PSY 120 Exam #3 Study Guide
PSY 120 Exam #3 Study Guide PSY 120
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathryn Chaffee on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 120 at Purdue University taught by Jill E Gulker in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Purdue University.
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PSY EXAM Ill STUDY GUIDE Chapter 10 Personality Freud39s Psychosexual stages of development 1 Oral stage rst 18 months Pleasure centers around mouth Chewing sucking biting are the chief sources of pleasure that reduce tension in the infant 2 Anal stage 18 to 36 months Pleasure centers around anus and urethra and their funcUons 0 When most children experience toilet training 3 Phallic stage 3 to 6 years Pleasure focuses on the genitals as the child discovers that selfstimulation is enjoyable Oedipus complex boy s intense desire to replace father and enjoy affections of mother 0 Castration anxiety boy s intense fear of being mutilated by father 0 Development of superego gtBoy identi es with his father and adopts male gender role to reduce con ict gtWithout experience of castration anxiety girls cannot develop superego like boys 4 Latency period 6 years to puberty Psychic timeout Sets aside all interest in sexuality 0 No psychosexual development occurs 4 Genital stage adolescence and adulthood Sexual reawakening Source of sexual pleasure shifts to someone outside the family 0 ln adulthood individual becomes capable of love and work Fixation occurs when a particular psychosexual stage colors an individual s adult personality Perspectives on Human Existence Freud The sexual drive was the most important motivator of all human activity Freud thought that the human sexual drive was the main determinant of personality development and he felt that psychological disorders dreams and all human behavior represent the con ict between this unconscious sexual drive and the demands of civilized human society Freud developed psychoanalysis Sexual drive is the most important human motivator and the main determinant of personality Hysteria physical symptoms that have no physical cause that stemmed from unconscious psychological con icts Adler ln Adler s individual psychology people are motivated by purposes and goals thus perfection not pleasure is their key motivator Adler argued that people have the ability to take their genetic inheritance and their environment experiences and act upon them creatively to become the person they want to be 0 Compensation attempt to overcome inferiorities by developing abilities Birth order could in uence the success of striving for superiority Horney Horney believed that the need for security not for sex is the prime motive in human existence Horney reasoned that an individual whose needs for security are met should be able to develop his or her capacities to the fullest extent She viewed psychological health as allowing the person to express his or her talents and abilities freely and spontaneously Sociocultural in uences on personality development 0 Both sexes envy attributes of other Mg The collective unconscious is Jung s name for the impersonal deepest layer of the unconscious mind shared by all human beings because of their common ancestral past In Jung s theory the experiences of a common past have made a deep permanent impression on the human mind 0 The collective unconscious contains archetypes which are emotionally laden ideas having symbolic meaning for all people 0 Anima passive feminine side Animus assertive masculine side 0 Persona the public mask that we all wear during social interactions Roger39s theory Rogers believed that similarly each person is born with natural capacities for growth and ful llment We just need the right conditions to thrive We are also endowed with an innate sense that allows us to evaluate whether an experience is good or bad for us Finally we are born with a need for positive regard from others Roger s theory includes the idea that we develop a selfconcept which is our conscious representation of who we are and who we wish to become during childhood Optimally this selfconcept re ects our genuine innate desires but it can also be in uenced by conditions of worth Such an individual might be able to check off all the important boxes in life s todo lists and to do all that he or she is quotsupposed to doquot but never feel truly happy Fivefactor Model of Personality 1 Openness is related to liberal views openmindedness tolerance and creativity Openness is also associated with superior cognitive functioning and IQ across the life span Ross 2 Conscientiousness a key factor in a variety of life domains Conscientiousness is positively related to high school and college students GPAs It is also linked to betterquality friendships higher levels of religious faith and a forgiving attitude Monica 3 Extraversion individuals are more likely than others to engage in social activities experience gratitude and show a strong sense of meaning in life They are also more forgiving Joey 4 Agreeableness is related to generosity and altruism to reports of religious faith and more satisfying romantic relationships There are also links between agreeableness and viewing other people positively Phoebe 5 Neuroticism is related to feeling negative emotion more often than positive emotion in one s daily life and to experiencing more lingering negative states It is been shown to be related to more health complaints and is linked to coronary heart disease