PSY 200 Exam IV Study Guide
PSY 200 Exam IV Study Guide PSY 200
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathryn Chaffee on Thursday February 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 200 at Purdue University taught by Gregory Francis in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Purdue University.
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PSY 200 Exam IV Study Guide Lecture 25: The Language Instinct 1. When people with different cultures are mixed, the different cultures can influence the language because it can add words that mean the same thing in both cultures, but there are different words for it in each culture. For example, when the Normans invaded Britain, where the majority of people spoke Anglo- Saxon, their sophisticated language was mixed with the considered crude words of the Anglo-Saxons. The Norman words perspiration, dine, deceased, and urine and the Anglo-Saxon words of sweat, eat, dead, and piss are still used in English today. 2. There are three main arguments that language is an instinct. (1)Learning language is practically effortless (2)Language is learned unconsciously (3)Language is procedural knowledge; people know how to speak correctly without being able to tell you how to speak 3. Children do not learn language by simply imitating others. They tend to say statements that others (parents) would never say. Since they generate such statements, it means that they do not learn language simply by imitating others. Over time, children correct their language. Instead, each child reinvents language. 4. Pidgin is a jargon. It is a simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups of people that do not have a language in common. Pidgin is not a true language, it has no rules, tenses, prefixes/suffixes, and the word order is arbitrary. Pidgin can only be understood in the context of the conversation. Creole is pidgin that is transformed into a language, with tenses, rules, prefixes, suffixes, et cetera. The development of a pidgin to creole suggests that language is re-invented by children. Children who come into an environment without a language can invent a language when they are given a pidgin. For example, when deaf students were put together without a language, they began making a pidgin on the playground. When new students came to the school, they took the pidgin and created a language, called a creole. We can also see the invention of language in a single child. For example, Simon was a deaf boy who also had deaf parents. His parents learned sign language late in life so they are not very good at it. Also, Simon had very little contact with other deaf people, but his signing was much better than his parents. He invented his own language over time. This also shows that language learning is not imitation. 5. Dialects are versions of a language. For example, African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is a dialect for a particular subgroup within America. Dialects have certain rules as well. 6. Word dropping in Black English Vernacular is similar to contractions in Standard American English. In BEV, words are dropped from sentences, but they are still grammatically correct according to the rules of the language. For example, “if you are bad…” would be “if you bad…” and it is still grammatically correct. In SAE, word dropping is not grammatically correct. However, in SAE, contractions are often used. But the same rules for contractions may not correspond to the rules for BEV. Each language has rules that correspond to it, but the rules are specific for the language. 7. There is really no “correct” English speech. There are just different dialects of English. The dialect someone speaks may give away your personal history, but it is not fundamentally worse than any other dialect. Lecture 26: Phrase Trees 1. Two key aspects of language: symbols & grammar Symbols: symbols are arbitrary words that are understood to represent concepts The sound “dog” has nothing to do with dogs Driving on parkway and parking on driveway Grammar: the order of words matters Dog bites man vs. man bites dog 2. Grammar is a discrete combinatorial system, or a combination of words. Grammar tells us whether it follows the rules of language or not. 3. There are infinitely many different sentences, because there is no limit to how long a sentence can be. For any sentence, we can always make it longer by adding words. There is no limit to how long a sentence can be. There is enormous flexibility with language because we are creating new sentences every day. 4. We can still recognize a sentence as grammatically correct even if the sentence doesn’t make any sense to us. For example, “colorless green ideas sleep furiously”. It seems grammatically correct, but it is a nonsense sentence because it doesn’t relay an idea to us. 5. Knowledge of grammar is distinct from meaning and understanding. This is because you can have a grammatically correct sentence that has no meaning, and you can also have a sentence that is grammatically incorrect but still has a meaning. 6. Language has rules that determine what types of words can be used and when. As in the case of long-term dependencies, a word choice early in a sentence can have an effect at the end of a sentence. Certain words in a sentence have to be followed up with other certain words later in the sentence. Some words used in the beginning of a sentence can put restrictions on what you have to say later in the sentence. For example, if you say “how” at the beginning of a sentence, you must follow up and finish the sentence in a way that ties it all together. Long-term dependencies cause problems for statistical learning of language. They do this by their recursion property, meaning that any sentence can be embedded within the sentence. Recursion is an issue because it cannot be learned by statistics; it has to be based on a rule in order to learn it. 7. All noun phrases obey rules called rewrite rules. It follows the pattern of NP(det)A*N. Phrase trees are used as a graphical representation of the rewrite rules. Phrase trees specify what can be used in the phrase and where is must be used. 8. With rewrite rules and a mental dictionary, you can create a sentence by linking the rules together. In a phrase tree, a phrase is like a component that snaps into the right place. Any appropriate phrase works in a phrase tree, even if it is a nonsense phrase. As long as the right parts of speech are in the right order, we still recognize the sentence as grammatically correct. 