Exsc 224 Exam 1 Study Guide
Exsc 224 Exam 1 Study Guide Exsc 224
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Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide for Exam 1 Questions 1. What are the three things that the nervous system does? 2. The two major parts of the nervous system are the and . 3. What makes up the central nervous system and what happens there ? 4. The PNS consists of nerves and nerves. 5. In the PNS, nerves can be either or . 6. Sensory nerves are meaning they go towards the brain. 7. Sensory nerve fibers conduct impulses from to the . 8. Motor nerves are meaning they exit the brain. 9. Motor nerves conduct impulses from the to (muscles and glands). 10. What are the two subdivisions of the motor division? 11. The somatic nervous system is and conducts impulses from the to . 12. The nervous system in involuntary and conducts impulses from the CNS to , smooth muscles, and . 13. The autonomic system divides into what ? 14. The division is associated with flight or fight which causes gut motility to . 15. The parasympathetic division is called and . It causes heart rate to and promotes digestion. 16. What are the two principal cell types in the nervous system. 17. List the six types of glial cells and briefly describe each. 18. What are neurons? 19. What are some special characteristics of neurons? 20. What does the plasma membrane of neurons function in? 21. List the three types of neurons and briefly describe them. 22. What are some of the things that the cell body or soma contains? 23. Dendrites cell info and axons information 24. What does an axon hillock do and what originates here? 25. Clusters of cell bodies in the CNS are called and clusters in the PNS are called . 26. Briefly explain what dendrites are and what they do. 27. Briefly describe axons and what they do. 28. In the CNS what are tracts? 29. What is a myelin sheath? 30. Explain what Nodes of Ranviers are. 31. List the functions of myelin sheaths. 32. In the CNS myelin sheaths are formed by and in the PNS it is formed by . 33. What is the function of neurons? 34. List the two main types of ion channels and briefly explain each. 35. What are the three types of gated channels and what do they do? 36. Compare and contrast graded and action potentials. 37. is when the membrane potential moves toward 0, and is when the membrane potential increases. 38. Explain what happens with an action potential within the cell if threshold is reached. 39. What is the role of the sodium-potassium pump in the cell? 40. Describe absolute refractory period. 41. Describe relative refractory period. 42. is the rate at which AP propagates down the length of the axon, and what two things affect it? 43. In a , the change in membrane potential last longer and it takes less time for AP to propagate down the membrane. 44. is the activation of sodium-gated channels at Nodes of Raniver. 45. Nerve fiber classification is based on what three things? 46. Group fibers are the smallest in diameter, slowest and . 47. What is a synapse? 48. List the two different parts of a chemical synapses and tell what they do. 49. Electrical synapses are very , unidirectional or ,and important in what three things. 50. List the steps of how one neuron communicates with another neuron. 51. What are the two types of post-synaptic potentials? 52. postsynaptic potentials are known as depolarizing, while postsynaptic potentials are known as hyperpolarizing. 53. Do the two post-synaptic potentials tell whether the stimulus is adequate or not?’ 54. What is summation? 55. is when two signals fired at different times don’t overlap. 56. is when one neuron fires multiple times causing a large change in membrane potential. 57. is when two presynaptic neurons fire at the same time and can cause a larger effect than if only one fired. 58. List the different types of neurotransmitters. 59. What is the most abundant neurotransmitters in the body? 60. It depends on what the neurotransmitter binds to whether it is excitatory or inhibitory. 61. is a biogenic amine that is the “feel good” transmitter. 62. is a biogenic amine that if you don’t have enough of it you become depressed and if you have too much you go to sleep. 63. List the two types of neurotransmitter receptors and explain each. 64. How do second messenger systems work? 65. are functional groups of neurons that integrate incoming information and forward the processed information to other destinations. 66. A has a single presynaptic fiber that branches and forms synapses with several postsynaptic neurons in the pool; is an amplifying circuit 67. List the different types of circuits in neuronal pools and briefly describe each. 68. What are the five essential components of reflex arcs and what pattern of neural processing is it a part of? 69. is when input travels along several pathways, one stimulus promotes numerous responses, and is important for higher-level mental functioning. 