Chandler Traits vs States Traits are enduring characteristics they represent the way you generally are In contrast states such as positive and negative moods are briefer experiences Having a trait such as neuroticism that predisposes you to feelings of worry a state does not mean your overall wellbeing must suffer lnstead recognizing that you tend to be neurotic may be an important step in noting when your negative moods are potentially being fed by traits and are not necessarily the result of objective events Bandura39s Social Cognitive Theory States that behavior environment and personcognitive factors are all important in understanding personality Bandura coined the term reciprocal determinism to describe the way behavior environment and personcognitive factors are all important in understanding personality The environment can determine a person s behavior and the person can act to change the environment Similarly personcognitive factors can both in uence behavior and be in uenced by behavior Then behavior is a product of a variety of forces some of which come from the situation and some of which the person brings to the situation Interaction of behavior environment and personcognitive factors to create personality Through observational learning we form ideas about the behavior of others and then possibly adopt this behavior ourselves For example a young boy might observe his father s aggressive outbursts and hostile exchanges with other people when the boy is with his peers he might interact in a highly aggressive way showing the same characteristics as his father s behavior Psychologists commonly describe a sense of behavioral control as coming from inside the person an internal locus of control or outside the person an external locus of control When we feel that we ourselves are controlling our choices and behaviors the locus of control is internal but when other in uences are controlling them the locus of control is external Feeling a strong sense of personal control is vital to many aspects of performance wellbeing and physical health Selfefficacy is the belief that one has the competence to accomplish a given goal or task Bandura and others have shown that selfefficacy is related to a number of positive developments in people s lives including solving problems becoming more sociable initiating and maintaining a diet or an exercise program and quitting smoking Gray39s reinforcement sensitivity theory Jeffrey Gray proposed a neuropsychology of personality called reinforcement sensitivity theory that has been the subject of much research On the basis of animal learning principles Gray posited that two neurological systems the behavioral activation system BAS and the behavioral inhibition system BIS could be viewed as underlying personality According to Gray these systems explain differences in an organism s attention to rewards and punishers in the environment BAS sensitive to environmental reward seek positive consequencesrewards positive character of emotion and extraversion BIS sensitive to environmental punishment avoid negative consequencespunishments negative character of emotion and neuroticism Selfreport tests Also called an objective test or an inventory a method of measuring personality characteristics that directly asks people whether speci c items describe their personality traits A way to get around social desirability is to design scales so that it is virtually impossible for the respondent to know what the researcher is trying to measure One means of accomplishing this goal is to use an empiricallv keved test a type of selfreport test that is created by rst identifying two groups that are known to be different The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI is the most widely used and researched empirically keyed selfreport personality test It is the most extensively used measure in the United States and around the world to assess personality and predict outcomes The MMPI is not only used by clinical psychologists to assess mental health but it is also a tool for hiring decisions and forensic settings The Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory Revised is a selfreport test geared to assessing the vefactor model openness conscientiousness extraversion agreeableness and neuroticism The test also evaluates six subdimensions that make up the ve main factors Unlike empirically keyed tests measures of the big ve generally contain items that are straightforward These items have face validity the extent to which a test item appears to t the particular trait it is measuring Projective tests presents individuals with an ambiguous stimulus and asks them to describe it or to tell a story about it to project their own meaning onto the stimulus This method assumes that the ambiguity of the stimulus allows individuals to interpret it based on their feelings desires needs and attitudes The test is especially designed to elicit the individual s unconscious feelings and con icts providing an assessment that goes deeper than the surface of personality They are theoretically aligned with psychodynamic perspectives on personality A famous projective test is the Rorschach inkblot test The test consists of 10 cards half in black and white and half in color which the individual views one at a time The test taker is asked what he or she sees in each of the inkblots These responses are scored based on indications of various underlying psychological characteristics The reliability and validity of this test is