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AU / Biology / BIO 1030 / Which contains an organism's complete set of dna?

Which contains an organism's complete set of dna?

Which contains an organism's complete set of dna?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: Biology
Course: Organismal Biology
Professor: Debbie folkerts
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Organismal Biology, Folkerts, and BIOL 1030
Cost: 50
Name: BIOLOGY 1030 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE (FOLKERTS)
Description: this study guide contains a page with diagrams, an 83 question practice test with an answer key, and 3 pages filled with vocabulary words you should know! THIS IS A GREAT WAY TO STUDY!
Uploaded: 02/05/2016
19 Pages 16 Views 25 Unlocks
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KEY VOCAB WORDS!


Which contains an organism's complete set of dna?



• Homologous: phenotypic and genetic similarities are caused by shared  ancestry. (from the same origin)

• Analogous: based on convergent evolution, which occurs when similar  environmental pressures and natural selection produce similar types of  adaptations, this often misleads people into think two species that are  not related, are related. (similar in function)

• Plesiomorphic: an ancestral age of characteristics

• Amorphic: much newer and recently evolved characteristics, which can  be rare

• Symplesiomorphic: shared characteristics which have been passes down  from ancestors

• Synplesiomorphic: shared derived features  

• Automorphic: all valid taxons we make should have some form of  automorphy  


What are cells found in clusters called?



• Monophyletic: there is one ancestor from which the whole group came  from  

• Holophyletic: more specific, with all members of the single ancestor  included  

• Paraphyletic: on a side branch of the family tree, different because they  may have evolved quickly or moved to another habitat  

• Polyphyletic: when there is more than one ancestor  

• Peptidoglycans: a polymer that has amino acids and sugars which forms  the outside layer of the plasma membrane in most bacteria  • Gram (+) bacteria: have large amounts of peptidoglycan, and a simple  cell wall. We also discuss several other topics like debunking motif

• Gram (-) bacteria: have a very little amount of peptidoglycan with a  complex cell wall (much more deadly than gram (+) bacteria). • Genome: contains an organism’s complete set of DNA • Plasmids: smaller pieces of circular DNA


What are rows of cilia fused to form leg-like structures called?



• Nucleoid: where the DNA is found  

• Sex pillus: little packets of DNA

• Budding: when a cell produces a smaller cell off to the side • Conjugation: plasmid donating, this is the closest thing prokaryotes  have to sex.

• Dormancy: a period in an organism’s life when growth, development,  etc. are temporarily stopped. If you want to learn more check out ysu math

• Heterotrophic: they “hunt” for their food

• Decomposers: break down dead/decaying organisms, so that dead  stuff doesn’t just sit there forever.

• Mutualistic: when 2 different organisms exist in a relationship in which  they benefit each other

• Pathogenic: cause disease  

• Photoautotrophs: make inorganic molecules into organic molecules  (make food through sunlight).

• Chemoautotrophs: use chemicals to put together organic components  to make food.

• Photoheterotrophic: use light as energy but get carbon for organic  molecules from other sources.

• Aerobic: these bacteria live WITH oxygen

• Anaerobic: these bacteria live WITHOUT oxygen  

• Strict aerobic: these bacteria NEED oxygen  If you want to learn more check out asu grind class

• Strict anaerobic: these bacteria will die with oxygen, NEVER need it • Facultative: these bacteria can have oxygen, don’t need it • Mutualists: live with other organisms  If you want to learn more check out how do oxygen and carbon dioxide cross capillary walls?
Don't forget about the age old question of emphatuate

• Pathogens: feed on other organisms  

• Biofilms: the waste of one, is food for another  

• Extremophiles: live in extreme conditions  Don't forget about the age old question of stramenophile

• Thermophiles: live in extremely hot conditions (heat loving)

• Halophiles: live in extremely salty conditions  

• Methanogens: make methane (CH4), swamp gas, and fossil fuels • Serial endosymbiotic theory: this theory explains the origin of nucleated  eukaryotic cells by a merging of eubacterial and archaebacterial cells. • Haploid: ½ number of the chromosomes (23) and genetic material also  referred to as (n).

• Diploid: all of the chromosomes (46) and genetic material also referred  to as (2n).

