Vertebrate Biology 3030 Final Exam Review Part 1
Vertebrate Biology 3030 Final Exam Review Part 1 81463 - BIOL 3030 - 001
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by joseph Garand on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 81463 - BIOL 3030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Richard W. Blob in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Vertebrate Biology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/04/16
Lecture 21 Amniote phylogeny o Mammals in clade synapsidia 1 fenestra bounded by postorbital, jugal, squamosal o Arose during Permian extinction Synapsids originate in carboniferous dominate fauna in Permian Major vert extinctions at end of Permian (1/2 all tetrapods) Decline of most synapsids may have led to dino domination in Mesozoic Mammal-like reptiles o Pelycosaurs (grade) and therapids (clade that includes mammals) o Pelycosaurs Grade of basal mammal-like reptiles, earliest and most diverse in N. America Caseids Basal lineage Small head, pointy nose, big nostril Herbivores (spatulate teeth, barrel chest to ferment) Carnivores (ophiacodon) o Narrow hatchet skull Derived lineages Edaphosaurs o Large herbivores: tiny head, barrel chest, round peg teeth (on palate too) o Sail fin on back- neural spins o Spines bear grooves with blood vessels (heal breaks) o Skin covered (thermoregulation?) Sphenacodontids o Large carnivores o Sail fin on back (no crossbars) o Basal have shorter spines- evolve from edaphosaurs o Spines with blood vessels o Alive at same time as edaphosaurs, carnivores most abundant Paleobiology All pelycosaurs have sprawling limb posture Head of humerous fits so bone horizontal Scapula shoulder socket directed to side o Therapids vs pelycosaurs Skull Limbs Pelycosau Lots of canine teeth Sprawling r Rear skull slopes Terminal femur forward head directs Lower jaw large limb postdentary bones horizontally Therapsid Large canine tooth More upright Rear skull slopes Femur head at back angle for Lower jaw vertical postdentary bones direction (larger brain and Upright posture more food to shift from processing, smaller bending and temp. fen. And jaw running (lets consolidaton) both lungs fill, sustained activity) o Therapsids Basal clade members Dinocephalians o Herbivores (nipping teeth, barrel chest) o Thick skulls- butting heads Dicynodonts o Herbivores, shearing beak, lose most teeth except tusks o Most fauna in Permian Closer relatives to mammals Gorgonopsians o Dominan Permian predators o Tiger sized with sabre canines o Flat skull, temp. fen. Expands wide o Coronoid process for jaw closing Cynodonts o Smaller bodies with larger temporal fenestra o Includes mammals Trends in synapsid evolution o Expantion and differentiation of jaw closing muscles Pelycosaur Small temp. fen. Low coronoid, narrow skull 1 jaw closing muscle (adductor mandibulae pulls up and back) Cynodont Big temp. fen Wide zygomatic arch Big fossa for masseter (more jaw motion and better food processing) Pterygoideus muscle pulls up and in o Teeth differentiation Pelycosaur had homodont teeth Cynodont had heterodont teeth Better food processing Incisors nip, canines stab, cheek teeth crush and grind o Formation of Secondary Palate Cynodont had structural reinforcement against chewing forces Separates air and food passages to allow breathing with food in mouth Important for active lifestyle o Jaw bones to ear bones Malleus and incus formed from jaw bone Now only one jaw bone with teeth (dentary) Trend to decrease postdentary bones and increase dentary size Loose postdentary bones likely involved in conducting sound all along, but became problem with jaw motion and more food processing o Upright Limb Posture o Shortening of tail Shift of leg retractor muscle location from tail (big and heavy to drag around) to pelvis (butt muscles- gluteals) less drag, more upright Increase stamina o Loss of rear ribs Lumbar ribs lost-> presence of diapraghm muscle Increase stamina o Nasal Turbinate Bones Thin bone scrolls in nasal passage with moist tissue to warm and moisten air on way in, extract water on way out Required increase in respiratory rate to supply oxygen Lungs damaged by cold dry air Bones fragile but supported by distinct ridges (also in