criticized The Thematic Apperception Test TAT is designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual s personality The TAT consists of a series of pictures each on an individual card or slide The TAT test taker is asked to tell a story about each of the pictures The tester assumes that the person projects his or her own unconscious feelings and thoughts into the story The TAT is used in research on people s need for achievement af liation power intimacy and a variety of other needs In contrast to the Rorschach TAT measures have shown higher interrater reliability and validity Chapter 11 Social Psychology ErrorsBiases ln committing the fundamental attribution error observers overestimate the importance of internal traits and underestimate the importance of external stimuli when they seek explanations of another person s behavior The false consensus effect is the overestimation of the degree to which everybody else thinks or acts the way we do Selfserving bias refers to the tendency to take credit for one s own successes and to deny responsibility for one s own failures Cognitive dissonance An individual s psychological discomfort dissonance caused by two inconsistent thoughts According to the theory we feel uneasy when we notice an inconsistency between what we believe and what we do Cognitive dissonance is at the root of that uncomfortable feeling of being a hypocrite We can reduce cognitive dissonance in one of two ways change our behavior to t our attitudes or change our attitudes to t our behavior Effortjusti cation is rationalizing the amount of effort put into something Elaboration likelihood model identi es two ways to persuade a central route and a peripheral route The central route to persuasion works by engaging someone thoughtfully with a sound logical argument The central route is more persuasive when people have the ability and the motivation to pay attention to the facts The peripheral route involves nonmessage factors such as the source s credibility and attractiveness or emotional appeals The peripheral route is effective when people are not paying close attention or do not have the time or energy to think about what the communicator is saying Aggression social behavior whose objective is to harm someone either physically or verbally Overt addression refers to physically or verbally harming another person directly Relational aggression is behavior that is meant to harm the social standing of another person through activities such as gossiping and spreading rumors Relational aggression is different from overt aggression in that it requires that the aggressor has a considerable level of social and cognitive skill Brain regions associated with aggression Although humans do not have a speci c aggression center in the brain aggressive behavior often results when areas such as the limbic system are stimulated The frontal lobes of the brain the areas most involved in executive functions such as planning and selfcontrol have also been implicated in aggression Milgram experiment on obedience The results of the experiment were that the majority of the teachers obeyed the experimenter almost twothirds delivered the full 450 volts The purpose was to analyze the effect of obedience 0 Electric shock experiment with a confederate o Majority of participants obeyed the experimenter Disobedience more common when gt Others disobeyed gt Authority gure not legitimate or not close by gt Victim made to seem more human Group behavior Deindividuation occurs when being part of a group reduces personal identity and erodes the sense of personal responsibility One explanation for the effects of deindividuation is that groups give us anonymity When we are part of a group we may act in an uninhibited way because we believe that no one will be able to identify us gt Reduction of personal identity and erosion of personal responsibility when part of a group gt May be due to anonymity The group polarization effect is the solidi cation and further strengthening of an individual s position as a consequence of a group discussion or interaction Initially held views often become more polarized because of group discussion Social facilitation occurs when an individual s performance improves because of the presence of others It is due to the effects of arousal but only on welllearned tasks Social loa ng refers to each person s tendency to exert less effort in a group because of reduced accountability for individual effort Social loa ng is decreased by increasing identi ability simplifying evaluation and making group task more attractive Implicit vs Explicit racism Implicit racism refers to racial attitudes that exist on a deeper hidden level Implicit attitudes require measures that do not rely on awareness Explicit racism is a person s conscious and openly shared racial attitudes which might be measured using a questionnaire Close relationships The mere exposure effect means that the more we encounter someone or something the more likely we are to start liking the person or thing even if we do not realize we have seen it before The social exchange approach to close relationships focuses on the costs and bene ts of one s romantic partner Social exchange theory is based on the idea of social relationships as involving an exchange of goods the objective of which is to minimize costs and maximize bene ts From this the most important predictor of relationship success is equity The investment model examines the ways that commitment investment and the availability