• Mitosis: replication +1 division  

• Meiosis: replication +2 division  

• Zygote: cell which is produced by a gamete fusion  

• Gametes: reproductive cell, fusion (syngamy)

• Sexual reproduction: the change in chromosome number, so that n????2n  (syngamy)

• Phylum Diplomonadida: 2 big nuclei  

• Phylum Parabasata: have a parabasal organ  

• Phylum Kinetoplastida: has a large mitochondria  

• Phylum Euglenoza: has a stigma  

• Phylum Dinoflagellala: has a longgintudinal flagella

• Phylum Apicomplexa: host on people (malaria mosquito) • Cirrus: tufts of cillia that form leg like structures

• Membranelles: rows of cillia that form sheet like structures • Dyein: arms that hep in motor movement  

• Phylum Bacillariophyta: Diatoms

• Phylum Phaeophyta: brown algae

• Phylum Rhondophyta: red algae

• Ameboid Protozoa: Amoebas without tests

• Phylum Radiolaria: stiff and needle like

• Phylum Foraminifera: some of the largest protists

• Phylum Myxomycota: slime molds

• Phylum Chlorophyta: green algae

• Phylum Choanoflagellata: sister group is Animalia

• Phylum Bryophyta: true mosses

• Phylum Hepatophyta: liverworts

• Phylum Anthocerophyta: hornworts

• Antheridiophore: antheridiya w/ sperm (male reproductive organ for  plants)

• Archegoniophore: archegonia w/ eggs (female reproductive organ for  plants)

Reproductive Cycle Diagrams

Zygotic Meiosis CycleSporic Meiosis Cycle

Gametic Meiosis  

Cycle

Sexual  

Reproduction Cycle

Organismal Biology (Chapter 26-29) Practice Test 83 questions with answer key at the end

1) Which of these characteristics should we not look at due to mistakes that can  easily be made?

a. Plesiomorphic  

b. Amorphic

c. Symplesiomorphic

d. Synplesiomorphic

2) Which of these means to come from one ancestor?

a. Automorphic

b. Amorphic

c. Monophyletic

d. Polyphyletic

3) When looking at the phylogenic history of an organism/species, we have to  make sure that their looks did NOT evolve by:

a. Nature

b. People

c. Other organisms

d. Ancestors

4) Which of these means that the phenotypic and genetic similarities are caused by  a shared ancestry?

a. Monophyletic

b. Analogous  

c. Plesiomorphic

d. Homologous

5) What was the species name of the corn snake that was brought to class? a. Patherophis gattathus 

b. Patherophis 

c. Colubridae

d. Serpentes

6) Which of these are prokaryotic?

a. Archaea

b. Archaea and Bacteria

c. Eukarya and Bacteria

d. Eukarya  

7) Which of these is eukaryotic?

a. Archaea

b. Archaea and Bacteria

c. Eukarya and Bacteria

d. Eukarya  

8) Which of these has a cell wall made of chitin? a. Animalia  

b. Plantae

c. Fungi

d. Protista  

9) Which of these are known as the “original eukaryotes”? a. Animalia

b. Plantae

c. Fungi  

d. Protista

10)Which of these is a hot dog/rod shaped cell? a. Coccus

b. Bacillus

c. Spirillus

d. Flagella

11)Which of these is the least common shape of cells? a. Coccus

b. Bacillus

c. Spirillus  

d. Flagella  

12) What are cells found in clusters called?

a. Strepto

b. Colonial

c. Solitary

d. Staphylo

13) What is a long strand of cells called?

a. Strepto

b. Colonial

c. Solitary

d. Staphylo  

14) What are cells that are found alone called? a. Strepto  

b. Colonial

c. Solitary  

d. Staphylo  

15) Which of these can be defined as finger shaped hairs? a. Capsule

b. Pillus

c. Fimbria

d. Peptidoglycan

16) What are the little packets of DNA called  

a. Chromosomes

b. Zygote

c. Sex pillus

d. Pillus  

17) What does a positive graham stain indicate?

a. Large amounts of peptidoglycan with a simple cell wall b. Large amount of peptidoglycan with complex cell wall c. Very little peptidoglycan with simple cell wall

d. Very little peptidoglycan with complex cell wall

18) What does a negative graham stain indicate?

a. Large amounts of peptidoglycan with a simple cell wall b. Large amount of peptidoglycan with complex cell wall c. Very little peptidoglycan with simple cell wall

d. Very little peptidoglycan with complex cell wall

19) What was the genus name of the star jelly that was brought to class? a. Nostoc commune 

b. Nostoc 

c. Cyanophycea

d. Eubacteria

e. Nostocales  

20) Which of these can be defined as small pieces of DNA? a. Genome

b. Nucleoid

c. Plasmid

d. Zygote  

21) Which of these contains an organism’s complete set of DNA? a. Genome

b. Nucleoid  

c. Plasmid

d. Zygote

22) What is the shape of the prokaryote’s DNA?

a. Single helix

b. Double helix

c. Ring shaped

d. Rod shaped

23) What is it called when a cell produces a smaller cell off to the side? a. Budding

b. Conjugation

c. Transformation

d. Transduction  

24) What is it called when plasmids are donated? (The closest thing prokaryotes  have to sex)

a. Budding

b. Conjugation

c. Transformation

d. Transduction  

25) What is it called when a virus carries plastids?