9. It is important to appreciate how the phrase tree approach simplifies the description of language. If you learn a word is a noun, you can immediately use that noun in many different ways. You do not have to relearn the role of the words for each use in a sentence. 10. Phrase trees have no problem with phrase trees and recursion. The rewrite rules provide the structure needed to insure the right if-then combination. 11. Language universals are parts of language that almost all languages have in common. For example, in English the normal pattern is sentences if Subject-Verb-Object. This pattern is true for most of the world’s languages. Most language universals involve a co-appearance of linguistic features. For example, if a language’s preferred word order is Subject-Object-Verb, the language is likely to form questions by adding some words at the end of the question. If a language’s preferred word order is Subject-Verb-Object, the language is likely to form questions by adding some words at the beginning of the question (where did he…? When did they…?). Lecture 27: Words 1. For many words, we learn them by memorization. But, it is not only memorization. There are rules even with words. There is a lot of structure within words as well. 2. Words as basically symbols for certain concepts. The words often have nothing to do with the concept, so they serve as a symbol. For example, the word “dog” is nothing like a dog. 3. In the coglab experiment of word superiority, subjects are shown either a pair of words or a pair of nonwords and are told to determine if the two words are the same or different. Knowing an item is a word should not even help you do the task, but the results show that the reaction time was faster when subjects were presented with two words. It turns out we do process the words, and the extra processing allows us to respond faster. It also happens that words are processed faster than nonwords, resulting in the faster reaction time. The experiment is significant because it provides evidence that words are special and require processing; they are not just a collection of letters. 4. Since the preschoolers are able to identify the plural of wug as wugs without having ever seen the word “wug”, it shows that there are rules for pluralizing nouns. 5. Morphology is the study of words and the rules of word formation. Morphemes are the smallest unit of language that has meaning. Examples of morphemes are –able, -ify, -ism, -ous, ect. 6. In many respects, English has a limited morphology. Nouns have only two forms and verbs only have four forms. Other languages have many more variations. Italian and Spanish have 50 forms of each verb. Classical Greek has 350 forms of each verb. Turkish has 2 million forms of each verb. However, English can convey this information in as many ways as other languages, but we use grammatical phrases to do so. Other languages use difference verb forms to indicate these conditions. 7. Suffixes and prefixes are added on to existing words in order to create new words. For example, by adding prefixes and suffixes to teach, we can create teachable, teacher, unteachable, and teachableness. 8. Words can be created in various ways, such as compound nouns and pluralizing nouns. English allows new words to be created out of other words, and combinations of words can be combined. For example, tooth and brush are combined to make the word toothbrush. Also, unmicrowavability and bootylicious are examples of compound words. Another rule for word creation is pluralizing nouns. In order to pluralize a noun, we add –s. A root of a word is the simplest form of a word that cannot be split into smaller parts. Some morphemes attach only to roots. 9. Morphemes must exist in the mental lexicon. That includes words and suffixes (-able, -er, ect). We also have the rules for our language that are being kept in the mental lexicon. 10. Many languages are related to each other and have broad families, which is why you see so many similar words across languages. The exceptions generally come from other languages (with the appropriate rules), but English adopts the words from other languages, but not the rules. The rules remain the same, which is why it is considered an exception to the English rule. These exceptions tend to be very common words. If they were not very common words, it would be difficult to remember the exceptions, and we would end up resorting to the rule. 11. In English, the head is always the rightmost morpheme. The right word tells you what the word is about. For example, crunchable’s head is –able, and tells us that it is a thing that can be crunched. 12. Walkman is a headless noun. We know this because a Walkman is not about a type of man; thus, the “head” is not what the word is about. This tells us that Walkman is more like a new word than a compound word. Therefore, for headless compounds, the irregular plural form is not appropriate, and no plural form “feels” correct because the word has no head. Lecture 28: Parsing 1. Eliza is a computer program that does psychotherapy. Eliza works by picking up on key phrases or words and generates some stock responses. It does not actually understand what the person is talking about. For example, Eliza wouldn’t be able to tell the difference between dog bites man and man bites dog. It is unable to identify the subject, object, and verb. The system that does this is called a parser. 