Study Guide for Exam #1-Human Development
Study Guide for Exam #1-Human Development HDFS 005
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Human Development Exam #1 Study Guide Chapters 1-4 Textbook + Class Notes Chapter 1: History, Theory and Research Strategies Developmental science: field of study devoted to understanding constancy and change/transformation throughout the lifespan Scientific interest/ applied importance and interdisciplinary as a whole How people grow and change Theory-orderly, integrates set of statement that describes, explains and predicts behavior o provide framework for our observations o theories supported by research provide good basis for practical action (know how to act/improve on something) o must be tested by scientific method Three basic issues that theories tend to be basic around in HD o Course of development continuous or discontinuous? Continuous-process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with. Infants and children respond to the world the same way that adults do. Difference is in amount/complexity. Discontinuous-a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times. Infants and children have unique ways of thinking, feeling and behaving Development takes place in stages-qualitative changes in thinking, feeling and behaving that characterize specific periods of development Assumes change is rather sudden (jump from step to step) rather than gradual o One course of development applies to all people or are there multiple courses? Contexts-unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can results in different paths of change o Genetic or environmental factors more important? Those who focus on environment tend to look at early experiences to establish life patterns. Optimistic view=plasticity-open to change in response to influential experiences Resilience-ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development. Main protective factors: personal characteristics, warm parental relationship, social support outside of immediate family and community resources and opportunities Stability-that individuals who are high or low in a characteristic will remain so at later ages Tend to stress heredity First ½ of 20 C most people thought development stopped at adolescence. As average life expectancy has lengthened so studies/theories have changed. Researches focus more on the idea of a development as a dynamic system-a continuous process o Leading dynamic systems approach-lifespan perspective Four main assumptions: 1) life-long ; 2) multi- facetted/multi-directional (both growth and decline of certain skills in each period); 3) highly plastic; 4) affected by multiple, interacting forces 1) No single age period has biggest impact but events occurring during each period can have equally powerful effects. Three main domains: physical, cognitive, emotional/social wisdom-expertise in practical matters plasticity-depends on many factors-ex. capacity and opportunity for change 4) forces: biological, historical, social and cultural o age-graded influences: events that are strongly related to age and therefore fairly predictable in when they occur and how long they will last o history-graded influences-used to explain why people born around the dame time(called a cohort) tend to be alike in certain ways and set them apart from people in other cohorts o nonnormative influences-events that are irregular: that happen to one/a few persons and have no predictable timetable. Both age-grades and history- grades influences are normative (typical/average) Darwin-theory of evolution o Natural selection o Survival of the fittest o Prenatal growth=similar between many species. Caused attempts to chart child growth V evolution-resulted in scientific child study. Normative Period (early 1900s) o G. Stanley Hall and Arnold Gesell Founder of child study movement Based around evolutionary ideas. Normative approach-measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals, and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development. Collected info on infants/children’s motor achievements, social behaviors and personal achievements Mental Testing Movement (early 1900s) o Alfred Binet-normative approach but to identify children with learning problems for placement in special classes o Theodore Simon=colleague o Constructed first successful intelligence test Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test (English version of test; original was in French) mid 20 Ch o human development expanded into legitimate discipline Psychoanalytic Perspective (1930s/1940s) o People move through series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. How conflicts=resolved determines person’s ability to learn, get along with others and cope with anxiety. o Freud-note: never actually studied children directly Psychosexual theory-emphasizes how parents manage their child’s sexual and aggressive drives in first few years is crucial for healthy personality development Three parts of personality which popped up at different stages of childhood: Id-biological needs/desires. Biggest part of brain Ego-rational part of personality Superego-conscience o Erikson Psychosocial theory-in addition to mediating between id and superego, ego makes positive contribution to development acquiring attitudes and skills that make the individual active contributing member of society Noted that normal development must be understood in cultural context Added three adult stages to Freud’s five stages of development o Overall strength: emphasis on understanding individual’s unique story Accept