and debilitating droughts. The term organic is often used as a catch all for foods that are seemingly healthy, "natural", or produced on a small scale. In the United States there are specific guidelines that have to be followed in order for food products to be labeled "organic" or "made with organic ingredients". The organic food market creates stratification in two ways: -organic farming is expensive. Many smaller farmers cannot afford to farm this way, so mega farms dominate the market and use their influence to change policies and guidelines to their advantage. -organic products are expensive, so high income individuals re much more likely to purchase them and reap their benefits than low income people Genetically modified foods, also referred to genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are products who genetic structures have been altered, usually to make them produce higher yields. GloFish are the first genetically modified organisms to be sold as pets. Proponents argue that GMOs help bring down food prices, reduce dependence on pesticides and herbicides, reduce waste, and even provide vitamin and mineral content that may be missing from a populations diet, all of which is particular significant for developing countries. Critics of GMOs argue that they create risks to the environment Green revolution refers broadly to two agricultural trends of the twentieth century: the introduction high yield crop varietals in developing countries and improvements The green revolution is widely credited with increasing agricultural productivity throughout the developing world, thus: -increasing incomes -increasing the value of formal schooling -making farming more of a community endeavor Critics of the green revolution argue that it makes farmers more dependent on a smaller number of crops. This can: -increase risks if crops fail -reduce variety in the diet -deplete the soil of nutrients -increase pressure of water resources The goal of the Human Genome Project was to identify and map all of the genes in human DNA. Researchers involved in the project recognized that it raise demand social, ethical, and legal issues, like privacy, stratification, and stigmatization. DNA testing is now marketed for a variety of purposes, one of which is to determine a persons racial origins: -however, there are still questions about the accuracy of the testing and how this information might be used. -DNA testing is not simply a straightforward scientific process but one that is closely intertwined with social factors. Reproductive cloning involves making a genetic copy of an existing person or organism. Research cloning involves making a genetic copy of cells that can be used for research purposes. Human cloning does have potential benefits, but it is fraught with legal, ethical, and moral questions. Normal accidents are those that occur inevitably though unpredictably due to the very complexity of modern technologies. A risk society is one in which technology distributes danger among all categories of the population. In a risk society, danger does not result from technological accidents alone. Techno poly is a form of social organization in which technology compels people to try to solve all problems using technical rather the moral criteria, even though technology is often the source of problems. Technological determinism is the belief that technology is the main factor shaping human society and history. Major forms of enviromental degredation: 1) Global warming 1) Industrial pollution 1) Destruction of biodiversity 1) -- The greenhouse effect is the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that allows more solar radiation to enter the atmosphere and less to escape. Acid rain is precipitation who's acidity destroys forests and the ecosystems of lakes. The ozone layer lies 5-25 miles above the earth’s surface. It is depleted by CFCs. Biodiversity refers to the enormous variety of plant and animal species inhabiting the earth. Sociologists of science look at the interactions between science and society. A paradigm is the framework within which scientists operate. There are particular paradigms for particular branches of scientific research. According to Thomas Kuhn, normal science is the science conducted within an existing paradigm. During the practice of n
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