a. Budding  

b. Conjugation

c. Transformation  

d. Transduction  

26) What is the period in an organism’s life when growth, development, etc are  temporarily stopped?

a. Resistant

b. Dormancy

c. Birth

d. Endospores  

27) Which of these “hunts” for their food?

a. Heterotrophs

b. Chemoautotrophs

c. Autotrophs

d. Decomposers

28) Which of these are responsible for making sure that the dead stuff does just sit  around forever?

a. Heterotrophs

b. Chemoautotrophs

c. Autotrophs

d. Decomposers

29) Which of these makes inorganic molecules into organic molecules? a. Photoautotrophs

b. Autotrophs  

c. Chemoautotrophs

d. Heterotrophs  

30) Which of these uses chemicals to put together organic components to make  food?

a. Photoautotrophs

b. Autotrophs

c. Chemoautotrophs

d. Heterotrophs  

31) Which of these NEEDS oxygen to survive?

a. Aerobic  

b. Anaerobic

c. Strict aerobic

d. Strict anaerobic  

32) Which of these lives flexibly without oxygen?

a. Aerobic

b. Anaerobic

c. Strict aerobic

d. Strict anaerobic

33) Which of these feed on other organism?

a. Mutualists

b. Pathogens

c. Decomposers

d. Biofilms  

34) Which of these considers the waste of one, as food for themselves? a. Mutualists

b. Pathogens

c. Decomposers

d. Biofilms  

35) Which of these lives in extreme conditions

a. Extremophiles

b. Thermophiles

c. Halophiles

d. Methanogens

36) Which of these lives in extremely salty conditions?

a. Extremophiles

b. Thermophiles

c. Halophiles

d. Methanogens  

37) Which of these is a natural gas that we usually heat our houses with? a. Carbon dioxide

b. Methane

c. Oxygen  

d. Propane

38) Which of these bacteria were once called blue/green algae and help in nitrogen  fixation?

a. Proteobacteria

b. Cyanobacteria

c. Spirochetes

d. Chlamydias

39) E. coli is an example of which bacteria?

a. Spirochetes

b. Mycoplasmas

c. Proteobacteria

d. Cyanobacteria  

40) Where is E. coli found in mammals?

a. Stomach  

b. Colon

c. Pancreas

d. Liver  

41) Which of these looks very similar to mitochondria?

a. Cyanobacteria

b. Proteobacteria

c. Purple green bacteria

d. Spirochetes

42) Borelia Burgdorferi is an example of which bacteria?

a. Spirochetes

b. Mycoplasmas

c. Purple green bacteria

d. Cyanobacteria  

43) Which of these causes walking pneumonia?

a. Spirochetes

b. Mycoplasmas

c. Purple green bacteria

d. Cyanobacteria

44) What phylum is the malaria parasite apart of?

a. Chordata

b. Apicomplexa

c. Mollusca

d. Anthropada

45) Which of these bacteria are famous for being the smallest?

a. Chlamydias

b. Mycoplasmas

c. Purple green bacteria

d. Spirochetes

46) How are gametes formed in gametic meiosis?

a. Diploid organisms

b. Haploid organisms

c. Spores

d. Syngamy

47) How are the gametes in zygotic meiosis formed?

a. Mitosis

b. Syngamy

c. Meiosis

d. Gametes

48) Which of these is the only diploid cell, which goes through zygotic meiosis? a. Gametes

b. Spores

c. Zygotes

d. Syngamy  

49) How many kingdoms are in Domain Eukarya  

a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

d. 4

50) Mitosis is replication and ___ division(s)

a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

d. 4

51)Meiosis is replication and ___ division(s)

a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

d. 4

52)In mitosis, what does a diploid produce?

a. Diploid

b. Haploid

c. Syngamy

d. Gamete

53)In mitosis, what does a haploid produce?

a. Diploid

b. Haploid

c. Syngamy

d. Gamete

54)In meiosis, what does a diploid produce? a. Diploid

b. Haploid

c. Syngamy

d. Gamete

55)What is “fusion” known as?

a. Diploid

b. Haploid

c. Syngamy  

d. Gamete

56)Who goes through Zygotic meiosis? a. Humans

b. Fungi

c. Plantae and Animalia  

d. Fungi and Protista

57)Karyogomy is the fusion of what? a. Nuclei

b. Chromosomes

c. Cytoplasm

d. Cells

58)Plasmogamy is the fusion of what? a. Nuclei  

b. Chromosomes

c. Cytoplasm  

d. Cells

59)Who goes through gametic meiosis? a. Humans  

b. Plantae and Protista

c. Animalia

d. Animalia and Protista  

60)Who goes through sporic meiosis? a. Humans  

b. Plantae and Protista

c. Animalia

d. Animalia and Plantae

61)Which of these contains 2 big nuclei?