70. Gray matter is and white matter is of . 71. Which ventricles have which produce cerebrospinal fluid? 72. What connects the fourth and third ventricle? 73. What are the three functional areas of the cerebral cortex? 74. The motor area is found only in what lobe of the brain? 75. All areas store memory. 76. The cortex allows for conscious control of precise, skilled, voluntary movements and is mapped out by a , which is an upside-down caricatures representing the motor innervation of body regions. 77. The cortex controls learned, repetitious or patterned motor skill, coordinates simultaneous or sequential actions. 78. is a motor speech area that directs the muscles of the tongue. 79. areas receive no input from the frontal lobe. 80. The cortex receives sensory info from the skin, skeletal muscles and joints. It is capable of spatial discrimination. 81. The cortex integrates sensory info from the primary somatosensory cortex. 82. What does the multimodial association area do and how many parts does it have ? 83. What is lateralization? 84. How do the left and right hemispheres communicate? 85. What do association fibers connect ? 86. What do projection fibers connect? 87. The side of the brain controls the left side of the body, and the side of the brain controls the right side of the body. 88. is descending from the cortex and is ascending to the cortex. 89. What is thought to be the functions of basal nuclei? 90. Describe the location of the diencephalon, and name its subdivisions and functions. 91.What are three regions of the brain stem and what happens here? 92. The cerebral peduncles contain tracts and are located in the . 93. The cerebral aqueduct is the channel between what two structures? 94. The is home to nuclei that help maintain normal rhythm of breathing and pyramidal (descending) tracts run through here. 95. The is the only thing you can’t live without, contains autonomic reflex centers that control heart rate and respiratory centers, and does not have a blood brain barrier. 96. What are pyramids? 97. of is the crossover of corticospinal tracts. 98. List some of the functions of the cerebellum. 99. What side does the cerebellum receive info from? 100. What system works with the hypothalamus with eliciting emotional and stress responses ? 101. What recognizes angry of fearful facial expression, assess danger and elicits the fear response? 102. What plays a role in declarative memory? 103. What are some functions of the reticular activating system? 104. is the storage and retrieval of info with all learning coming from what five things? 105. - memory is the temporary holding of information, limited to seven or eight pieces of information. 106. - has limitless capacity. 107. What are some ways to transfer memories from short-term to long-term? 108. Declarative memory is knowledge while nondeclarative memory is acquired through experience and . 109. What is synaptic pruning? 110. What primes regions of the brain to make it more receptive to storing info? 111. Nondeclarative memory includes what three things? 112. List the things that protect the brain. 113. What the layers of the meninges from outermost layer to innermost layer? 114. What are the two layers of the dura mater? 115. The same meninges around the brain are around the spinal cord, but the dura mater only has one layer. What is it? 116. What is the blood brain barrier and what does it do? 117. Where does the spinal cord begin and end? 118. How many pairs of spinal nerves are there? 119. What are the cervical and lumbar enlargements? 120. are extensions of pia mater that secure the spinal cord to the dura mater. 121. are fibrous extensions from conus medullaris that anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx. 122. What allows neurons to cross sides? 123. What links commissures together? 124. have ganglion but do not. 125. Ventral roots are always . 126. What is a dermatome? 127. Most dermatomes , which means that the destruction of a spinal nerve won’t cause numbness. 128. Paresthesia is loss of and paralysis is loss of . 129. Describe flaccid paralysis. 130. Describe spastic paralysis. 131. What are three neurons that are in ascending(sensory) pathways? Answers 1. Sensory input, integration, and motor output 2. central nervous system and peripheral nervous system 3. brain and spinal cord and all integration takes place there 4. cranial and spinal 5. sensory or motor. 