2. A parser identifies who does what in a sentence. We can learn a lot about a sentence’s meaning simply by knowing the phrase tree structure of the sentence. In order to interpret language, we must parse the sentence in order to understand the meaning of the sentence. You create a sentence with ideas in your head. Those ideas are converted into appropriate words and phrase trees to convey those ideas. 3. Sometimes two different ideas can give rise to the same sentence. This leads to ambiguous sentences. The parser does not work in the same way as the creator. When the creator and the parser interpret a sentence in two different ways, it becomes an ambiguous sentence. We have to think about how other people may parse the sentences, therefore we cannot think only by “speaking to ourselves”. If we think only by “speaking to ourselves”, we would sometimes think things that we wouldn’t know what we meant, and that is not possible. Mentalese implies that thinking is not simply talking to ourselves. It suggests that we think in some way that is different from language. 4. Parsing is something like building a phrase tree in reverse. For example, we will parse through the sentence “The dog likes ice cream.” The parser receives the word “the” and tries to build as much of the phrase tree structure that it can. It hears the word “the” and recognizes that it is a determinant. This tells is that a noun should soon follow. The first word sets up a skeleton as to what the phrase tree looks like. The parser knows that a verb phrase usually follows after a noun phrase, so it prepares. Once every slot is filled in the phrase tree, the sentence is parsed. Each word now has its role defined, and the order of the phrases identifies the meaning (usually). 5. Two problems with parsing: 1) Phrases are not always consistent with word order 2) The same spoken sounds are sometimes used for words with different meanings (noun vs verb vs adjective) 6. Sentences with complex word orders are difficult to parse because of limited memory. When a phrase tree includes many unfilled branches of the same type, the parser becomes confused as to which phrase is associated with a new word. This leads the parser to end up backtracking to sort out the phrases and the sentence sometimes falls apart. The grammar generator and the parser are different things in your language system. Therefore, sentences may be grammatically correct, but they are not good sentences. 7. Word ambiguity causes difficulties for parsers. The same word can be used in different sentences as a noun or a verb, as in the case of the word “marks”. When the parser creates a phrase tree, it is done quickly and often requires backtracking. 8. The experiment is a variation of the lexical decision task. In the lexical decision experiment, you see a sequential pair of words/non-words, and we must measure the reaction time for you to decide if the second “word” is a word. The results show that the reaction time is faster if the second word is meaningfully related to the first word. In an experiment relating the lexical decision task to the ambiguity of parsing, subjects were asked to listen to a paragraph. The paragraph contained the word “bugs” and it was an ambiguous word. The parser is aware of the ambiguity, but no one notices the ambiguity. The subjects are then given a lexical decision test for words verses non-words. As subjects are listening to the word bug, you flash either the word ant, spy, or sew. The results show that subjects respond fastest to the word ant, because it is most closely related to the word bug. But, subjects respond somewhat quickly to the word spy as well, indicating that the parser retains the information that spy could also be used as an alternative to bug. 9. “Time flies like an arrow” can be interpreted in 5 different ways. Humans only recognize one interpretation, but the ambiguity in the sentence can lead a computer to finding 5 grammatically correct interpretations. 10. The sentence had one unambiguous interpretation and it is grammatically correct. The sentence doesn’t transfer an idea to other people’s heads and therefore, no one says it. These types of results suggest that words and grammar are not enough to ensure communication. In a certain sense a speaker and listener must already be agreeing about the topic before anything can be communicated. 11. Even if a sentence is grammatically correct, it doesn’t necessarily ensure that other people will understand the meaning. Since there is so much ambiguity in the way we speak, the speaker and listener must already be agreeing about the topic before anything can be communicated. If we just base our understanding of language on the words, a lot of ideas would be difficult to understand. A lot of conversation is had because there is information about the context in which the conversation is being had. 12. Schemas are cognitive devices that describe stereotypical properties of a situation. Schemas help us understand language because they allow us to fill in missing information automatically. Schemas provide the context to remove the almost constant ambiguities of language. Giving computers the general “knowledge of life” needed to create something like schemas is very difficult, which is why computers do not carry on conversations with you. Lecture 29: Speech 1. Human speech is blurred. Words overlap in the speech signal, and it is nearly impossible to take a speech signal and cut it up into separate words. Part of the blurriness is from the properties of the ear. The ear is a bottleneck. There is something analogous to the critical flicker frequency in the eye. The ear is similar because it can distinguish clicks as separate only if they are given at less than 20 Hz (20 clicks per second). Above that, a series of clicks sounds like a continuous buzz. The ear is a bottleneck that is able to distinguish between sounds that may be presented. Speech is seemingly perceived much better. Normal speech provides 10 to 15 distinct phonemes each second. Fast speech is 20 to 30 phonemes per second. Artificially fast speech is 40 to 50 phonemes per second. 