of attractive alternative partners predict satisfaction and stability in relationships It focuses on the underlying factors of relationships Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders A fear becomes a phobia when a situation is so dreaded that an individual goes to almost any length to avoid it As with any anxiety disorder phobias are fears that are uncontrollable disproportionate and disruptive Disorders 1 Obsessive compulsive disorder Features anxietyprovoking thoughts that will not go away andor urges to preform repetitive ritualistic behaviors to prevent or produce some future situation Most common compulsions are checking cleaning and counUng Frontal cortex or basal ganglia are so active in OCD that numerous impulses reach the thalamus Low levels of serotonin and dopamine Genetic component 2 Mood disorders gt Depressive disorders Mood disorders in which the individual suffers from depression an unrelenting lack of pleasure in life 0 Major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder Characterized as involving an absence ofjoy low energy and high levels of sadness Major depressive disorder MDD l Lethargy and hopelessness for at least two weeks l lmpairs daily functioning Leading cause of disability in United States 5 of 9 symptoms 0 Dysthymic disorder DD l Generally more chronic and has fewer symptoms than MDD gt Bipolar disorder Characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania an overexcited unrealistically optimistic state and depressive episodes 0 Equally common between men and women 0 Genetic in uences are stronger predictors of bipolar disorder than of depressive disorders 0 Differences in brain activity cerebral cortex 0 High levels of glutamate 3 Generalized anxietv disorder Sufferers experience persistent anxiety for at least 6 months and are unable to specify the reasons for the anxiety Causes fatigue muscle tension stomach problems and difficulty sleeping GABA de ciency Respiratory system abnormalities Having harsh selfstandards overly strict and critical parents automatic negative thoughts when feeling stressed and a history of uncontrollable traumas or stressors 4 Panic disorder A person experiences recurrent sudden onsets of intense terror often without warning and with no speci c cause Panic attacks can produce severe palpitations extreme shortness of breath chest pains trembling sweating dizziness and a feeling of helplessness Amygdala and hippocampus are activated Norepinephrine and GABA Lactate levels are elevated Learned associations between bodily cues of respiration and fear can play a role in panic attacks C02 and fear Classical conditioning 5 Eating disorders gt Binge eating Characterized by recurrent episodes of consuming large amounts of food during which the person feels a lack of control over eating 0 Most are overweight or obese often eat quickly eat a great deal when they are not hungry and eat until they are uncomfortably full 0 Most common of eating disorders 0 25 suffer from BED Characterize 8 of obese individuals 0 Place a great deal of importance on their physical appearance weight and body shape 0 Diabetes hypertension cardiovascular disease gt Anorexia nervosa o lnvolves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation Weight less than 85 of what is considered normal and refusal to maintain weight Intense fear of gaining weight that does not decrease with weight loss Distorted body image 0 Amenorrhea lack of menstruation 0 Growth of ne hair thinning of bones and hair severe constipation and low blood pressure 0 Dangerous complications include heart and thyroid damage 0 Highest mortality rate of any psychological disorder gt Bulimia nervosa 0 Individuals follows a bingeandpurge eating pattern 0 Most people with bulimia are preoccupied with food have a strong fear of being overweight and are depressed or anxious Difficult to detect 0 Chronic sore throat kidney problems dehydration and gastrointestinal disorders 0 Dental problems 0 Affects 14 of young women 0 Low levels of selfefficacy lmpulsivity negative emotion and OCD are related to bulimia Associated with high incidence of sexual and physical abuse in childhood 6 Dissociative disorders Psychological disorders that involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity The individual mentally protects his or her conscious self from the traumatic event Often occur with PTSD Related to problems in pulling together emotional memories Lower volume in hippocampus and amygdala Dissociative amnesia dissociative fugue and dissociative identity disorder 7 Schizophrenia Severe psychological disorder that is characterized by highly disordered thought processes Psychotic thoughts See things that are not there hear voices in their heads ect Often socially withdrawn and isolated Suicide risk is 8x more Powerful medications Positive symptoms are marked by a distortion or an excess of normal functioning I Hallucinations sensory experiences that occur in the absence of real stimuli l Delusions false unusual and sometimes magical beliefs that are not part of an individual s culture Referential thinking giving personal meaning to completely random events Catatonia a state of immobility and unresponsiveness that lasts for long periods of time Negative symptoms re ect social withdrawal behavioral de cits and the loss or decrease of normal functions Flat affect the display of little or no emotion l Lack in the ability to read the emotions of others l Lack of positive emotional experience De cient ability to