6. afferent 7. receptors , CNS 8. efferent 9. CNS , effectors 10. somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system 11. voluntary, CNS, skeletal muscles 12. autonomic, cardiac muscles, glands 13. sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions 14. sympathetic, decrease 15. rest and digest, slow 16. neuroglia and neurons 17. astrocytes- most abundant, regulate permeability of blood brain barrier, support and brace neurons, found in CNS Microglia- found in CNS, macrophages, migrate toward injured neurons, phagocytize microorganisms and neuronal debris Ependymal cells- found in CNS, if ciliated helps move CSF, lines central cavities of brain and spinal column, connected by tight junctions, produce CSF at choroid plexuses Oligodendrocytes- found in CNS, branched, processes wrap around multiple axons in CNS forming insulating myelin sheaths Satellite cells- found in PNS, functionally similar to astrocytes, regulate nutrient access Schwann cells- found in PNS, form myelin sheaths, vital to regeneration of damaged peripheral nerves 18. Neurons are excitable cells that transmit information info at synapse signal and are the primary cell in the nervous system 19. Long lived (100 years or more), amitotic(don’t divide with few exceptions), have a high metabolic rate that depends on a continuous supply of oxygen and glucose. 20. Electrical signaling through neurotransmitters and cell-to-cell interactions during development 21. Multipolar-many processes extend from body, all dendrites except for one axon, most abundant, major neuron type in CNS, most conduct impulses in CNS integrating sensory input/motor output Bipolar- two processes extend from the cell body; one is fused dendrite and the other is an axon, rare and found in some special sensory organs, most are all sensory neurons located in some special sense organs Unipolar- one process extends from the cell body and forms central and peripheral processes which together form an axon, found mainly in PNS, most are sensory neurons that conduct impulses along afferent pathways to CNS for interpretation 22. nucleus, cytoskeleton, Nissl bodies(endoplasmic reticulum), dendrites, axons, and axon hillock. 23. receives, sends 24. it connects soma to axon; an impulse or action potential originates here 25. nuclei , ganglia 26. Dendrites are short, tapering, and diffusely branched. They are the receptive (input) region of the neuron that receives signals from other neurons. They convey input toward the cell body. 27. There is only axon per cell that arises from the axon hillock with many terminal branches at the end of the axon. The axon is the conducting region of a neuron that generates and transmits action potentials. Action potentials then trigger the release of neurotransmitters at the axon terminals. 28. Tracts are a bunch of axons running together in the CNS. 29. Myelin sheaths are segmented protein-lipoid sheath that surrounds most long in either the PNS or CNS. 30. Nodes of Ranvier are areas of bare axons between two adjacent sheaths. 31. Protect and insulate axon; increase speed of nerve impulse transmission; acts as scaffold to regenerate neuron 32. oligodendrocytes, schwann cells 33. Neurons are highly irritable/excitable meaning they can depolarize, they respond to adequate stimulus by generating an action potential, action potentials are always the same magnitude or duration regardless of stimulus. 34. Leakage (nongated) channels allow ions to leak down their concentration gradients, always open and virtually unregulated. It also allows sodium to move from extracellular fluid to cytosol. Gated channels are always regulated and allow ions to flow across the membrane at certain times. 35. Chemically gated (ligand-gated)channels open when appropriate neurotransmitter binds to the receptor, receptor changes shape, neurotransmitter falls off and channel closes again. These can be found on dendrites and cell bodies of neurons. Voltage-gated channels open and close in response to changes in the membrane voltage. The channel is closed when the cell is at resting membrane potential. These are found in the axon, axon hillock, and axon branches of neurons. Mechanically gated channels are found on dendrites and cell bodies of neurons. 36. Graded potentials and action potentials are both changes in membrane potentials. Graded potentials are short-lived, localized, short-distance signals and can cause depolarizations and hyperpolarizations of the membrane potential. Depolarization happens when the membrane potential moves toward 0mV with the inside becoming more positive. Hyperpolarization occurs when the membrane potential increases with the inside becoming more negative. They can be small, medium, or large sized and the magnitude varies with stimulus strength. They occur in the dendrites and cell bodies when gated ion channels open and spread as local currents change the membrane potential of adjacent regions. They decrease in magnitude with distance, only affects one region of the neuron, and only if it is large enough will it reach threshold causing an action potential (AP) to occur. Action potentials are caused by permeability changes in the plasma membrane and can only happen in cells with excitable membranes. Signals are sent over long distances using action potentials. Unlike graded potentials they are always the same size and duration. Also, APs are all or nothing unlike graded potentials. APs are generated in the axon hillock and trigger the release of neurotransmitters at axon terminals. Action potentials lead to the depolarization of the membrane, repolarization and then possibly hyperpolarization. Summation for graded potentials is possible but not for action potentials because of refractory periods and its all-or-none nature. Summation is when two presynaptic signals fired overlap and cause a greater change in membrane potential. 