2. Phonemes are the sounds of speech. A phoneme is a member of the set of the smallest units of speech that serve to distinguish one utterance from another in a language or dialect. 3. If the ear can only distinguish up to 20 sounds per second and we cannot interpret speech that seems to contain 50 phonemes per second, then the speaker must be combining many phonemes together to overcome the limits of the ear. The listener hears the 20 sounds in a second, but interprets them as more than 20 different phonemes. If the phonemes are being smashed together, there must be some blurriness and this could lead to misinterpretations. The speech is packed by the speaker and results in the blurriness and the speaker depends on the listener to be able to unpack the speech to be able to recognize what the speaker intended to say. 4. When we speak, the driver of sounds comes from air from your lungs. To speak, we shape the air to make sounds. Vibrating your vocal cords, shaping your tongue, moving your lips, ect shape the air and create speech sound. The position of the tongue shapes the vocal tract and makes different sounds (true for all vowels). 5. The lips add additional frequencies to make different sounds. When they are smiling, the frequency changes and we can hear when someone is smiling. 6. Every consonant can be described through three variables: i. Voicing: vibration of the vocal cords When the vocal cords are vibrating, it is called voicing When they are not vibrating, it is called not voiced/unvoiced ii. Place of articulation: where you block the flow of air iii. Manner of articulation: how it is that you block the flow of air Stop consonants (d, t) – build up of pressure Nasal (m) Fricative (f, v) – partially blocking the flow of air Each consonant is uniquely identified by its voice (or not) and its place and manner of articulation. 7. All languages define consonants in the same way, but not all languages use the same consonants. 8. For phrases such as razzle-dazzle, people always first say the word with a leading consonant that impedes air flow the least. R impedes the flow of air less than D. 9. Coarticulation is when you shape your tongue in advanced preparation for the next phoneme. This influences the sound of phonemes. We generally do not notice these adjustments because we are tuned to recognize the new sounds as coarticulation. It is true that English spelling does not seem to agree with pronunciation. But, if words were spelled the way they were pronounced, we would lose the visual connection between words. For example, slapped would become slapt, writing would become wridding, and NPR would become MPR. 10. When we speak, we are not actually saying the sounds that we intend to speak. The computer never hears the words because we never generate them. We generate different sounds and the computers must unpack it to determine what we intended to say. This is what makes it so difficult for computers to understand human speech. 11. The most sensible written language is probably the Korean hangul because the drawn characters indicate how consonants are pronounced. Lecture 30: Language Development 1. Infants have linguistic skills as soon as they are born. Babies are interested in new things. Therefore, you could attach a tape player to a pacifier. Each suck on the pacifier causes the player to play a sound. Repetition of the same sound leads to boredom and fewer sucks. If the syllable changes, the babies will suck more often. For example, changing ba to pa. When the child starts sucking more when the syllable changes, it implies that the baby can distinguish the pa sound from the ba sound. This means that there is some linguistic information in the child; they can distinguish between ba and pa. The difference between the two sounds is the voice onset time. Babies hear all phonemes, even ones their parents cannot distinguish. Babies, even newborns, do show a preference for what will become their native tongue. This occurs because they hear their mother’s voice while in the womb. 2. Babbling is important. Children who do not babble often show slower speech development. Babbling teaches children how sequences of muscle combinations lead to different sounds that are necessary to produce speech. 3. Language stages: 1) Cooing – first several months 2) Babbling - ~6 months 3) One word utterances - ~1 year 4) Two word utterances and telegraphic speech – 1-3 years 5) Basic adult sequences with grammar - ~4 years 4. In the age of acquisition coglab, we used a lexical decision task to measure reaction time to words that were learned relatively early in life (age 6 or sooner) and words that were learned relatively late (age 7 or later). The subjects were shown the words and the reaction time was measured. The results show that the reaction time for words learned at an earlier age of acquisition was short than for the words learned later. This may be because the words learned earlier are more accessible and able to be processed more quickly. 5. Children do make errors, but the errors are consistent with rules of language. Children often overgeneralize a rule. For example, they add –s to pluralize a noun, as in mouses or leafs, or they add –ed to make the past tense of a verb, such as holded or heared. These past tense forms sound wrong because English has around 180 irregular verbs. Irregular forms have to be memorized, word by word. If a child cannot remember, they default to the rule. These errors are the most difficult parts of a language to learn because they don’t follow the normal rules. We also know that it is the most difficult part of language because adults make the same kind of mistakes. 