PSY 120 Exam #2 Study Guide
PSY 120 Exam #2 Study Guide PSY 120
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathryn Chaffee on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 120 at Purdue University taught by Jill E Gulker in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
PSY 120 EXAM II STUDY GUIDE Chapter 5 Principles of behaviorism *Theory of learning that focuses on observable behaviors *Discounts importance of mental activity Understanding the causes of behavior requires looking at the environmental factors that produce them View internal states like thinking, wishing, and hoping as behaviors that are caused by external factors Define learning as relatively stable, observable changes in behavior Has emphasized general laws that guide behavior change and make sense of some of the puzzling aspects of human life Learning: a systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience Associative learning occurs when we make a connection, or an association, between two events. Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing and imitating another’s behavior. Conditioning is the process of learning the associations between two events. Two types of conditioning: classical and operant Reflexes are automatic stimulus-response connections. Acquisition is the initial learning of the connection between the US and CS when these two stimuli are paired. Classical conditioning The association between two stimuli A neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response Explains how neutral stimuli become associated with unlearned, involuntary responses Unconditioned stimulus (US): a stimulus that produces a response without prior learning Unconditioned response (UR): an unlearned reaction that is automatically elicited by the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus (CS): a previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a conditioned response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned response (CR): the learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after CS-US pairing; not quite as strong as UR Neutral stimulus: is a stimulus that initially produces no specific response other than focusing attention. In classical conditioning, when used together with an unconditioned stimulus, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus. Drug habituation: the decreased responsiveness to a drug stimulus after repeated presentations A mind-altering drug is an unconditioned stimulus: it naturally produces a response in the person’s body. This unconditioned stimulus is often paired systematically with a previously neutral stimulus Contingency: the CS must not only precede the US closely in time, it must also serve as a reliable indicator that the US is on its way Generalization: in classical conditioning, is the tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response Discrimination: in classical conditioning, is the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not others Operant conditioning The association between a behavior and a consequence, such as a reward Explains voluntary behaviors A form of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior’s occurrence Principles of reinforcement i. Positive reinforcement: the frequency of a behavior increases because it is followed by the presentation of something that increases the likelihood the behavior will be repeated ii. Negative reinforcement: the frequency of a behavior increases because it is followed by the removal of something Schedules of reinforcement i. Continuous reinforcement: when a behavior is reinforced every time it occurs ii. Partial reinforcement: when a reinforce follows a behavior only a portion of the time Fixed-ratio schedule: reinforces a behavior after a set number of behaviors Variable-ratio schedule: a timetable in which behaviors are rewarded an average number of times but on an unpredictable basis Fixed-interval schedule: reinforces the first behavior after a fixed amount of time has passed Variable-interval schedule: a timetable in which a behavior is reinforced after a variable amount of time has elapsed Punishment i. Positive punishment: a behavior decreases when it is followed by the presentation of a stimulus ii. Negative punishment: a behavior decreases when a stimulus is removed Thorndike’s Law of Effect: states that behaviors followed by satisfying outcomes are strengthened and that behaviors followed by frustrating outcomes are weakened Four processes of observational learning: 1) Attention: The first process that must occur in observational learning, and explains that we must first be able to attend to what the model is saying or doing 2) Retention: The second process that must occur in observational learning, and explains that in order to reproduce a model’s actions, you must encode the information and keep it in memory so that you can retrieve it 3) Motor reproduction: A third element of observational learning, is the process of imitating the model’s actions 4) Reinforcement: The fourth component of observational learning; seeing a model attain a reward for an activity increases the chances that and observer will repeat the behavior – vicarious reinforcement. Seeing the model punished makes the observer less likely to repeat the behavior – vicarious punishment Chapter 6 Memory is the retention of information or experience over time as the result of three key processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval. Encoding is the first step in memory; the process by which information gets into memory storage. Processes involved in encoding: a. Attention i. Divided attention: concentrating on more than one activity at one time ii. Sustained attention: the ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time b. Levels of processing: a continuum of memory processing from shallow to deep, with deeper processing producing better memory i. Shallow – physical and perceptual features are analyzed ii. Intermediate – stimulus is recognized and labeled iii. Deep – semantic, meaningful, symbolic