cynodonts) Endothermy in pre-mammal therapids Wrap up o Synapsid evolution shows trends to eat and process food better, move more, breath better o Synapsids characterized by more activity and shift to endothermy Lecture 22 Mammals (jurrasic to now) o Synapomorphies Hair See hair in fossils o Harderian gland near eye to spread secretions over fur o Duct has typical shape o Found in morganucodon and megazostrodon, so fur and first mammals Mammary glands o More distinctive features Teeth fit together and cheek teeth divided into molars and premolars (heterodonts) Cheek teeth have 2 roots 1 set of replacement teeth- diphydonty (some teeth only in adult) Bigger brain capacity (hearing and smell- nocturnal?) Earliest mostly tiny, but some baby dino killers 2 new ear ossicles (middle ear bone from jaw bones)- malleus (from articulate) and incus (from quadrate) Only lower jaw bone is dentary (aids to withstand jaw movement forces) Skeleton Epiphyses and cartilage growth plates (determinate growth) o Growth plate dark line where bone replaces cartilage o Epiphyses is bone capping growth plate, fuse to shaft and end groth Vertebral differentiation o Atlas (to nod) and atlas dens (to shake head) o Cervical (7), lumbar (rib loss so diapraghm), sacral (fused to pelvis) spine regions o Thoracic ribs o Caudal tail Integument o Hair Made of keratin From epidermis growing into dermis (feathers are dermis to epidermis) Can be sense organ (vibrissae) Trap air- insulation (arrector pilli raise hair to trap more air) o Glands Eccrine sweat glands (water secretions indepen. Of hair, just soles in most mammals, all over in primates) Sebaceous gland- oily secretions with hair (all over body to waterproof hair) Apocrine sweat gland- chemical scent secretion with hair for sweat cooling (scent markings, skunks, smelly armpits) Mammary gland Complicated branching structure Secrete milk Features that resemble sweat and sebaceous glands, but not fully homologous Not always associated with nipples (monotremes) Develop from milk ridges running along abdomen from armpit to groin, can be along whole ridge or just part, depends on species o Cardiovascular 4 chambered heart with complete atria and ventricle separation separation for double circuit pattern Aorta is left 4 aortic arch (right 4 in birds) Blood flow unidirectional via av and semilunar valves Right atrium->right ventricle->pulmonary arteries->lungs->pulmonary veins->left atrium-> left ventricle-> aorta-> body-> vena cava-> right atrium (posterior vena cava from body, superior vena cava from shoulder region) Anucleate erythrocytes (RBCs) o Respiratory Alveolar lungs Repeated branching to tiny chambers (alveoli) where gas exchange is Diaphragm Muscle sheet dividing lungs from abdomen Contraction aids inhalation o Excretory Urinary bladder stores nitrogenous waste and urine Loops of henle in nephron for water extraction- not in bladder o Brain Large cerebrum, infolded too Prominent olfactory region (smell) o Hearing Pinna- external ears to funnel sound to eardum Choclea- gradation of sensory cells for fine sound distinction o Vision Less accurate than other verts (retina has rods for light detection, and cones concentrated in fovea for sharp focus) Evidence for passing through nocturnal stage Primates exception (more cones) Mammal Phylogeny o Multituberculates (Jurassic-Eocene) Long incisors, no canine, blade-like lower premolars, rowed cusps on molars Early arboreal mammals (prehensile tail, reversible ankle- climb down headfirst) Outcompeted by rodents o Monotreme diversity (cretaceous to now) 3 species in australia, new guinea Adults toothless, juvenile platypus has teeth EM receptors in bill Male platypus has venom gland Pleisiomorphic traits Lay eggs Cloaca No nipples (milk secreted to fur) o Therians Distinctive features Precise occlusion- cusps fit into basins, mortar and pestle action Upper tooth fits between 2 lower Marsupials and eutherians(placentals) united by Live birth Nipples Separate digestive and urogenital openings (no cloaca) Tribosphenic molars in basal taxa Tooth occlusion- upper teeth fits below lower teeth New spine on scapula for more muscle attachment Lose interclavicle and bones fusing shoulder for more scapular movement Eutherians o Chorioallantoic