clinical/ case-study method o Weaknesses: often theories were so vague that hard to test empirically Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory o Behaviorism-directly observable events (stimuli/response) are appropriate focus of study Began in US with John Watson –wanted to create objective study of psych. o Traditional Behavioralism Ivan Pavlov-discovered classical conditioning (salivating dog in response to bell) Watson Child to fear rat through association with loud noise. He conclude environment=chief factor in development + is a continuous process B. F. Skinner-operant conditioning theory-frequency of behavior can be increased by following it with reinforces and decreased through punishment o Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura-emphasizes modeling-imitation or observational learning as powerful development Stressed importance of cognition-thinking. Also social-cognitive –social learning approach Children become more selective in what they imitate as go. o Develop personal standards for behavior and sense of self-efficacy(belief that own abilities characters will help them succeed) o Contributions/Limitations of Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory Behavior modification-procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses. Considered by some to have too narrow a view on important environmental factors + underestimating people’s contributions to own development Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory o Did not believe children’s learning was depends on reinforcers o Cognitive-developmental theory-children construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore world o Focus on theory of adaptation o Children revise incorrect ideas as attempt to establish equilibrium between internal structure and information encountered o Four main stages o Adapted clinical method of psychoanalysis-conducted open-ended clinical interviews. Children response served as basis for next question o Contributions/limitations: Insufficient attention to social and cultural influences on development Also issue with idea that no major cognitive changes occur after adolescence Recent Theoretical Perspectives Information Processing o Information processing-idea that the human mind might be viewed as symbol-manipulating system through which information flows o Regards people as active, sense-making beings but does not divide development into stages o Continuous change Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience o Developmental cognitive neuroscience-brings together researchers from psych, bio, neuroscience and med to study connection between changes in brain and development in person’s cognitive processing and behavior patterns o First five years of life-brain is highly plastic but remains plastic throughout life to a different degree Ethology and Evolutionary Developmental Psychology o Ethology-concerned with adaptive, survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary roots o Modern parents=Konrad Lorenz an Niko Tinbergen Watched animals in natural habitat Observed behavior patterns that promote survival Imprinting Concept led to idea of critical period in child development. Limited time span when individual is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs support o Better term for humans=sensitive period- time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge and in which the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences. Boundaries are less defined that critical period + development can occur later only=harder to induce John Bowlby o Inspired by imprinting Applied ethological theory to human infant-caregiver relationship. Ex. Baby cries to signal caregiver to interact with them. Eventually causes deep bond to form that has life-long consequences Evolutionary developmental psychology o Seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide cognitive, emotional and social competencies as those competencies change with age Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory o Cultural specific believes/practices and effects on development o Sociocultural theory-how culture is transmitted to the next generation. Social interaction is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community’s culture. o Rec. that people in diff. cultures have unique strengths o Neglected biological side of development Ecological System’s Theory o Urie Bronfenbrenner-bioecological model Ecological system’s theory-people =developing within complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding development. Microsystem-innermost level of environment- activities and interaction patterns in person’s immediate surroundings o Note that all relationships are bidirectional and third parties have influence on two people’s relationship Mesosystem-encompasses connections between microsystems Exosystem-social settings that do not contain the developing person but affect experiences in immediate settings Macrosystem-cultural values, laws, customs and resources Ecological transitions-shifts in context. Temporal dimension of bioecological model- chronosystem Research Methods o Naturalistic observation Record behavior in field/natural environment Main limitation: not all individuals have same opp. To display particular behavior in everyday life. Handled using structured observations-set up lab situation that evokes behavior of interest so each participant has same opp. to display response. Strength: can see directly the behaviors they are trying to explain Shows behavior but not reason behind it o Self-reports Clinical