37. Depolarization, hyperpolarization 38. Reach threshold activate sodium-gated channels, have a huge depolarizing increase overshooting 0mV with the inside of the cell becoming positive for a moment When cell becomes positive, sodium-gated channels close Potassium-voltage gated channels will open and repolarize, so potassium rushes out of the cell, membrane potential decreases so much the cell is temporarily hyperpolarized Once hyperpolarized potassium-voltage gated channel closes. Potassium is now in cytosol with sodium inside cell. Sodium-potassium pumps ions back across membrane restoring resting membrane potential where it levels off until it receives another stimulus. Takes about 4ms, can have about 250 action potentials in one second. 39. Restores the resting electrical conditions of the neuron, but does not restore the resting ionic conditions. Ionic redistribution back to resting conditions is restored by the thousands of sodium- potassium pumps. Requires energy to restore from an AP and uses ATP. Removes 3 sodiums from cell and moves 2 potassiums in. 40. It’s a period from when cell reaches threshold and then depolarizes and reaches threshold- from threshold to threshold. During this time, the cell can’t depolarize again. 41. Follows absolute refractory period, begins when membrane potential falls below threshold and lasts through hyperpolarization until resting membrane potentials returns to normal. It is possible for the neuron to depolarize again but it takes a larger stimulus than normal. 42. Conduct velocity; effect of axon diameter(large diameter fibers have less resistance to local current flow and have faster impulse conduction) and effect of myelination(continuous conduction in unmyelinated is slower than salutatory conduction in myelinated). 43. myelinated axon 44. salutatory conduction 45. diameter, degree of myelination, speed of conduction 46. C, unmyelinated 47. a junction that mediates information transfer from one neuron to another neuron or effector cell 48. presynaptic neuron(axon terminal or buton)- conducts impulses toward synapse, has AP, release neurotransmitter that causes graded potential on post-synaptic neuron; post-synaptic neuron (receptor region)- transmit impulses away from the synapse, dendrites or soma with ligand-gated channels 49. rapid, bidirectional; embryonic nervous tissue, some brain regions and the heart 50. 1. Action potential arrives at axon terminal or button with the goal to release neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft 2. Voltage gated Ca2+ channels open and Ca2+ enter the axon terminal 3. Ca2+ entry causes neurotransmitter- containing synaptic vesicles to release their contents by exocytosis 4.Neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific receptors on the postsynaptic membrane 5. Binding of neurotransmitter opens ion channels, resulting in graded potentials 6. Neurotransmitter effects are terminated by : reuptake, enzymatic degradation, diffusion 51. Excitatory post-synaptic potentials and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials 52. excitatory, inhibitory 53. no, they only tell the direction 54. It is when two presynaptic neurons fire and overlap to cause a greater change in membrane potential 55. No summation 56. Temporal summation 57. Spatial summation 58.Acetylcholine, biogenic amines, amino acids, peptides, purines, gases and lipids 59. acetylcholine (ACh) 60. receptor 61. dopamine 62. serotonin 63. Channel-linked receptor are immediate and brief ligand-gated gated channels where the ligand binds to the receptor, causes it to open and then ions flow through and can be either excitatory or inhibitory. G-protein llinked receptors cause formation if an intracellular second messenger, cyclic AMP, that brings about cell’s response, uses a domino effect through 2 nd messengers. st 64. 1. Neurotransmitter (1 messenger) binds and activates receptor. 2. Receptor activates G protein using GTP as energy source. 3. G protein activates adenylate cyclase (enzyme) which catalyzes a reaction.4. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP(2 messenger).5a. cAMP changes membrane permeability by opening or closing ion channels.5b. cAMP activates enzymes.5c. cAMP activates specific genes . 