characteristics are used c. Elaboration: the formation of a number of different connections around a stimulus at any given level of memory encoding; is like creating a spider web of links between some new information and everything one already knows d. Imagery: entails visualizing material that we want to remember in ways that create a lasting portrait The dual-code hypothesis claims that memory for pictures is better than memory for words because pictures – at least those that can be named – are stored as both image codes and verbal codes. Thus, when we use imagery to remember, we have two potential avenues by which we can retrieve information. The Atkinson-Shiffrin theory states that memory storage involves three separate systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Memory types: Short-term memory: limited-capacity memory system in which information is usually retained for only as long as 30 seconds unless strategies are used to retain it longer. Working memory refers to a combination of components, including short-term memory and attention, that allow us to hold information temporarily as we perform cognitive tasks; a kind of mental workbench on which the brain manipulates and assembles information to guide understanding, decision-making, and problem-solving. Long-term memory: a relatively permanent type of memory that stores huge amounts of information for a long time. Explicit memory (declarative memory) is the conscious recollection of information such as specific facts or events, and at least in humans, information that can be verbally communicated. Examples include recounting the events in a movie or recalling which politicians are in the president’s cabinet. Episodic memory: the retention of information about the where, when, and what of life’s happenings – that is, how individuals remember life’s episodes. It is autobiographical. Semantic memory: a person’s knowledge about the world Implicit memory is memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience without a conscious recollection of that experience. Examples include: playing tennis, snowboarding, and text messaging. Procedural memory is a type of implicit memory process that involves memory for skills. Examples include typing a paper or driving a car. A script is a schema for an event, often containing information about physical features, people, and typical occurrences. Scripts help to organize our storage of memories about events. Parallel distributed processing (PDP) is the theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections among neurons, several of which may work together to process a single memory. Frontal lobes – episodic memory Amygdala – emotional memories Temporal lobes – explicit memory, priming Hippocampus – explicit memory, priming Cerebellum – implicit memory The serial position effect is the tendency to recall the items at the beginning and end of a list more readily than those in the middle. Primacy effect: refers to better recall of items at the beginning of the list Regency effect: refers to better recall of items at the end of the list Recall is a memory task in which the individual has to retrieve previously learned information, as on essay tasks. Recognition is a memory task in which the individual only has to identify learned items, as on multiple-choice tests. Retrieval failure: Proactive interference occurs when material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later. For example, suppose you had a good friend 10 years ago named Prudence and that last night you met someone named Patience. You might find yourself calling your new friend Prudence because the old information interferes with retrieval of new information. Retroactive interference occurs when material learned later disrupts the retrieval of information learned earlier. Suppose you have lately become friends with Ralph. In sending a note to your old friend Raul, you might mistakenly address it to Ralph, because the new information (Ralph) interferes with the old information (Raul). Proactive and retroactive interference might be explained as problems with retrieval cues. Retrieval cues can become overloaded, and when that happens we are likely to forget or to retrieve it incorrectly. Chapter 7 Concepts are mental categories that are used to group objects, events, and characteristics. An example is that we know that apples and oranges are both fruits, but we recognize that they are different from each other. We have concepts for fruits. Concepts… Allows generalization Allows association of experiences and objects Aids memory Provide clues about how to react to particular object or experience Enable us to organize complex phenomena into simpler, cognitive categories Help us classify newly encountered objects Problem solving means finding an appropriate way to attain a goal when the goal is not readily available. Problem solving entails following several steps, overcoming mental obstacles, and developing expertise. Steps in Problem Solving 1) Find and frame problems: recognizing a problem is the first step toward a solution. Recognizing problems involves being aware of and open to experiences. 2) Develop good problem-solving strategies: Once we find a problem and clearly define it, we need to develop strategies for solving it. a. Subgoaling: involves setting intermediate goals or defining intermediate problems that put us in a better position for reaching the final goal or solution b. Algorithms: strategies that guarantee a solution to a problem. They come in different forms, such as formulas, instructions, and the problem. c. Heuristics: shortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest a solution to a problem but do not guarantee an answer. 3) Evaluate solutions: Once we think we have solved a problem, we will not know how effective our solution is until we find out if it works. It helps to have in mind a clear criterion for the effectiveness of the solution. 