interview-researchers use flexible, conversation type to probe for persons POV Easy to personalize Structured interviews-each participant is asked same set of questions in the same way Not same depth of info but can be more accurate Clinical/case-study method Bring together wide range of info on one person-interviews, observations and test scores. Want complete picture Cannot assume generalization Methods for studying culture Ethnography-descriptive/qualitative way about things. Rather than being aimed at understanding single person is about understanding a culture of social group via participant observation General Research Designs o Correlational Gather info on individuals (generally natural life circumstances) without altering these experiences. Then look at relationships between participants’ characteristics and behavior/development Cannot determine causality Correlation coefficient-strength/direction of relationship o Experimental Permits inference concerning causality-random assignment Independent and dependent variables Random assignment o Modified experimental designs: Field and Natural Experiments o Field experiments-participants assigned randomly to treatment conditions in natural settings o Natural/quasi-experimental-when cannot randomly assign treatment, use one already existing in the world Cannot achieve same precision of pure experimental design Designs for Studying Development o Longitudinal design-participants are studied repeatedly and changes are noted as they get older Can identify common patterns Examine relationships between early and later events/behaviors Problems: people often drop out of research so turns into bias + people become more aware of study and can alter behavior. Performance may improve due to practice effects-better test-taking skills/familiarity with task-rather than actual development . Cohort effect-traits of certain group of people born in same time period. Other cohorts may not show same trends. o Cross-Sectional Design Groups of people differing in age are studied at same point in time Don’t have to worry about drop out/practice effects Problems: Limited to age-group averages little info on individual level Cohort effect o Sequential Designs-conduct several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies(called sequences) Way of minimizing weaknesses of longitudinal/cross- sectional approaches Ethics in Lifespan Research o Protection from harm o Informed consent o Privacy o Knowledge of results o Debriefing o Beneficial treatments o IRBs (institutional review boards) Chapter 2-Genetic and Environmental Foundations Genetic Foundations Phenotypes-directly observable characteristics Genotypes-genetic info Genetic Foundations o Chromosomes-rod-like structures which store and transmit genetic information o DNA-deoxyribonucleic acid o Gene-segment of DNA along length of chromosome o Mitosis-process of duplication of DNA o Cytoplasm-area surrounding cell nucleus. Proteins trigger chemical reactions in body o Gametes-sperm and ovum. o Meiosis-halves number of chromosomes. o Conception forms zygote which is the unification of ovum and sperm o Humans-22 out of 23 pairs of chromosomes are autosomes (matching pairs) 1 pair=sex chromosomes. Females are XX. Males are XY. o Fraternal/dizygotic twins-results from release and fertilization of two ova o Identical/monozygotic twins-zygote that started to duplicate separates into two clusters of cells that develop into two individuals o Alleles-different forms of genes. o Homozygous-if both alleles are the same o Heterozygous-alleles are different Dominant-recessive inheritance If Hh then are carriers because do not express the trait but can pass trait to children o Most disabilities and disease are product of recessive alleles Ex. Phenylketonuria (PKU)-body cant process certain protein and build up can cause mental retardation o Incomplete dominance-both alleles are expression in phenotypes, resulting in intermediate traits o Ex. Sick cell anemia/trait o X-linked inheritance-harmful allele is carried on the X chromosome. Males are more likely to be affected. Y chromosome is only about 1/3 as long and therefore not as many genes on it to counteract X. Ex. Hemophilia Though males tend to be most highly effected nature compensates-higher birth rate of males in world o Genomic imprinting-alleles are imprinted/chemically marked so one pair member is activated regardless of its makeup o Mutation-sudden but permanent change in segment of DNA o Germline mutation-happens in cells that give rise to gametes. Passed on to next generation. o Somatic mutation-normal cells mutate. Cause of cancer o Polygenic inheritance o Many genes influence characteristic Ex. Height Chromosomal Abnormalities o Most are due to mistakes during meiosis o Most abnormalities on autosomes cause miscarriage o Down Syndrome-results from failure of 21 pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis and the individual receives three rather than two pairs. st Or extra broken pieces of 21 chromosome is attached to another chromosome (translocation patterns) Error occurs during states of mitosis causing some but not all body cells to have the defective chromosomal makeup. o Abnormalities of the Sex Chromosome Often not recognized until adolescence Most children with such abnormalities have specific intellectual deficits (ex. Verbal difficulties or special relationships) Reproductive Choices Donor insemination In Vitro Fertilization Surrogate motherhood Genetic Counseling-communication process designed to help couples asses their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder and choose the best course of action after assessing risks and family goals. Pedigree-picture of family tree in which affective relatives are affected Prenatal diagnostic methods-medical procedures that permit detection of developmental problems before birth o Amniocentesis o Chorionic villus sampling o Fetoscopy o Ultrasound o Maternal blood analysis o Ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) o Preimplantation genetic diagnosis Advances in genetic engineering Human Genome Project-allowed identification of genes in abnormalities Gene therapy-correcting gene abnormalities by delivering DNA carrying a functional gene to the cells Proteomics-scientists modify gene-specific proteins involves in biological aging and disease Adoption o Adopted children tend to have more learning and emotional difficulties which increase according to the child’s age at adoption Environmental Contexts for Development Focus of this section=Macrosystem Family o Most influence of any macrosystem o Learn language, skills and social/moral values of specific culture within family o Isolation/alienation from family is often associated with developmental problems o Modern researchers see family as a network of interdependent relationships Is a system-family responses are related Example of bidirectional relationship Coparenting-parents mutually supporting each other’s parenting behaviors Children who have been brought up with parents in a hostile marriage often learn to Internalize difficulties (especially among girls) Externalize difficulties (especially among boys)- ex. Aggression Socioeconomic status and family functioning Socioeconomic status (SES)-way researches assess a family’s standing in terms of social position and economic well-being Three main variables: o Years of education o Prestige of one’s job and the skills it requires, both of which measure social status o Income-measure of economic status Both children in poverty and extreme affluent situations tend to have academic and emotional issues as parents don’t necessarily have enough time to devote to them. Impact of neighborhoods Towns and cities Small towns tend to be better for children as children tend to be engages in tasks that fosters both learning and sense of responsibility Cultural Context o Subcultures-groups of people with beliefs and customs that differ from those of the larger culture o Extended-family housesholds-in which three or more generation lives together o Collectivist society People define themselves as part of a group and stress group goals over individual goals Value interdependent self-stresses social harmony, obligations and responsibility to others o Individualistic society People think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs Value independent self: emphasis on personal exploration, discover, achievement and individual choice in relationships o Public policies-law and government programs designed to improve current conditions USA=only industrialized nation without a universal and publically funded health-care system Understanding the Relationship Between Heredity and Environment Behavioral genetics-a field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to this diversity in human traits and abilities Heritability estimates-measure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors o They are obtained through kinship studies which compare characteristics of family members Most common kinship studies look at identical twins Most show a moderate strength in relationship to traits Give no precise information Tells nothing about how environment can modify genetic influences Gene-environment interaction-means that because of genetic makeup, individuals differ in their responsiveness to qualities of the environment. People have unique, genetically influenced reactions to particular experiences. o Shows because we have unique genetic makeup, respond to environment differently o Different gene-environment combinations can make two people look the same Gene-environment correlation-genes influence the environments to which we are exposed o At young ages two types of gene-environment correlation are common Passive correlation-child has no control over it Environment correlation is evocative Children evoke response that are influenced by the child’s heredity and these responses strengthen the child’s original style. o At older ages active gene-environment correlation becomes common Actively seek environments that fit with their genetic tendencies Niche-picking: this tendency is actively choose environments that complement our hereditary Parents and other adults can uncouple unfavorable genes- environmental correlations by providing children with positive experiences that modify the expression of heredity, yielding favorable outcomes Genes/gene expression experiences and behavior Epigenesis-development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment. o Ex. Smoking during pregnancy alters gene expression Chapter 3: Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn Baby Prenatal Development Conception o Every 28 days-middle of menstrual cycle-ovum bursts from ovaries and is draw into one of the two fallopian tubes which lead to the uterus. o As ovum travels, place on ovary from which the ovum was released(corpus luteum), releases hormones to let the uterus know it should prepare its lining. It pregnancy doesn’t happen-corpus luteum shrinks and lining of uterus is discarded two days later o Sperm produced in testes o Sperm has tail that allows it to travel through the cervix and into the fallopian tube. o Sperm lives around six days where ovum only lives 1 o Conception tends to occur within three days period-day of ovulation of two days before o 38 weeks of pregnancy=divide into three stages Period of Zygotes Lasts about two weeks-fertilizationattachment to wall of uterus Fourth day-formation of blastocyst-hollow, fluid-filled ball. Cells on inside that will become the new organism-embryonic disk. Outer ring of cellstrophoblastbecome structure that provide protection and nourishment Implantation-happens between days 7 and 9. It is when the blastocyst burrows into the uterine lining. o Trophoblast grows fastest to form a membrane that encloses the zygote in amniotic fluid. The fluid helps to provide a cushion and keep temperature constant. A yolk sac is formed that produces blood until other parts of the body appear to take over. o Aprox. 