BIOLOGY 1030 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE (FOLKERTS)
BIOLOGY 1030 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE (FOLKERTS) Biology 1030
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 1030 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Debbie R. Folkerts in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 706 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
KEY VOCAB WORDS! • Homologous: phenotypic and genetic similarities are caused by shared ancestry. (from the same origin) • Analogous: based on convergent evolution, which occurs when similar environmental pressures and natural selection produce similar types of adaptations, this often misleads people into think two species that are not related, are related. (similar in function) • Plesiomorphic: an ancestral age of characteristics • Amorphic: much newer and recently evolved characteristics, which can be rare • Symplesiomorphic: shared characteristics which have been passes down from ancestors • Synplesiomorphic: shared derived features • Automorphic: all valid taxons we make should have some form of automorphy • Monophyletic: there is one ancestor from which the whole group came from • Holophyletic: more specific, with all members of the single ancestor included • Paraphyletic: on a side branch of the family tree, different because they may have evolved quickly or moved to another habitat • Polyphyletic: when there is more than one ancestor • Peptidoglycans: a polymer that has amino acids and sugars which forms the outside layer of the plasma membrane in most bacteria • Gram (+) bacteria: have large amounts of peptidoglycan, and a simple cell wall. • Gram (-) bacteria: have a very little amount of peptidoglycan with a complex cell wall (much more deadly than gram (+) bacteria). • Genome: contains an organism’s complete set of DNA • Plasmids: smaller pieces of circular DNA • Nucleoid: where the DNA is found • Sex pillus: little packets of DNA • Budding: when a cell produces a smaller cell off to the side • Conjugation: plasmid donating, this is the closest thing prokaryotes have to sex. • Dormancy: a period in an organism’s life when growth, development, etc. are temporarily stopped. • Heterotrophic: they “hunt” for their food • Decomposers: break down dead/decaying organisms, so that dead stuff doesn’t just sit there forever. • Mutualistic: when 2 different organisms exist in a relationship in which they benefit each other • Pathogenic: cause disease • Photoautotrophs: make inorganic molecules into organic molecules (make food through sunlight). • Chemoautotrophs: use chemicals to put together organic components to make food. • Photoheterotrophic: use light as energy but get carbon for organic molecules from other sources. • Aerobic: these bacteria live WITH oxygen • Anaerobic: these bacteria live WITHOUT oxygen • Strict aerobic: these bacteria NEED oxygen • Strict anaerobic: these bacteria will die with oxygen, NEVER need it • Facultative: these bacteria can have oxygen, don’t need it • Mutualists: live with other organisms • Pathogens: feed on other organisms • Biofilms: the waste of one, is food for another • Extremophiles: live in extreme conditions • Thermophiles: live in extremely hot conditions (heat loving) • Halophiles: live in extremely salty conditions • Methanogens: make methane (CH4), swamp gas, and fossil fuels • Serial endosymbiotic theory: this theory explains the origin of nucleated eukaryotic cells by a merging of eubacterial and archaebacterial cells. • Haploid: ½ number of the chromosomes (23) and genetic material also referred to as (n). • Diploid: all of the chromosomes (46) and genetic material also referred to as (2n). • Mitosis: replication +1 division • Meiosis: replication +2 division • Zygote: cell which is produced by a gamete fusion • Gametes: reproductive cell, fusion (syngamy) • Sexual reproduction: the change