65.neuronal pools 66. simple neuronal pools 67.diverging circuit-one incoming fiber stimulates an ever-increasing numbers of fibers, often amplifying. Circuits- common in sensory and motor systems. Converging- result in either strong stimulation or inhibition, multiple unites converge into one, Reverberating or oscillating- chain of neurons containing collateral synapses with previous neurons in chain. Parallel- after discharge circuit incoming fibers stimulate several neurons in parallel arrays to stimulate common output cell 68 stimulus→1.receptor→2.sensory neuron→3. Integration center→4. Motor neuron→5. Effector→ response; serial 69. parallel processing 70. neuron cell bodies, bundles axons 71. lateral and fourth; choroid plexuses 72. cerebral aqueduct 73. motor, sensory, association 74. frontal 75. association 76. primary motor, homunculi 77.premotor 78. Broca’s area 79. sensory 80. primary somatosensory 81. somatosensory association 82. receives input from multiple sensory area, sends output to multiple areas; anterior association area, posterior association area, and limbic association area 83. division of labor between hemispheres 84. via fiber tracts in the cerebral white matter 85. two gyri of the same hemispheres 86. connect hemispheres with lower brain or spinal cord 87. right, left 88. motor, sensory 89. influence muscular control, help regulate attention and cognition, regulate intensity of slow/ stereotyped movements, inhibit antagonistic/ unnecessary movement 90. The diencephalon is composed of three gray matter areas that form the central core of the forebrain and is surrounded by the cerebral hemispheres. It consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and the epithalamus. The thalamus helps mediate sensation, control motor activities, and plays a role with learning and memory. There is only one hypothalamus that is referred to as a neuroendocrine organ because it is also an endocrine gland that controls large portions of the endocrine system. It is the autonomic control center for visceral functions like blood pressure, rate and force of heartbeat and digestive tract motility. The hypothalamus is also a center for emotional response involved in perception of pleasure, fear, rage, and with biological rhythms and drives. It regulates body temperature, food intake, water balance, thirst, and sleep cycles. It controls the release of hormones by the anterior pituitary and produces pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus is also is one the few parts of the brain that doesn’t have a blood brain barrier. The epithalamus is in the most dorsal portion of the diencephalon and forms the roof of the third ventricle. The pineal gland is in this area and extends from the posterior border. It secretes melatonin which helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is regulated by light exposure. 91. midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata; automatic function, no cognition or thinking 92. pyramidal motor, midbrain 93. third and fourth ventricles 94. pons 95. medulla oblongata 96. two ventral longitudinal ridges from by pyramidal tracts 97. decussation, pyramids 98. proprioception, recognize and predict sequence of events during complex movements, plays role in word association and puzzle solving 99. ipsilateral(same side) 100. limbic system 101. amygdala 102. hippocampus 103. It sends impulses to the cerebral cortex to keep it conscious and alert, filters out repetitive and weak stimuli. It helps control coarse limb movements. 104. memory; touch, smell, taste, sight, hearing 105.short-term 106.long-term 107. emotional state, rehearsal, association, and automatic memory 108. factual, repetition 109. gain and lose synapses between neurons; there is a decrease in recall every time you remember meaning you remember it more and more incorrectly each time 110. ACh 111.procedural (skills) memory, motor memory (cerebellum) and emotional memory (amygdala) 112. bone, meninges, CSF, blood- brain barrier 113. dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater 114. periosteal and meningeal 115. meningeal 116. capillaries connected by tight junctions that form impermeable barrier and it helps maintain a stable environment for the brain 117. begins- foramen magnum; ends- at L1 vertebrae as conus medullaris 118.31pairs 119. It is where the most number of nerves enter and exit the spinal cord at these regions 120. denticulate ligaments 121. filum terminale 122. gray commisures 123. horns 124. dorsal roots, ventral roots 125. motor 126. area of skin innervated by cutaneous branches of single spinal nerve 127. overlap, complete 128. sensation, motor function 129. It is injury to lower motor neuron (peripheral motor neuron). There is no voluntary control of muscles with no reflex activity and the muscles atrophy rapidly. 130. It is an injury to an upper motor neuron (motor neuron in the CNS) with no voluntary control of muscles. Muscles can be stimulated by reflex activity, is in constant contraction, and muscle atrophy is delayed because the muscle is being used. 131. first order neuron, second order neuron, and third order neuron
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