plan initiate and engage in goal directed behavior Cognitive symptoms include difficulty sustaining attention problems holding information in memory and inability to interpret information and make decisions Genetic factors play a role Enlarged ventricles in the brain Small frontal cortex where thinking planning and decision making take place Excess dopamine production Stress may contribute 8 Borderline personality disorder A pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships selfimage and emotions and of marked impulsivitity Individuals are insecure impulsive and emotional Related to selfharming behaviors and suicide Prone to wild mood swings and very sensitive to how others treat them More common in women Childhood experiences may combine with genetic factors in promoting BPD The Americans with Disabilities Act made it illegal to refuse employment or a promotion to someone with a psychological disorder when the person s condition does not prevent performance of the job s essential functions Chapter 13 Therapies Neuroleptics are the most extensively used class of antiphychotic drugs Side effects include Dysphoria lack of pleasure Tardive dyskinesia movement disorder 0 Stroke Psychoanalysis is Freud s therapeutic technique for analyzing an individual s unconscious thoughts Freud believed that a person s current problems could be traced to childhood experiences many of which involved unconscious sexual con icts Only through extensive questioning probing and analyzing was Freud able to put together the pieces of the client s personality and help the individual become aware of how these early experiences were affecting present behavior Techniques used 0 Free association involves encouraging individuals to say aloud whatever comes to mind no matter how trivial or embarrassing Interpretation means that the analyst does not take the patient s statements and behavior at face value rather to understand the source of the person s con icts the therapist searches for symbolic hidden meanings Dream analysis psychoanalytic technique for interpreting a person s dreams 0 Analysis of transference term for the client s relating to the analyst in ways that reproduce or relive important relationships in the client s life 0 Analysis of resistance term for the client s unconscious defense strategies that prevent the analyst from understanding the person s problems Heinz Kohut39s contemporary psychodynamic therapy Heinz Kohut recommended focusing on the self in social contexts ln Kohut s view early social relationships with attachment gures such as parents are critical As we develop we internalize those relationships and they serve as the basis for our sense of self Kohut believed that the therapist s job is to replace unhealthy childhood relationships with the healthy relationship the therapist provides The therapist needs to interact with the client in empathetic and understanding ways Humanistic therapies encourage individuals to understand themselves and to grow personally They are unique in their emphasis on the person s selfhealing capacities Humanistic therapies emphasize conscious rather than unconscious thoughts the present rather than the past and growth and selfful llment rather than disease Clientcentered therapy is a form of humanistic therapy in which the therapist provides a warm supportive atmosphere to improve the client s selfconcept and to encourage the client to gain insight into problems It places emphasis on the client s selfre ection One way to achieve the goal identifying and understanding feelings is through active listening and re ective speech a technique in which the therapist mirrors the client s own feelings back to the client To free a person from conditions of worth the therapist engages in unconditional positive regard which involves creating a warm caring environment and never disapproving of the client as a person Various techniques of classical conditioning have been used in treating phobias Among them is svstematic desensitization a behavior therapy that treats anxiety by teaching the client to associate deep relaxation with increasingly intense anxietyproducing situations Desensitization involves exposing someone to a feared situation in a real or an imagined way and is based on the classical conditioning process of extinction Through adversive conditioning people can learn to avoid such behaviors as smoking overeating and drinking alcohol Electric shocks nauseainducing substances and verbal insults are some of the noxious stimuli used in aversive conditioning Rationalemotive therapy argued that individuals develop a psychological disorder because of their irrational and selfdefeating beliefs Ellis held that our emotional reactions to life events are a product of our irrational beliefs and expectations along with the central false belief that we cannot control our feelings He believed that individuals conduct three basic demands for themselves 1 I absolutely must perform well and win the approval of other people 2 other people must treat me kindly and fairly and 3 my life conditions must not be frustrating but rather should be enjoyable The goal of REBT is to get the individual to eliminate selfdefeating beliefs by rationally examining them Group therapy a sociocultural approach to the treatment of psychological disorders that brings together individuals who share a particular psychological disorder in sessions that are typically led by a mental health professional 0 Information Universality Altruism Experience