in chromosome number, so that nà2n (syngamy) • Phylum Diplomonadida: 2 big nuclei • Phylum Parabasata: have a parabasal organ • Phylum Kinetoplastida: has a large mitochondria • Phylum Euglenoza: has a stigma • Phylum Dinoflagellala: has a longgintudinal flagella • Phylum Apicomplexa: host on people (malaria mosquito) • Cirrus: tufts of cillia that form leg like structures • Membranelles: rows of cillia that form sheet like structures • Dyein: arms that hep in motor movement • Phylum Bacillariophyta: Diatoms • Phylum Phaeophyta: brown algae • Phylum Rhondophyta: red algae • Ameboid Protozoa: Amoebas without tests • Phylum Radiolaria: stiff and needle like • Phylum Foraminifera: some of the largest protists • Phylum Myxomycota: slime molds • Phylum Chlorophyta: green algae • Phylum Choanoflagellata: sister group is Animalia • Phylum Bryophyta: true mosses • Phylum Hepatophyta: liverworts • Phylum Anthocerophyta: hornworts • Antheridiophore: antheridiya w/ sperm (male reproductive org an for plants) • Archegoniophore: archegonia w/ eggs (female reproductive organ for plants) Reproductive Cycle Diagrams Zygotic Meiosis Cycle Sporic Meiosis Cycle Gametic Meiosis Cycle Sexual Reproduction Cycle Organismal Biology (Chapter 26-29) Practice Test 83 questions with answer key at the end 1) Which of these characteristics should we not look at due to mistakes that can easily be made? a. Plesiomorphic b. Amorphic c. Symplesiomorphic d. Synplesiomorphic 2) Which of these means to come from one ancestor? a. Automorphic b. Amorphic c. Monophyletic d. Polyphyletic 3) When looking at the phylogenic history of an organism/species, we have to make sure that their looks did NOT evolve by: a. Nature b. People c. Other organisms d. Ancestors 4) Which of these means that the phenotypic and genetic similarities are caused by a shared ancestry? a. Monophyletic b. Analogous c. Plesiomorphic d. Homologous 5) What was the species name of the corn snake that was brought to class? a. Patherophis gattathus b. Patherophis c. Colubridae d. Serpentes 6) Which of these are prokaryotic? a. Archaea b. Archaea and Bacteria c. Eukarya and Bacteria d. Eukarya 7) Which of these is eukaryotic? a. Archaea b. Archaea and Bacteria c. Eukarya and Bacteria d. Eukarya 8) Which of these has a cell wall made of chitin? a. Animalia b. Plantae c. Fungi d. Protista 9) Which of these are known as the “original eukaryotes”? a. Animalia b. Plantae c. Fungi d. Protista 10)Which of these is a hot dog/rod shaped cell? a. Coccus b. Bacillus c. Spirillus d. Flagella 11)Which of these is the least common shape of cells? a. Coccus b. Bacillus c. Spirillus d. Flagella 12) What are cells found in clusters called? a. Strepto b. Colonial c. Solitary d. Staphylo 13) What is a long strand of cells called? a. Strepto b. Colonial c. Solitary d. Staphylo 14) What are cells that are found alone called? a. Strepto b. Colonial c. Solitary d. Staphylo 15) Which of these can be defined as finger shaped hairs? a. Capsule b. Pillus c. Fimbria d. Peptidoglycan 16) What are the little packets of DNA called a. Chromosomes b. Zygote c. Sex pillus d. Pillus 17) What does a positive graham stain indicate? a. Large amounts of peptidoglycan with a simple cell wall b. Large amount of peptidoglycan with complex cell wall c. Very little peptidoglycan with simple cell wall d. Very little peptidoglycan with complex cell wall 18) What does a negative graham stain indicate? a. Large amounts of peptidoglycan with a simple cell wall b. Large amount of peptidoglycan with complex cell wall c. Very little peptidoglycan with simple cell wall d. Very little peptidoglycan with complex cell wall 19) What was the genus name of the star jelly that was brought to class? a. Nostoc commune b. Nostoc c. Cyanophycea d. Eubacteria e. Nostocales 20) Which of these can be defined as small pieces of DNA? a. Genome b. Nucleoid c. Plasmid d. Zygote 21) Which of