Biology 1101 Exam 1 Review Guide
Biology 1101 Exam 1 Review Guide BIOLOGY 1101 - 0100
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BIOLOGY 1101 - 0100
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexa Notetaker on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOLOGY 1101 - 0100 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Kristin Smock in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Week 1: • Understand the 5 characteristics of living things • Understand the concept of homeostasis and why it’s important • Know what an adaptation is and what effects adaptations have on survival and reproduction • Know the steps of the scientific method, from observations to conclusions • Know what a theory is, and how that is different from a hypothesis • Understand how atoms link together (electrons determine chemical bonding) • Be familiar with the terms: element, atom, and the subatomic particles • Understand how electrons determine chemical bonding • Covalent • Ionic • Hydrogen • Understand the unique properties of water Week2: • Know the four main types of organic molecules – know the monomers and polymers of each type • Understand the difference between simple and com plex carbohydrates, and how living things use carbohydrates • Understand the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats, and what it means to be “hydrogenated” • Understand that proteins have more functions in our body than any other type of organic molecule, and understand the relationship between shape and function • Know the two main types of nucleic acids, and what makes up a nucleotide • Understand that cells are the most basic unit of life • Know the 6 traits all cells have in common • Understand the phospholipid bilayer structure of the cell membrane Week3: • Understand why cells are small by necessity • Know the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells – Understand division of labor inside eukaryotic cells, which have membrane-‐bound organelles (including a nucleus) • Know the basic functions of the organelles discussed in lecture – Nucleus – Chloroplasts – Mitochondria • Understand that chemical bonds are a source of potential energy • Know that energy flow is unidirectional • Understand that chemical reactions absorb or release energy – endergonic vs. exergonic reactions • Know the basics of photosynthesis as presented – know inputs and outputs – know where it occurs – know what organisms use this process • Understand how different wavelengths of light are absorbed or reflected, and why leaves change color in the fall • Photosynthesis makes glucose and O from CO and H O, and light 2 2 2 • Understand where new tissue comes from as plants grow • Understand the link between photosynthesis and cellular respiration (waste products of one are used by another) Week 4: • Cellular respiration breaks down glucose to yield ATP – know where it occurs – know what organisms use this process – know what the three main processes are • glycolysis, • Krebs cycle, • electron transport chain – know at which step the most energy is produced • Understand the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration, including the differences in energy output • What are the structural components of DNA? – when was the structure described, and by whom? • Understand complementary base pairing • Understand why and how DNA replicates, and know what semi -‐ conservative replication is • Define what a mutation is, and know some causes of mutations • Know how prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes reproduce • Understand the process by which cells replicate: mitosis – know the components of the cell cycle: interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis • Know what happens when cell division and cell death are out of balance • Understand the following terms: – Chromosome – Genome – sister chromatids – homologous chromosomes – telomeres – somatic cells – gametes – haploid/diploid – zygote
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