30% of zygotes do not survive this process. Placenta and Umbilical Cord-by end of second week, trophoblast forms a second protective membrane called the chorion. The chorion surrounds the chorion and from it villi emerge which burrows into uterine wall. These mark the start of the creation of the placenta which will permit food and oxygen to get to the zygote and waste to be taken away. o It is connected to the zygote by the umbilical cord-has one large vein that delivers blood and two arteries which remove waste. Period of Embryo implantation 8 week of pregnancy second half of first month o formation of three layers of cells: ectoderm(becomes nervous system and skin), mesoderm(becomes muscles, circulatory system, skeletal system and other organs) and endoderm (becomes digestive system, urinary tract, lungs and glands) o nervous system develops fastestectoderm folds to form neural tube (early version of the spinal chord) Second Month o Formation of eyes, ears, nose, jaw and neck o More distinct internal organs o Arms, legs, fingers and toes o 7 wks-start of neuron production. After their production they move to their permanent placement and will later form major parts of the brain. o can move though mother cannot feel it o responds to touch Period of Fetus Ninth week to end of pregnancy (longest period) Rapid increase in size 3 month (end of first trimester): o organs, muscles and nervous system sttht to become connected and organized o 12 week-gender can be determined Second Trimester o Wk 17-20mother can now feel movements. Vernix (white substance) protects skin from chapping. It is aided in sticking to the skin thanks to lanugo which is fine hair that appears all over the body. o End of 2 ndtrimester-glial cellssupport and feed neurons increase rapidly through remainder or pregnancy + after birth. Therefore brain increases in weight. At the same time-neurons start to rapidly form synapses. o Brain cannot yet control breathing/body temperature. Lungs are still immature. Third Trimester o Age of viability-between wk 22 and 26. Point at which baby can survive but many still need oxygen assistance to breathe. o Lungs are mature but not ready to inflate. o Enlargement of the cerebral cortex o Responsiveness to stimulation o More time awake o Signs of developing a specific temperament o Fetuses can remember for brief period o Learn to distinguish between different people’s voices o 8 month-layer of fat added to aid in temp. regulation Prenatal Environmental Influences Teratogens-environmental agent that causes harm during prenatal period. Amount of harm done depends on o Dose o Heredity o Other negative influences o Age Most damage can be done during the embryonic period o Prescription and nonprescription drugs Accutane-current most widely used teratogen Any drug with molecule small enough to enter placental barrier can enter fetal bloodstream o Illegal drugs 4% of US pregnant mothers use causes birth defects + newborn are addicted o Tobacco 14% of US pregnant mothers Most common effect is low birth weight o Alcohol Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)-encompasses range of mental, physical and behavioral outcomes caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Three different diagnoses: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) o Slow physical growth o Three facial abnormalities (short eyelid openings, thin upper lip, smooth/flattened philtrum) o Brain injury-shown by small heard and impairment in at least three areas of functioning Partial fetal alcohol syndrome (p-FAS) o Two of three above mentioned facial abnormalities o Brain injury-shown by impairment in at least three areas of functioning Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) o At least three areas of functioning are impaired Father drinking at or around time of expression can change gene expression Produces its effects by interfering with production and migration of neurons + causes oxygen depletion o Radiation o Environmental pollution Mercury (avoid seafood during pregnancy) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Lead Dioxins-toxic compounds that results from incineration Men affected father more females than males- seem to impair fertility of Y-bearing sperm o Infectious disease Rubella HIVAIDS destroys immune system. Passed on to offspring 20-30% of the time Sensitive to family of herpes viruses Toxoplasmosis Other Maternal Factors o Nutrition Mineral-vitamin enrichment Ex. Folic acid Mal-nutrition (especially during last trimester) can cause unweight/undeveloped brain o Emotional Stress Especially during first two trimesters can cause many difficulties like miscarriage, prematurity, colic, sleep disturbances post birth and low birth weight o Rh Factor (a protein) Incompatibility