these contains an organism’s complete set of DNA? a. Genome b. Nucleoid c. Plasmid d. Zygote 22) What is the shape of the prokaryote’s DNA? a. Single helix b. Double helix c. Ring shaped d. Rod shaped 23) What is it called when a cell produces a smaller cell off to the side? a. Budding b. Conjugation c. Transformation d. Transduction 24) What is it called when plasmids are donated? (The closest thing prokaryotes have to sex) a. Budding b. Conjugation c. Transformation d. Transduction 25) What is it called when a virus carries plastids? a. Budding b. Conjugation c. Transformation d. Transduction 26) What is the period in an organism’s life when growth, development, etc are temporarily stopped? a. Resistant b. Dormancy c. Birth d. Endospores 27) Which of these “hunts” for their food? a. Heterotrophs b. Chemoautotrophs c. Autotrophs d. Decomposers 28) Which of these are responsible for making sure that the dead stuff does just sit around forever? a. Heterotrophs b. Chemoautotrophs c. Autotrophs d. Decomposers 29) Which of these makes inorganic molecules into organic molecules? a. Photoautotrophs b. Autotrophs c. Chemoautotrophs d. Heterotrophs 30) Which of these uses chemicals to put together organic components to make food? a. Photoautotrophs b. Autotrophs c. Chemoautotrophs d. Heterotrophs 31) Which of these NEEDS oxygen to survive? a. Aerobic b. Anaerobic c. Strict aerobic d. Strict anaerobic 32) Which of these lives flexibly without oxygen? a. Aerobic b. Anaerobic c. Strict aerobic d. Strict anaerobic 33) Which of these feed on other organism? a. Mutualists b. Pathogens c. Decomposers d. Biofilms 34) Which of these considers the waste of one, as food for themselves? a. Mutualists b. Pathogens c. Decomposers d. Biofilms 35) Which of these lives in extreme conditions a. Extremophiles b. Thermophiles c. Halophiles d. Methanogens 36) Which of these lives in extremely salty conditions? a. Extremophiles b. Thermophiles c. Halophiles d. Methanogens 37) Which of these is a natural gas that we usually heat our houses with? a. Carbon dioxide b. Methane c. Oxygen d. Propane 38) Which of these bacteria were once called blue/green algae and help in nitrogen fixation? a. Proteobacteria b. Cyanobacteria c. Spirochetes d. Chlamydias 39) E. coli is an example of which bacteria? a. Spirochetes b. Mycoplasmas c. Proteobacteria d. Cyanobacteria 40) Where is E. coli found in mammals? a. Stomach b. Colon c. Pancreas d. Liver 41) Which of these looks very similar to mitochondria? a. Cyanobacteria b. Proteobacteria c. Purple green bacteria d. Spirochetes 42) Borelia Burgdorferi is an example of which bacteria? a. Spirochetes b. Mycoplasmas c. Purple green bacteria d. Cyanobacteria 43) Which of these causes walking pneumonia? a. Spirochetes b. Mycoplasmas c. Purple green bacteria d. Cyanobacteria 44) What phylum is the malaria parasite apart of? a. Chordata b. Apicomplexa c. Mollusca d. Anthropada 45) Which of these bacteria are famous for being the smallest? a. Chlamydias b. Mycoplasmas c. Purple green bacteria d. Spirochetes 46) How are gametes formed in gametic meiosis? a. Diploid organisms b. Haploid organisms c. Spores d. Syngamy 47) How are the gametes in zygotic meiosis formed? a. Mitosis b. Syngamy c. Meiosis d. Gametes 48) Which of these is the only diploid cell, which goes through zygotic meiosis? a. Gametes b. Spores c. Zygotes d. Syngamy 49) How many kingdoms are in Domain Eukarya a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 50) Mitosis is replication and ___ division(s) a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 51)Meiosis is replication and ___ division(s) a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 52)In mitosis, what does a diploid produce? a. Diploid b. Haploid c. Syngamy d. Gamete 53)In mitosis, what does a haploid produce? a. Diploid b. Haploid c. Syngamy d. Gamete 54)In meiosis, what does a diploid produce? a. Diploid