of a positive family group Development of social skills Interpersonal learning Selfhelp groups are voluntary organizations of individuals who get together on a regular basis to discuss topics of common interest Wellbeing therapy is a shortterm problemfocused directive therapy that encourages clients to accentuate the positive It is a treatment aimed at enhancing wellbeing WBT is about learning to notice and savor positive experiences and coming up with ways to promote and celebrate life s good moments Researchers have found that when there is a ethnic match between the therapist and the client and when ethnicspeci c services are provided clients are less likely to drop out of therapy early and in many cases have better treatment outcomes Chapter 14 Health Psychology The theorv of reasoned action is a theoretical model stating effective change requires individuals to have speci c intentions about their behaviors as well as positive attitudes about a new behavior and to perceive that their social group looks positively on the new behavior as well The theory of planned behavior is a theoretical model that includes the basic ideas of the theory of reasoned action but adds the person s perceptions of control over the outcome Stages of change model i Precontemplation occurs when individuals are not yet genuinely thinking about changing May be unaware that they have a problem 0 Raising one s consciousness about the problem is crucial 0 Example overweight individuals are not aware that they have a weight problem ii Contemplation individuals acknowledge the problem but may not be ready to commit to change Actively thinking about change 0 Example overweight individuals know they have a weight problem but aren t yet sure they want to commit to losing weight iii PreparationDetermination Individuals are getting ready to take action Selfbelief and beliefs about one s ability to quotsee it throughquot are very important iv V 0 Start thinking concretely about how they might take on their new challenge 0 Example overweight individuals explore options they can pursue in losing weight ActionWillpower Individuals commit to making a real behavioral change and enact an effective plan 0 Find ways to support the new healthy behavior pattern 0 Example overweight individuals begin a diet and start an exercise program Maintenance 0 Individuals successfully avoid temptation and consistently pursue healthy behaviors 0 Example overweight individuals are able to stick with their diet and exercise regimens for 6 months Selfdetermination theory distinguishes between intrinsic motivation doing something because you want to and extrinsic motivation doing something for external reward General adaptation syndrome GAS is Selye s term for the common effects on the body when demands are placed on it The GAS consists of three stages alarm resistance and exhaustion Selye s model is especially useful in helping us understand the link between stress and health Alarm stage a temporary state of shock during which resistance to illness and stress falls below normal limits In trying to cope with the initial effects of stress the body releases hormones that in a short time adversely affect the functioning of the immune system During this time the individual is prone to infections from illness and injury Resistance stage glands throughout the body manufacture different hormones that protect the individual Endocrine and sympathetic nervous system activity are not as high as in the alarm stage although they still are elevated During this stage the body s immune system can ght off infection with remarkable efficiency Similarly hormones that reduce the in ammation normally associated with injury circulate at high levels Exhaustion stage the person might collapse in exhaustion and vulnerability to disease increases Serious possibly irreversible damage to the body such as a heart attack or even death may occur Weekly religious attendance relates to a host of healthy behaviors including not smoking taking vitamins walking regularly wearing seatbelts exercising strenuously sleeping soundly and drinking moderately or not at all A number of studies have de nitely linked religious participation to a longer and healthier life Religious faith and spirituality more generally may also be important factors in good health because they provide a sense of life meaning and a buffer against the effects of stressful life events Cognitive appraisal i Primary appraisal individuals interpret whether an event involves harm or loss that has already occurred a threat of some future danger or a challenge to be overcome Lazarus believed that perceiving a stressor as a challenge to be overcome rather than a threat is a good strategy for overcoming stress ii Secondarv appraisal individuals evaluate their responses and determine how effectively they can be marshaled to cope with the event The appraisal is secondary because it both comes after primary appraisal and depends on the degree to which the event is appraised as harmful threatening or challenging Hardiness characterized by sense of 0 Commitment rather than alienation Control rather than powerlessness Problems as challenges rather than threats Quitting smoking has enormous health bene ts Research con rms that giving up smoking can be dif cult especially in the early days of quitting There are various ways to cheat including going cold turkey using a substitute source of nicotine and seeking therapeutic help
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