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FDNS 2100 Study Guide

by: alk88738

FDNS 2100 Study Guide FDNS 2100

GPA 3.5

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Study guide for test #1
Human Nutrition and Food
Tracey Brigman
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by alk88738 on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FDNS 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Tracey Brigman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition and Food in Child and Family Studies at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 02/05/16
Test One Study Guide  57 multiple choice, true false, and matching questions  5-6 short answer question  Label activity  Extra credit questions from questions answered in class Chapter One  Nutrition: the study of nutrients and compounds in founds that nourish and affect body functions and health  Chronic Diseases:  Have a connection to poor diet  Cannot be prevented by diet itself  Examples: heart disease, some cancers, strokes, diabetes, adult bone loss, dental disease, chronic lung disease  Habits that have a stronger influence on long-term health than dietary choices: smoking/tobacco use and drinking alcohol  Healthy People 2020 Goal: help Americans attain high quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury and premature death  Nutrients: components of food required for body’s functioning  Support growth, maintenance, and repair of body  Categories: water, protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, minerals  Which categories provide energy: protein, carbohydrates, and fat  Nutrient Density: a measure of nutrient per calorie  Calorie: the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius  Calorie to gram conversions: o Carbohydrates: 4g/cal o Proteins: 4g/cal o Fats: 9g/cal  Elements of a healthy diet:  Adequacy: getting enough of essential nutrients  Balance: contains a good proportion of nutrients; no overemphasis of a food group  Calorie control: choose foods to maintain body weight  Moderation: eat in reasonable portions  Variety: eat different types of food to prevent boredom and to get key nutrients  People choose: what to eat, where to eat, who to eat with, how to prepare it  Factors that drive food choices:  Advertising, availability, economy, emotional comfort, ethnicity, habits, nutritional value, personal preferences, positive association, region of the country, social pressure, time constraint, values/beliefs, weight  Scientific Approach 1. Observation & Question 2. Hypothesis & Prediction 3. Experiment 4. Results & Interpretation 5. Hypothesis Supported = Theory OR Hypothesis Not Supported = New Observations & Question  Study Types  Epidemiological: study of whole population  Lab Study: study with tightly controlled conditions  Case Study: study of one person  Intervention Study: study of a population with a control group and an experimental group  Research:  National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): asks about 50,000 people what they have eaten and records measures of their health status  Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII): records what people have actually eaten for two days and compares the foods they have chosen with the recommended food selections  Registered Dietitian Requirements:  College degree completing a program of dietetics  Accredited internship  Pass a national exam  Continue their education Chapter Two  The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI): nutrients intake standards set for people living in the US and Canada which included:  Estimated Average Requirements (EAR): facilitates nutrition research and policy like the amount of a nutrient that meets the average needs of 50% of individuals in a specific age and gender group  Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA): sets recommended intake values with solid experimental evidence  Adequate Intakes (AI): sets recommended intake values with scientific evidence and guesswork  Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL): establishes safety guidelines including identification of potentially toxic levels and danger zones and works on the prevention of chronic diseases through Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) proportions  Estimated Energy Requirement (EER): is not generous and is set at an average value to maintain body weight and to discourage weight gain  2015 Dietary Guidelines: 1. Follow a healthy eating pattern across the lifespan 2. Focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount 3. Limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats and reduce sodium intake 4. Shift to healthier food and beverage choices 5. Support healthier eating habits for all  Previous editions focused on individual components  Totality of the diet forms heathy eating patterns that should be tailored to individual preferences  Healthy Eating Patterns Include:  A variety of vegetables from all subgroups: greens, red/orange, etc.  Fruits, whole fruits  Grains, half of intake or more should be whole grains  Fat free/low fat dairy: milk, yogurt, cheese, fortified beverages  Protein: lean meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, legumes, nuts, seeds, soy product  Oils, healthy oils  Limit saturated and trans fat, added sugars and sodium o Consume less than 10% off calories per day from added sugars o Consume less than 10% off calories per day from saturated fats o Consume less than 2300mg of sodium daily  Consume alcohol in moderation if consumed  Exchange Lists: facilitate calorie control by providing an understanding of how much carbohydrate, fat, and protein are in each food group  First developed for diabetics  Choose MyPlate is an educational tool to help users with dieting planning which includes portion control.  Portion size is difficult to judge, and US portion sizes tend to be larger leading people to eat more calories.  