6. Both children and adults make errors in overgeneralization. However, children will resort to the rule, whereas adults will “regularize” the words, thus changing language. Children make similar mistakes in applying grammatical rules. They overgeneralize application of the causative rule to inappropriate verbs. Adults also misuse the causative rule. They take a verb meaning “to do something” and turn it into a verb that means “to cause to do something”. Children’s errors tend to track the more difficult aspects of a language, relative to other languages. Adults make the same kinds of mistakes for still more difficult to remember cases. 7. It is difficult for an adult to become fluent in a second language. The ability to learn a second language is most likely due to age. There seems to be a critical period during which language can be learned, and beyond age six it becomes more difficult to learn a language. Lecture 31: Language and the Brain 1. A person who has Broca’s aphasia seems to know what they want to say, but they are unable to say it. Some stroke patients show agrammatical speech, such as repetition and short sentences (for both written and spoken). But, they have no problem controlling their mouth. Broca’s aphasia is caused by damage to Broca’s area in the brain. Mr. Ford, a patient with Broca’s aphasia, omitted endings (-ed, -s), omitted function words (or, be, the), skipped function words when reading (but read similar sounding words), named objects and recognized names, and had a high (nonverbal) IQ. He also had difficulty getting ideas across. A patient with Broca’s aphasia can understand questions if the gist could be deduced from content words. However, they fail to understand anything requiring grammatical analysis. A patient with Broca’s aphasia is hard to follow, but we are able to understand the overall meaning of what they are saying. Broca’s area plays a role in learning the rules of a language. Other stroke patients also show agrammatical speech. Patients with Wernicke’s aphasia seem to be able to say things, but what they say is almost meaningless. Patients show poor comprehension, poor vocabulary, and “empty” speech. Basically, their speech is grammatically correct with no meaning. Patients with Wernicke’s aphasia often have difficulty getting ideas across. Wernicke’s aphasia is caused by damage to Wernicke’s area. Anomia is a problem with finding a word or recall. Most aphasias involve damage to more than just one specific area. Damage around Wernicke’s area produces a deficit in the ability to name things. For example, after a stroke in this area, a patient cannot retrieve the nouns he wants to use. Sometimes anomia can be remarkably specific. For example, some patients have difficulty with only certain types of nouns (concrete vs abstract, nonliving vs living, ect). 2. In the 1960s several researcher groups reported teaching chimpanzees American Sign Language, after failing to teach spoken language. Other groups taught chimps to press symbols on a computer keyboard or string magnetized plastic shapes on a board. The researchers claimed to have taught chimps 100s of words and that the chimps created new compound words. Just like with Eliza, it is easy to attribute language ability where is does not really exist. You can teach an animal a lot using simple conditioning tricks. Researchers were also quick to excuse mistakes as “play”, “jokes”, ect. For example, a deaf student on one research team later commented that she saw fewer signs than the non-deaf students, and it seems that the researchers counted almost any hand movement as a sign. The chimps did not learn ASL. They failed to learn the rules of ASL grammar and were unable to understand the complex signs. The chimps were able to communicate but not with real language. 3. The failure of chimps to learn language does not go against the idea that language evolved in humans, as some people have proposed. Chimps are the closest evolutionary relatives of humans, so if any non-human animal could learn language, it would probably be chimps. But in evolutionary history, chimps and humans split from a common ancestor millions of years ago, and humans evolved a language skill and chimps did not. Lecture 32: Consciousness 1. Cartesian dualism is the idea that there is a distinction between the physical and spiritual world. Descartes believed that the pineal gland linked the body and spirit. This idea doesn’t work because the pineal gland is in the physical world and how the two could connect was a real problem. The mind-body problem is the idea of the interaction between the physical and mental world. Materialism is the idea that the mind derives from the brain. 2. The information processing in the brain is spatially and temporally distributed in the brain. That is, as new stimuli is presented, the processing throughout the brain changes. This means there really is no specific moment of consciousness because different brain areas know different things at different times. 3. The Turing test asks the question: How do you know a person is conscious/intelligent? Turing had the idea that if a person is conscious/intelligent they behave in a way that we interpret as consistent with a conscious being. A judge has a conversation with a human and the other is with a computer. The judge is trying to distinguish which conversation is with a computer and which is with a human. If you have a computer that is able to have a conversation that is indistinguishable from a conversation with a human, then it is concluded that the computer is intelligent. No computer has passed anything but a weak form of the Turing test, because it lacks sufficient schemas, creativity, and general knowledge.
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