a. P. Diplomonadida  

b. P. Parabasta

c. P. Kinetoplastida  

d. P. Euglenoza  

62)Which of these has a red eye/spot, called a stigma?

a. P. Diplomonadida

b. P. Parabasta

c. P. Kinetoplastida  

d. P. Euglenoza  

63)Which of these contains 1 large mitochondria?

a. P. Diplomonadida

b. P. Parabasta

c. P. Kinetoplastida

d. P. Euglenoza  

64)Which of these has a parabasal organ?

a. P. Diplomonadida

b. P. Parabasta

c. P. Kinetoplastida

d. P. Euglenoza  

65)What can we conclude if an organism has no chloroplast? a. The organism is heterotrophic

b. The organism is autotrophic  

c. The organism is dead

d. The organism is a decomposer

66)What is the stage of transmission when a mosquito bites a human? a. Syngamy

b. Spororzoite  

c. Isogamy

d. Meiosis  

67)When the gametophyte and sporophyte look exactly the same, to the point  where you cannot tell them apart, what is this called?

a. Monophyletic

b. Isogamy

c. Isomorphic

d. Plesiomorphic  

68)What type of arrangement are microtubules in?

a. 9+2

b. 7+2

c. 6+3

d. 9+3

69)What are tufts of cilia that are fused to form leg like structures called? a. Dyein

b. Membranelles  

c. Cirrus  

d. Microtubules

70)What are rows of cillia fused to form leg like structures called? a. Dyein  

b. Membranelles  

c. Cirrus  

d. Microtubules  

71)Which of these are “Arms” which serve as molecular motors? a. Membranes

b. Dyein  

c. Cirrus  

d. Microtubules

72)Which of these is linked to Diatoms?

a. P. Ciliophora  

b. P. Bacillariophyta  

c. P. Rhondophyta

d. Ameboid Protozoa  

73)Which of these is known as brown algae?

a. P. Ciliophora

b. P. Phaeophyta  

c. P. Rhondophyta  

d. P. Gymnamoeba  

74)What are tests?

a. Shells

b. Eyes

c. Tissue

d. Body parts used for movement  

75)Which of these is considered “naked” due to not having a shell? a. P. Ciliophora  

b. P. Bacillariophyta

c. P. Rhondophyta  

d. P. Gymnamoeba

76)Which of these are considered to be the largest protists that ever lived? a. P. Ciliophora

b. P. Radiolaria

c. P. Foraminifera

d. P. Myxomycola  

77)K. Animalia is considered a sister groups for which of these? a. P. Myxomycola

b. P. Radiolaria

c. P. Choanoflagellata  

d. P. Chlorophyta  

78)Which of these are considered as liverworts?

a. P. Byrophyta  

b. P. Hepatophyta

c. P. Anthocerophyta

d. P. Chlorophyta  

79)Which of these are considered as hornworts?

a. P. Byrophyta  

b. P. Hepatophyta

c. P. Anthocerophyta

d. P. Chlorophyta  

80)Which of these are considered to be the “true mosses”? a. P. Byrophyta  

b. P. Hepatophyta

c. P. Anthocerophyta

d. P. Chlorophyta  

81)Which of these are antheridiophores that contain gemma cups? a. P. Byrophyta  

b. P. Hepatophyta

c. P. Anthocerophyta

d. P. Chlorophyta  

82)Where are moss meiospores produced?

a. Capsules

b. Perisome  

c. Calyptra  

d. Operculum  

83)Which of these helps in spreading out the spores from the moss capsules? a. Capsules

b. Perisome teeth  

c. Calyptra  

d. Perisome

ANSWER KEY

1)A

2)C

3)A

4)D

5)A

6)B

7)D

8)C

9)D

10)B

11)C

12)D

13)A

14)C

15)C

16)C

17)A

18)D

19)B

20)C

21)A

22)C

23)A

24)B

25)D

26)B

27)A

28)D

29)A

30)C

31)C

32)B

33)B

34)D

35)A

36)C

37)B

38)B

39)C

40)B 41)C 42)A 43)B 44)B 45)B 46)A 47)A 48)C 49)D 50)A 51)B 52)A 53)B 54)B 55)C 56)D 57)A 58)C 59)D 60)B 61)A 62)D 63)C 64)B 65)A 66)B 67)C 68)A 69)C 70)B 71)B 72)B 73)B 74)A 75)D 76)C 77)C 78)B

79)C 80)A 81)B 82)A 83)B

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