Food Label Terms:  Health Claim: claims linking food constituents with disease states  Nutrient Claim: claims using approved wording to describe the nutrient values of food (“high fiber”, “low fat”,” “reduced sodium”)  Structure-Function Claim: claim a legal but largely unregulated claim permitted on labels of dietary supplements and conventional food  Nutrition Facts: the panel of information required to appear on almost every packaged food  Nutrition Education and Label Act of 1990:  Every packaged food must state: o The common name of the product o The name/address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor o The net contents in terms of weight, measure, or count o The nutrient contents of the product (Nutrition Label) o The ingredients in descending order of predominance by weight  Nutrition Label Requirements:  Serving size  Servings per container  Calories/calories from fat  Nutrient amount and percentages of daily values for: o Total fat o Cholesterol o Sodium o Total carbs, sugars, and fat o Protein  Daily value percentages of: o Vitamin A o Vitamin C o Calcium o Iron  The bottom portion is identical on all labels: it stands as a reminder of daily values Chapter Three  The digestive system digests and absorbs the mixture of chewed and swallowed food  Digest: to break molecules into smaller molecules (occur first)  Absorb: movement of nutrients into intestinal cells after digestion (occurs second)  The digestive system:  Absorbs nutrients as well as some non-nutrients  Leaves behind substances such as fiber which are excreted  Mechanical/Psychical Aspect of Digestion:  Begins in the mouth  Chewing shreds foods which releases nutrients in the food  Stomach and intestines liquefy foods o Peristalsis: wave-lie muscular squeezing which pushes food along the digestive tract  Stomach holds food and mashes it into a fine paste  Stomach stores food in the upper portion and little by little the food is squeezed into the lower portion o Chyme: the fluid resulting from the action of the stomach upon a meal  Food then enters the large intestine o Digestion and absorption are nearly complete o Reabsorbs water and absorbs minerals o Fiber and undigested materials make up feces  Transit from mouth to rectum takes from 1-3 days  Chemical Aspect of Digestion:  Digestion begins in the mouth  An enzyme in saliva breaks down starch and another begins the digestion of fat  Protein digestion begins in the stomach when gastric juice is released o The digestive tract is protected from the acid by mucus  Most digestion and absorption occur in the small intestine o Gall bladder releases bile into the intestine o Pancreas releases pancreatic juice o As pancreatic and intestinal enzymes break down nutrients, small pieces are released into intestinal fluids  Certain fibers cannot be digested human enzymes o Often digested by bacteria living in the human digestive tract  The digestive system adjusts to whatever mixture of food is presented to it  Absorption of nutrients in the intestine is selective o The small intestine is lined with projections called villi of which project microvilli o After nutrients pass through the cells of the villi: the blood and lymph transport the nutrients to the body’s cells  The Excretory System:  Waste is pulled out by the liver where it either: o Sends them to the digestive tract with bile to leave the body with feces o Prepares them to be sent to the kidneys for disposal in urine  When the Digestive System Process Goes Awry  Overeating causes heartburn (GERD) o The reflux of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus  Foods that cause irritation: o “Hot” components of chili peppers o Peppermint o Onions/Garlic o Chocolate o Caffeine o Alcohol  Ulcers: erosion of stomach or intestinal lining  Constipation: difficult or infrequent evacuation of bowels Chapter Four  Carbohydrates  Come from photosynthesis: water and carbon dioxide combine to form sugar  Complex: starch and fiber  Simple: sugars  Are composed of C, H, and O  Carbohydrate rich foods come almost exclusively from plants  Sugars  Monosaccharides: composed of one sugar molecule o Absorbed directly into the blood o Three types: 1. Glucose 2. Fructose 3. Galactose  Disaccharides: composed of two sugar molecules o Must be split into monosaccharides before they are absorbed o Three types: 1. Lactose = Galactose + Glucose 2. Maltose = Glucose + Glucose 3. Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose  Starch  Polysaccharides: composed of many sugar molecules o Starch o Fiber o Glycogen  Storage of glucose  Starch: a plant’s storage form of glucose  Glycogen: an animal’s storage form of glucose  Good vs. bad sources of carbohydrates:  Good sources: o Grains o Some vegetables o Whole fruits o Some dairy: milk, cheese, and yogurt o Nuts and dry beans  Bad sources: o Meat, poultry, fish, some legumes, eggs o Cream and butter are not equivalent with milk  Fiber  Provides support to plant structures  Retains water to protect seeds from drying out  Are polysaccharides  Soluble fibers dissolve in water o Easily digested by bacteria in the colon o Found in barely, legumes, fruits, oats, carrots o Delays stomach emptying o Delays glucose absorption o Helps lower blood cholesterol  Insoluble fibers do not dissolve in water o Less easily fermented o Found in vegetables, fruits, wheat, and vegetables o Accelerates transit time o Slows glucose absorption  Benefits of fiber: o Promotion of normal blood cholesterol levels o Modulation of blood glucose concentration o Maintenance of healthy bowel function o Maintenance of healthy body weight  Stimulates the GI tract muscles to retain strength and resist bulging out (diverticula) o Diverticulitis: inflammation of diverticula  Intake recommendation o ADA recommends 25-35g daily


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