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Exam 1 Study Guide

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by: Raianna Parker

Exam 1 Study Guide CJUS 3101-001

Raianna Parker
University of Memphis

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About this Document

This covers chapters 1 through 3, using information from the lecture, book, and PowerPoint slides. This is based off the key terms list Dr. DuPont uploaded.
Research methods
Study Guide
Criminal Justice, research methods
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"I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and Raianna delivered. Shoutout Raianna, I won't forget!"
Trace Roob

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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Raianna Parker on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJUS 3101-001 at University of Memphis taught by DuPont in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Research methods in Criminal Justice at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 02/04/16
CJUS 3130 Test One – Chapters 1­3:  Key Terms and Concepts Chapter One Preventing School Shootings  General public survey results vs. our class survey results (lecture notes) Survey on Youth Violence  Sources of violence  (lecture notes) Class – enhanced security 32% (highest) Public – monitoring students 28% (highest) Errors in Reasoning Overgeneralization – assuming what is observed is true for all cases Selective observation – looking only at things aligned with our beliefs/preferences Illogical Reasoning – prematurely jump to conclusions/argue using invalid assumptions Resistance to Change – reluctance to change beliefs in light of new information Ego­based commitments Excessive devotion to tradition Uncritical agreement with authority Purpose of Research Descriptive – describes a phenomenon’s frequency or qualities Exploratory (causal) – finds how people get along in a setting What are the meanings they give to their actions? What issues concern them? Uses qualitative methods Explanatory – identify causes and effects of social phenomena Predicts how one phenomenon changes in response to another Evaluation – determines the effects of social programs and other types of intervention Examples of Each Purpose Descriptive  Youth crime and violence studies Police reports and surveys Exploratory  Interviews about school shootings Explanatory Factors related to youth delinquency and violence Evaluation Violence prevention programs in schools Types of Research Methods Experimental Approach – used when efficacy of a program/policy is being evaluated Surveys – poplar method used by criminological researchers Participant observation – people observing things Secondary data analysis – reanalysis of already existing data  Comes from: official sources and government­sponsored agencies Content analysis – representations of the research topic in media forms are studied Crime mapping – popular method to recreate criminal behavior in a geographical space Quantitative Methods – numerical data Most used for exploratory, explanatory, descriptive, or evaluative research Qualitative Methods – written or spoken words Most used for exploratory and descriptive research Validity  Measurement – measures what we think it measures Generalizability – conclusions from our study hold true outside limited research setting Causal (Internal) – we are correct when we conclude “A” leads to/results in “B” Chapter Two Grounded Research – based on previous research done Unexpected patterns in research data Research Cycle – links between Theory and Data  Theory – ideas Data – observations  Deductive reasoning – general to specific Theory  Data Inductive reasoning – specific to general Data  Theory Variables – property that can vary Independent variable – 1  variable Dependent variable – 2md variable Constants – property that doesn’t vary If­then hypothesis Empirical generalization – summary of patterns of data Deductive reasoning Inductive reasoning 1. Theory 1. Data 2. Hypothesis 2. Descriptive research 3. Data 3. Empirical generalizations 4. Descriptive research 4. Theory 5. Empirical generalizations 5. Hypothesis 6. Theory 6. Data Direction of relationship (slides) Social disorganization – school/church closing Positive relationship Social disorganization gets worse  crime rates get worse Social disorganization increase  crime rates increase Negative relationship  Self­control = stronger, number of delinquent acts = fewer Self­control = higher, number of delinquent acts = lower  Research Cycle – Domestic Violence Example Minneapolis Domestic Violence study Theories  Rational Choice Deterrence theory – human beings responsive to the costs and benefits of their actions 1. General deterrence: People see crime results in an undesirable punishment for others 2. Specific deterrence: People who are punished chose not to commit other offenses to  avoid further punishment 3. Example: spouse who is an abuser, sees the punishment of the crime, and choses not to do it again Symbolic Interactions Labeling theory ­ human being is stigmatized as a deviant and then they act more deviant 1. Primary deviance: acts of individuals that cause public sanctions 2. Secondary deviance: deviance in response to public sanctions 3. Example: spouse who is abusive is label as an abuser; therefore, they become more  abusive Control Theory – human beings with a stake in the community decreases their likelihood  to commit crimes Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment replicated in Milwaukee (follow­up) Conclusion: people who were married and employed were deterred from repeat  offenses by arrest, however, those who were unmarried and unemployed were  more likely to commit repeat offenses Procedural/Social Justice Theory – people will comply with the law if they have been  treated fairly by authorities Replication site in Milwaukee Conclusion: people who were arrested were more likely to reoffend if the police treated  them unfairly Chapter Three Zimbardo Study on Prisoner/Guard Behavior Stanford University – 1973  College students randomly assigned to be prisoner or guards Sixth day: Zimbardo ended the experiment Milgram Study on Obedience to Authority Yale University – 1963  Prompted by Germany’s Nazi party enlisting ordinary citizens to commit horrible acts  against others Purpose: identify the ordinary citizens that would be obedient to authority figures’  instructions to inflict pain on others Nuremberg War Crimes – 1946  Horrific medical experiments conducted by Nazi doctors and others in the name of  “science” Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment – 1930s to 1972 Low­income African American men were injected with Syphilis  Data was collected to study the “natural” course of this disease Penicillin was developed in the 1950s, but the men were not informed National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral  Research  Belmont Report – three principles 1. Respect for persons a. Treating persons as autonomous agents and protecting those with  diminished autonomy 2. Beneficence a. Minimizing possible harms and maximizing benefits 3. Justice a. Distributing benefits and risks of research fairly Federal Policy of the Protection of Human Subjects – DEA and FDA created specific  regulations in 1991 Institutional Review Board (IRB) – reviews research proposals Review process of universities/other agencies guided by federal regulated ethical  standards  ACJS Code of Ethics – basic tenets a) Minimal risk of personal harm b) Full Disclosure c) Voluntary with informed consent d) Confidential, unless explicitly waived Informed Consent  a) Only competent participants can consent b) Voluntarily consent c) Fully informed about the research d) Comprehend what they have been told Confidentiality Privacy Certificate National Institute of Just Certificate of Confidentiality (federal) National Institutes of Health Philosophy of Research Positivism – objective reality exists apart from the perceptions of those who observe it Postpositivism – belief of an external, objective reality but the realization it is complex  and has limitations Guidelines 1. Test ideas against empirical reality without becoming too personally  invested in a particular outcome. 2. Plan and carry out investigations systematically. 3. Document all procedure and disclose them publicly. 4. Clarify assumptions. 5. Specify the meaning of all terms. 6. Maintain a skeptical stance toward current knowledge. 7. Replicate research and build social theory. 8. Search for regularities/patterns. Intersubjective Agreement – goal of science to agree about the nature of reality Interpretivism – reality is socially constructed Constructivism – stakeholders in a social setting construct beliefs Guidelines 1. Identify stakeholders and solicit their “claims, concerns, and issues.” 2. Introduce the claims, concerns, and issues of each stakeholder group  compared to the other stakeholders. 3. Focus further information collection on claims, concerns, and issues where there is disagreement. 4. Negotiate with stakeholder groups about the information collected and try  to reach a consensus.  Participation Social researchers are active participants in interpretivism or  constructivism, meaning they are involved in the setting studied 


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