4) Rethink and redefine problems and solutions over time: An important final step in problem is to rethink and redefine problems continually. Reasoning is the mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusions. a. Inductive reasoning: involves reasoning from specific observations to make generalizations b. Deductive reasoning: reasoning from a general case that we know to be true to a specific instance Decision-making involves evaluating alternatives and choosing among them. a. Confirmation bias: tendency to search for and use information that supports rather than refutes one’s ideas Example – a politician accepts news that supports his views and dismisses evidence that runs counter to these views b. Base rate fallacy: tendency to ignore information about general principles in favor of very specific but vivid information Example – You read a favorable expert report on a TV you are intending to buy, but you decide not to buy it when a friend tells you about a bad experience with that model c. Hindsight bias: tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that one accurately predicted an outcome Example – You read about the results of a particular psychological study and say, “I always knew that”, though in fact you have little knowledge about the issues examined in the study d. Representativeness heuristic: tendency to make judgments about group membership based on physical appearance or one’s stereotype of a group rather than available base rate information Example – The victim of a holdup, you view police photos of possible perpetrators. The suspects look very similar to you, but you choose the individual whose hair and clothing look dirtiest and most disheveled e. Availability heuristic: prediction about the probability of an event based on the ease of recalling or imagining similar events Example – A girl from an extended family in which no family member ever attended college tells her mother that she wants to be a doctor. Her mother cannot imagine her daughter in such a career and suggests that she become a home healthcare aide. Intelligence is an all-purpose ability to do well on cognitive tasks, to solve problems, and to learn from experience. Measuring Intelligence: a. Validity: refers to the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure b. Reliability: the extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance c. IQ Scores Represent: to measure intelligence, Binet came up with the idea of comparing a person’s mental abilities to the mental abilities that are typical for a particular age group. Mental age (MA) is an individual’s level of mental development relative to that of others. Chronological age (CA) is the age from birth. IQ = (MA/CA) x 100 Gifted people have high intelligence (and IQ of 130 or higher) and/or superior talent in a particular area. The triarchic theory of intelligence is Sternberg’s theory that intelligence comes in three forms: analytical, creative, and practical. Analytical intelligence is the ability to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast Creative intelligence is the ability to create, design, invent, originate, and imagine Practical intelligence is the ability to use, apply, implement, and put ideas into practice Chapter 8 Resilience refers to a person’s ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times. Stages of prenatal development: a. Germinal period (weeks 1 and 2) Cell divisions Attachment to uterine wall b. Embryonic period (weeks 3 through 8) Intensified cell differentiation Development of support systems Appearance of organs c. Fetal period (months 2 through 9) Development includes movement, organ functioning, weight gain Researchers study infants through: Habituation is decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations. Habituation is used in infant research to examine if an infant can discriminate between an old stimulus and a new one. Preferential looking is a research technique that involves giving an infant a choice of what object to look at. If an infant shows a reliable preference for one stimulus over another when these are repeatedly presented in differing locations, we can infer that the infant can tell the two images apart. Adolescent brain Changes focus on earlier development of the amygdala (involves emotion) and later development of the prefrontal cortex (concerned with reasoning and decision making) Stages of Piaget’s cognitive development a. Sensorimotor stage: Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development, lasting from birth to about 2 years of age, during which infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with motor (physical) actions Object permanence: Piaget’s term for the crucial accomplishment of understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched b. Preoperational stage: the second stage, lasting from age 2 to 7, during which thought is more symbolic; inability to perform operations, or reversible mental representations; egocentric and intuitive thinking Law of conservation: a belief in the permanence of certain attributes of objects despite superficial changes c. Concrete operational stage: lasts from age 7 to 11, during which the individual uses operations and replaces intuitive reasoning with logical reasoning in concrete situations d. Formal operational stage: begins at age 11 to 15 and continues throughout adulthood; it features thinking about things that are not concrete, making predictions, and using logic to come up with hypotheses about the future Theories of Aging a. Free-radical theory: states that people age because unstable oxygen molecules known as free radicals are produced inside their cells that damage DNA and other structures, leading to a range of disorders, such as cancer or arthritis. b. Cellular-clock theory: Leonard Hayflick’s view that cells can divide a maximum of about 100 times and that, as we age, our cells become less capable of dividing c. Hormonal stress theory: argues that aging in the body’s hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase the likelihood of disease Cognitive processes of middle adulthood a. Crystallized intelligence: an individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills b. Fluid intelligence: the ability to reason abstractly Harry Harlow’s studies of attachment in baby monkeys: The study demonstrates the importance of warm contact. The monkeys nestled close to the cloth mother and spent little time with the wire one, even if it the wire one that gave them milk. When afraid, the monkeys ran to the comfy mom. This study demonstrates that what researchers described as “contact comfort,” not feeding, is crucial to the attachment of an infant to its caregiver. Parenting styles & their effect: a. Authoritarian Strict, punitive style Firmly limits and controls the child with little verbal exchange Children of authoritarian parents sometimes lack verbal social skills, show poor initiative, and compare themselves with others b. Authoritative Encourages the child to be independent but still places limits and controls on behavior More collaborative Extensive verbal give and take is allowed, and parents are warm and nurturing toward the child Children of authoritative parents tend to be socially competent, self-reliant, and socially responsible c. Neglectful Lack of parental involvement in the child’s life Children might develop a sense that other aspects of the parents’ lives are more important than they are Children of neglectful parents tend to be less socially competent, to handle independence poorly, and show poor self-control d. Permissive Places few limits on the child’s behavior (lets them do what he/she wants) Children typically rate poorly in social competence, fail to learn respects for others, expect to get their own way, and have difficulty controlling their behavior Stages of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development: a. Preconventional level: based on consequences of a behavior and on punishments or rewards from external world b. Conventional level: abiding by parental or societal standards c. Postconventional level: recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then develops an increasingly personal moral code Chapter 9 Theories of Motivation: Instinct Innate biological pattern of behavior assumed to be universal throughout species Set in motion by a “sign stimulus” Drive Aroused state that occurs because of a psychological need Need Deprivation that energizes drive to reduce or eliminate that deprivation Homeostasis The goal of drive reduction is homeostasis, the body’s tendency to maintain an equilibrium, or steady state Yerkes-Dodson Law The psychological principle stating that performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than either low or high arousal Under low arousal, one may be too lethargic to perform tasks well Under high arousal, one may not be able to concentrate Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs Maslow’s theory that human needs must be satisfied in the following sequence: Physiological needs safety love and belongingness esteem self- actualization Strongest needs at base (physiological), weakest at top (self- actualization) Idea that human motives are hierarchically arranged is appealing, but debatable Self-determination theory Asserts that there are three basic organismic needs: competence, relatedness, and autonomy Competence: met when we feel we are able to bring about desired outcomes; involves self-efficacy and mastery Relatedness: need to engage in warm relation with others Autonomy: sense that we are in control of own life Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation: based on internal factors such as organismic needs as well as curiosity, challenge, and fun; has more positive outcomes When we are intrinsically motivated, we engage in a behavior because we enjoy it Extrinsic motivation: involves external incentives such as rewards and punishments When we are extrinsically motivated, we engage in behavior for some external payoff or to avoid an external punishment Self-regulation Process by which an organism effortfully controls behavior in order to pursue important objectives Getting feedback Process of putting personal goals into action involves setting goals, planning implementation, and monitoring progress Ventromedial hypothalamus: involved in reducing hunger and restricting eating When stimulated, we stop eating When the area is destroyed, the animal eats profusely and quickly becomes obese Stages of Sexual response: i. Excitement phase Begins process of erotic responsiveness Last from several minutes to hours Engorgement of blood vessels and increased blood flow in genital areas and muscle tension Lubrication of the vagina and partial erection of the penis ii. Plateau phase Continuation and heightening of arousal that begun in the excitement phase Increases in breathing, pulse rate, and blood pressure that occurred during the excitement phase become more intense, penile erection and vaginal lubrication are more complete, and orgasm is closer iii. Orgasm Involves an explosive discharge or neuromuscular tension and an intensely pleasurable feeling Lasts for about 3 to 15 seconds iv. Resolution phase Blood vessels return to normal state Refractory period in males Theories of Emotion: a. James-Lange theory: emotion results from physiological states triggered by stimuli in the environment b. Cannon-Bard theory: proposes that emotion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously c. Two-factor theory: theory that emotion is determined by two factors: physiological arousal and cognitive labeling d. Facial feedback theory: theory that facial expressions can influence emotion as well as reflect them and that facial muscles send signals to the brain to help recognize emotion being experienced Display rules are sociocultural standards that determine when, where, and how emotions should be expressed. The hedonic treadmill captures the idea that any aspect of life that enhances one’s positive feelings is likely to do so for only a short time, because individuals generally adapt rapidly to any life change that would presumably influence their happiness.
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