PreparED Study Materials

Week 3 - Geology 1610 Test 1 flash cards

Author: Student Professor: Johnny Byers Term:

Terms to review for Exam 1! Check them out! If you know the words you learn the material much faster!

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Seven rock forming minerals 

Quartz, Feldspar, Mica, Amiphibole, Pyroxine

Quartz

SiO2, Makes up 12% of crustal rock 

Feldspar (Feldspar group) 

K, AL, Si3, O8 (Potassium) Pink in colorNa, Al, Si3, O8 (Albite)Ca, Al2, Si2, O8 (Anorthite)  50% of continental rock

Mica

Formed in sheets, cleavage in one direction, heat resistant

Amphibole

Oceanic Rock, dark in colorcleavage pattern angles (120 degrees and 60 degrees) 

Pyroxine

Dark in color, black, dark grey cleavege in 2 directions at 90 degree angles

Olivine

(Mg, Fe)2 SiO4 Round, colorful, green color, indicator mineral for diamonds No cleavegeSingle tetrahedron 

Clay

THICK 

Two major groups 

Non-silicateSilicate 

Non-Silicates

Any rock or mineral that does not have at least one Silicon and three Oxygen Example: NaCl - HaliteCaCO3 - Calcite Ca, Mg, (CO3)2 - Dolomite 

Silicate group

Make up 75% of crustal rocks (Silicon and oxygen make up these groups) Fundimental unit is Silica-Ocygen Tetrahedron SiO4

75 % of crustal rocks are made of what....!!?

Silicon, Oxygen and Tetrahedron!

Tetrahedron 

Pyramid like structure holding together elements in a stable manner. 

Common properties used to identify materials 

Crystal form, color, streak, luster, reaction to acid, magnetic, take, feel, sirloin lines, hardness, optical properties such as double refraction, cleavage planes, cleavage angles, etc..

Intrusive rocks are

Igneous rocks, rocks that form from cooled magma 

Fulgurite 

Lightening strikes sand, Quartz 

Gravity

Mutual attracting force exerted by mass on all other objects 

Earths four spheres  

Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Lithosphere, Biosphere 

Atmosphere 

Thin gaseous layer that covers the earth, held by gravity, produced by the earth's crust and life's exhalations 

Hydrosphere 

The medium of life, atmospheric, surgical, crustal, liquid, solid, gaseous, fresh or saline 

Lithosphere

Earth's crust and upper mantle or entire solid planet to include the soil layer or edaphosphere (soil beneath feet) 

Biosphere

Web of life that connects organisms to their environment 

Speed of light 

299,792 kms 

Relative dating 

Putting things in sequence, historical events in correct order, age of one object in comparison to another 

Absolute dating 

Based on radiometric decay scale, (numerical) based on isotopes (unstable elements) shows exactly how many hears ago a given event took place

Dikes are what

tabular, sheet like igneous body that is often vertically oriented or steeply inclined to the bedding of Pre-existing rocks 

Big Bang

The scientific theory that the universe expanded rapidly from enormously dense state some 14-16 million years ago, the best model for the origin and evolution of the universe, galaxies, stars, planets, black holes, from matter. 

Plate tectonics 

Theory that the Earth's outer shell is divided into several plates that glide over the mantle, the rocky inner layer above the core 

Isostacy

The state of gravitational equilibrium between earth's crust and mantle such that the crust floats at an elevation that depends on its thickness and density of underlying roots of the low density of the mountain 

Dr. Seuss Edward hypothesized 

That maybe sometime in the past there was a super continent 

Mesosaurus

Fresh water reptile 

Lystrosaurus

Pig sized herbivore 

Cynognathus 

Mammal like reptiles 

Paleomagnetism 

The study of the record of the earths magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials 

Polar wandering 

The slow and erratic, real or apparent, movement of the earth's rotational or magnetic poles relate to the continents throughout geological time, due largely to continental drift 

Three types of plate boundaries 

DivergentTransform Boundary Convergent Boundary 

Divergent

Pulled apart, diverging 

Transform boundary

Slipping past each other in opposite directions 

Convergent boundary 

They destroy/construct, older oceanic rock subjecting into newer oceanic rock 

Hot Spot 

Volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle. 

Ionic Bond

Type of chemical bond that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions

Covalent bond 

Chemical bond involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms, known as shared pairs or bonding pairs 

Rock 

aggregate of one or more minerals (granite, marble or shale) or solid matter (coal) 

Mineral 

A natural occuring inorganic element or compound having an orderly internal structure 

Phylogeny 

the evolutionary development of any plant or animal 

Ontogeny 

Life cycle of a single organism 

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