Quiz 5 Notes
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kirsten Notetaker on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Lewis University taught by Dr. Greenwood in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Lewis University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Learned helplessness – a condition in which a person suffers from a sense of powerlessness, arising from a traumatic event or persistent failure to succeed, giving up trying to escape a painful situation after repeatedly failing to escape, self perception Social Psychology 2/8 – 2/10 Social comparison – people have an innate drive to evaluate themselves, often in comparison to others, people make all kinds of judgements about themselves, and one of the key ways that we do this is through social comparison or analyzing the self in relation to others o Family style – role models, you want to be like your parents, gender roles are learned, think about the picture with the family (mother, father two girls, and a boy going to church – except the father, on Easter) o Sibling rivalry/PK’s o Comparing upwards, and downwards, people with a weak self esteem and weak confidence compare themselves to people who are worse than them in a specific trait, it makes you feel good about yourself to compare downwards, we are programmed to find patterns, and to think logically, the frontal lobe is designed to make sense of the world, but our emotions and feelings of insecurity, weakness, and fear hold us back from being able to think logically o Relevance – comparison trait to self image – too much emotion, if the amount of emotional response exceeds what it normally should be, something else is going on, relationships are set off by minor things because of other problems that may be bothering you, and this obviously causes tension within the relationship because of the sudden outburst that is unrelated to the real problem Looking glass self – the eyes of other people, we evaluate ourselves by looking at how other people look at us, when other people see us in a favorable light that is a mirror that we use to draw conclusions about our self, we are not looking at our own behavior, we are looking at how others see us, powerful and legitimate when taken in balance, we do not see our self accurately, Social comparison both downward and upward is a key way that we see ourselves and how we respond We can aspire to be and imagine our self to be better than we are on traits that are important to us Social comparison o Downward vs. upward o Heroes – functions/limitations – we need heroes, we’re born cowards, we can overcome it only if we can imagine ourselves to be successful, heroes are an example and aspiration to what we can be capable of, heroes give us the strength and confidence we need to overcome difficult experiences, we look at them to see what they do, how they act, and that it is possible, careful not to loose ourselves in the “dream” or “fantasy” they are not our identities, just a point of comparison o Negative models – what is negative depends on who you are, you select heroes depending on your interests, don’t want to loose hope in being who you want to be, negative in context, we can’t automatically assume what kind of models are positive or negative, show us what not to do, works best if you have a clear identity of yourself you and find role models on what not to do We are constantly comparing ourselves to other people to get clarity on who we are and who we want to be Biases in self-perception – a bias is anything that distorts in thinking or behavior, attaching meaning to experience based on prior experience, tied in together with self-perception in this case, we use a point of comparison to judge our self and compare ourselves to other people Actor-observer bias in attribution/counter-factual thinking – attribution is the bottom line for human behavior, it is assigning a cause or causes to behavior, why do people do that, why do they do what they do – because it tells something about their personality, can be powerful to shaping the idea of what a person is all about o Counter – factual thinking – a distortion in thinking that makes us feel better, it is against the facts, we often thing “well if I had only done this, than everything would have been different” we spend time looking at our behavior as if it could have gone a different way, we do it mostly with ourselves, “what if thinking”, we can avoid responsibility by thinking of alternate occurrences to think that it is not our fault Self-consistency bias – when you fail, who is responsible for that? What does that say about you? Not changing the views, you have of yourself, once you form an idea of yourself, you actively defend that image, it’s easier to live in the delusions and the false ideas because once you accept the truth you have to take actions to turn that around (think of people addicted to drugs, they think they are too weak to quit, but once they realize they can, they have to take some hard steps to change that and face their truths) Dispositional Situational *Fundamental attribution error – an error in attribution (assign causes for the behavior) an error in assigning causes that is fundamental (basic), humans tend to assign causes to a person, anytime something happens we want to know who to blame – assigning personal responsibility, we make a lot of mistakes and we blame a lot of people without understanding how complex the situation really is, we tend to blame other people, but when it refers to ourselves it is a little bit more sensitive, you do not want to blame your self, people usually want to avoid responsibility and avoid painful attributions to ourselves Emotion is the enemy of logic, emotion is the want to see ourselves in a positive light, if something good happens we take credit, if something bad happens we blame the situation Stereotype – attitudes about a group, a concept is formed by examining information and forming an idea, a stereotype is just a concept about a group, we do not have a lot of information, we assign all members of the group into the same category and the same characteristics o Attribution bias based on a stereotype – we assign cause based on the stereotype, short term thinking
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