placenta (vascular connection betwenn mom and baby dervived from 2 extraembryonic membranes (horion and allantois)) Marsupials (koala, wombat, kangaroo) o Young born very early o After birth, attach to nipples usually in pouch (marsupium) Lecture 22 Eutherian Diversity o Xenarthra (Edntates) N/S Amer. 2 sloth, 3 anteaters, 24 armidillo Have xenarthrae- extra articulations between vert Reduced teeth Big foreclaws (digging, grabbing) Armidillo has bony armor Sloths leave trees weekly to poop, harbor food in fur o Pholidota (Pangolins) Africa/ asia Scaly covering Reduced teeth and long tongue Flexible tail, sometimes prehensile o Rodents Distinctive teeth- always growing, upper and lower incisors with enamel only on front edge (gnawing) Beavers, squirrels, mice, rats, guinea pigs, porcupines o Lagomorphs Rabbits, etc 2 upper incisor sets with one directly behind other Large ears Legs specialized for jumping (saltation) o Insetivorians Hedgehog, mole, shrew Small Special for eating insects, some carnivores Sharp, pointy teeth (like opposum) Many nocturnal or burrwing, long sensitive snout and small eyes Shrew has high metabolism (starve in 4 hrs) Hedgehog has bristle hair Moles specialized diggers (broad hands, star nose, power lever in arm) o Archonta- bats Wings- skin over long fingers Weak hindlegs Megachiropters- large fruit eaters Microchiraptors- small, echolocation (detect reflected sound) o Archonta- primates Nails, not claws Generalized teeth- omnivores Good color vision, front facing eyes for good depth perception o Carnivorans Carnassial teeth- upper premolar 4, lower molar 1- specialized for slicing, shear past each other in jaw closing o Ungulates Bovids have horns- not shed Deer have antlers- shed annually Perissodactyls have odd number toes Artiodactyls have even number toes Baleen (whale) biggest mammal Toes with hooves: thick keratin overlaying ungual phalanx (last toe bone) Walk on toes, some have pads o 6 major patterns in mammal evolution Reproductive specializations in marsupials and eutherians Rearrangement of reproductive and urinary passages Prevent waste from reaching womb Ureters from kidney drain urine to uterus base (monotremes) Ureters drain urine to bladder, still urogenital sinus, rectum separate, no cloaca (Marsupials, eutherians) 3 openings- urinary, reproductive, anus (primates) E extramembryonic membranes- chorion, amnion, allantois, yolk sac- press against uterine wall (placenta) Marsupial placenta o Yolk sac placenta- no mesoderm for blood vessels, limited attachment, short gestation, longer combined period between gestation and suckling o Kangaroo embryonic diapause- hormonally induced pause in development until young weaned from mom Eutherian placenta o Chorion and allantois (chorioallantoic placenta) with mesoderm in both so good vascularization, long gestation, short lactation Eutherians typically reproduce faster than marsupials Hard to be aquatic marsupial Diversification in locomotion Changes for cursorial (fast-running) lifestyle Reduce number toes, lighten foot weight, save energy Lenghen limbs by lenthening foot and raising foot more off ground Plantigrade- full palm down Digitigrade- toes on ground Unguligrade- last toe on ground Diversification of feeding and digestion Herbivore adaptions o Teeth Teeth with high crowns (hypsodont) to eat grass As tooth wears, to grows longer for more use o Digestion Bcteria to ferment cellulose o Ruminants (foregut) More energy extraction Cows, deer Extra stomach chamber o Hindgut fermenters Faster energy extraction Horses, elephants, rabbits, rodents\caecum- extra chamber off intestine Reinvasion of water Eutherians have reinvaded water (whales, pinniped carnivores, sirenians) Ancestrally terrestrial Convergent evolution across continents Similar but separate habitas Independent mammals converge on like body plans Great American Interchange Before panama landbridge, only small or flying taxa to S Amer Added diversity to N and S Amer. N and S Amer. Separate through Cenozoic Pliocene isthmus connects o Cats, elephants, deer, wolves move south o Sloths, armadillo, anteaters, porcupines, opposums (S to N) Little drop offs o Invaders just add to diversity
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