b. Haploid c. Syngamy d. Gamete 55)What is “fusion” known as? a. Diploid b. Haploid c. Syngamy d. Gamete 56)Who goes through Zygotic meiosis? a. Humans b. Fungi c. Plantae and Animalia d. Fungi and Protista 57)Karyogomy is the fusion of what? a. Nuclei b. Chromosomes c. Cytoplasm d. Cells 58)Plasmogamy is the fusion of what? a. Nuclei b. Chromosomes c. Cytoplasm d. Cells 59)Who goes through gametic meiosis? a. Humans b. Plantae and Protista c. Animalia d. Animalia and Protista 60)Who goes through sporic meiosis? a. Humans b. Plantae and Protista c. Animalia d. Animalia and Plantae 61)Which of these contains 2 big nuclei? a. P. Diplomonadida b. P. Parabasta c. P. Kinetoplastida d. P. Euglenoza 62)Which of these has a red eye/spot, called a stigma? a. P. Diplomonadida b. P. Parabasta c. P. Kinetoplastida d. P. Euglenoza 63)Which of these contains 1 large mitochondria? a. P. Diplomonadida b. P. Parabasta c. P. Kinetoplastida d. P. Euglenoza 64)Which of these has a parabasal organ? a. P. Diplomonadida b. P. Parabasta c. P. Kinetoplastida d. P. Euglenoza 65)What can we conclude if an organism has no chloroplast? a. The organism is heterotrophic b. The organism is autotrophic c. The organism is dead d. The organism is a decomposer 66)What is the stage of transmission when a mosquito bites a human? a. Syngamy b. Spororzoite c. Isogamy d. Meiosis 67)When the gametophyte and sporophyte look exactly the same, to the point where you cannot tell them apart, what is this called? a. Monophyletic b. Isogamy c. Isomorphic d. Plesiomorphic 68)What type of arrangement are microtubules in? a. 9+2 b. 7+2 c. 6+3 d. 9+3 69)What are tufts of cilia that are fused to form leg like structures called? a. Dyein b. Membranelles c. Cirrus d. Microtubules 70)What are rows of cillia fused to form leg like structures called? a. Dyein b. Membranelles c. Cirrus d. Microtubules 71)Which of these are “Arms” which serve as molecular motors? a. Membranes b. Dyein c. Cirrus d. Microtubules 72)Which of these is linked to Diatoms? a. P. Ciliophora b. P. Bacillariophyta c. P. Rhondophyta d. Ameboid Protozoa 73)Which of these is known as brown algae? a. P. Ciliophora b. P. Phaeophyta c. P. Rhondophyta d. P. Gymnamoeba 74)What are tests? a. Shells b. Eyes c. Tissue d. Body parts used for movement 75)Which of these is considered “naked” due to not having a shell? a. P. Ciliophora b. P. Bacillariophyta c. P. Rhondophyta d. P. Gymnamoeba 76)Which of these are considered to be the largest protists that ever lived? a. P. Ciliophora b. P. Radiolaria c. P. Foraminifera d. P. Myxomycola 77)K. Animalia is considered a sister groups for which of these? a. P. Myxomycola b. P. Radiolaria c. P. Choanoflagellata d. P. Chlorophyta 78)Which of these are considered as liverworts? a. P. Byrophyta b. P. Hepatophyta c. P. Anthocerophyta d. P. Chlorophyta 79)Which of these are considered as hornworts? a. P. Byrophyta b. P. Hepatophyta c. P. Anthocerophyta d. P. Chlorophyta 80)Which of these are considered to be the “true mosses”? a. P. Byrophyta b. P. Hepatophyta c. P. Anthocerophyta d. P. Chlorophyta 81)Which of these are antheridiophores that contain gemma cups? a. P. Byrophyta b. P. Hepatophyta c. P. Anthocerophyta d. P. Chlorophyta 82)Where are moss meiospores produced? a. Capsules b. Perisome c. Calyptra d. Operculum 83)Which of these helps in spreading out the spores from the moss capsules? a. Capsules b. Perisome teeth c. Calyptra d. Perisome ANSWER KEY 1) A 2) C 3) A 4) D 5) A 6) B 7) D 8) C 9) D 10)B 11)C 12)D 13)A 14)C 15)C 16)C 17)A 18)D 19)B 20)C 21)A 22)C 23)A 24)B 25)D 26)B 27)A 28)D 29)A 30)C 31)C 32)B 33)B 34)D 35)A 36)C 37)B 38)B 39)C 40)B 41)C 42)A 43)B 44)B 45)B 46)A 47)A 48)C 49)D 50)A 51)B 52)A 53)B 54)B 55)C 56)D 57)A 58)C 59)D 60)B 61)A 62)D 63)C 64)B 65)A 66)B 67)C 68)A 69)C 70)B 71)B 72)B 73)B 74)A 75)D 76)C 77)C 78)B 79)C 80)A 81)B 82)A 83)B
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