When mother is Rh-factor negative and father is Rh- positive the baby may get father’s gene. If any of baby’s blood crosses into mother’s blood stream she starts to form antibodies in response. If these then enter baby’s blood stream then destroy red blood cells reducing oxygen support. First borns are rarely affected and danger increases with each pregnancy o Maternal Age Tend to have issues when older-more birth defects High age of issues when mother is younger but tends to be due to her environment/background The Importance of Prenatal Health care o Help identity issues early one o Barriers to getting such health care: Financial issues Situational barriers Personal barriers Childbirth Baby’s adaptation to labor and delivery o Increased stress hormones which wake up infant, help baby withstand oxygen deprivation and prep baby to breathe Assessing the Newborn’s Physical Condition: The Apgar Scale o Apgar Scale-used to quickly assess newborn’s physical condition Rating of 0-2 is given on five characteristics and then added together. Score of 7 or above shows good physical condition. The scale is done twice-once at one minute and once at five minutes. Approaches to Childbirth 1950s-60s return to natural childbirth Natural, or Prepared, Childbirth o Natural, or prepared, childbirth-group of techniques that aim to reduce pain and medication intervention. The goal is to make childbirth a rewarding experience o In most childbirth programs there are three main activities: classes, relaxation and breathing techniques, labor coach o doula Home delivery o Most are handled by certified nurse-midwives Medical Interventions Cerebral palsy-general term used to describe various impairments in muscle coordination that are caused by oxygen deprivation near or around birth o 10% of these were caused by anoxia which is inadequate oxygen support breech position-fetus is turned to buttocks or feet would be delivered first Fetal Monitoring o Fetal monitors track baby’s heart-rate during labor Labor and Delivery Medication o Used in around 80% of US births o Analgesics-relieve pain o Anesthetics-stronger pain killer and blocks sensation o Epidural analgesia-regional pain-relieving drug is given continuously via catheter place in lower spine Cesarean Delivery-surgical birth where incision is made in the mother’s abdomen and baby is lifted out of the uterus Preterm and Low-Birth-Weight Infants Average birth weigh is 7.5 pounds Newborns below 3.5 pounds suffer from permanent difficulties Preterm versus Small-for-Date Infants o Preterm infants-born several or more wks before due date o Small-for-date infants are below their expected weight as compared to the length of the pregnancy Normally have more seirous problems Consequences for Caregiving o Appearance/behavior of preterm babies can cause parents to be less attentive to them Interventions for Preterm Infants o Isolette-special Plexiglass=enclosed bed where preterm babies are cared for Temperature closed regulated Fed through stomach tube Breathes with help from respirator Gets med through intravenous needle o Special infant stimulation Touch incredibly important Kangaroo-care-placing infant in vertical position between mother’s breasts or next to father’s chest o Infant mortality-number of death during first year alive per 1000 births. It is used to assess children’s health around the world. Neonatal mortalitiy-death within first month of life o Infant Health and Development Program-preterm babies who are born into poverty receive wide-covering intervention The Newborn Baby’s Capacities Reflexes-automatic response to certain form of stimulation o In newborns=most obvious organized behavioral pattern o Reflexes: 1. Rooting-way to help find food source a. When touch face, turns face to look for nipple 2. Sucking a. Genetically wired to suck b. Sometimes takes a bit to train the child/for them to figure out how to do so 3. Moro Reflex-if tilt baby back they will arch their back, tilt their head back and throw their arms out before curling up in a ball 4. Capacity to distinguish smell/hearing –ability to distinguish mum V non-mum. They like sweet things. a. Will recognize sound of partner who has been talking to baby during gestation 5. Crying-gets attention 6. Eye blinking-keep things out of their eyes + helps reduce stress 7. Touch-if a baby is not touched for a very long period of time, they can die 8. Stepping Reflex-if put feet on a surface, they will make stepping motions 9. Babinski Reflex-it pet the bottoms of babies feet, they will curl then open them 10. Grasp Reflex-if put finger in baby’s palm then they will hold onto it 11. Babies are cute-“Im cute, love me”. Way of getting/keeping attention. Survival technique. o States- Infants tend to be in five different states of arousal (states of wakefulness and sleep) Regular sleep Irregular sleep Drowsiness Quiet alertness Waking activity and crying Sleep Two main states: o REM sleep-rapid eye movement, brain- wave activity is similar to that or when one is awake. Body movement o NREM sleep-body doesn’t really move. Brain wave activity is even and slow. Infants spend more time in REM (50% of sleep time) then they will at any other point in their life. o Sudden infant death syndrome (SID)- unexpected and unexplained death of a child under 1 year old. The death usually occurs at night. Crying Usually cry because of physical needs Colic-chronic crying Crying usually mitigated through physical touch and swaddling o Sensory Capacities Touch Helps stimulate physical growth Infants=highly sensitive to pain Physical touch releases endorphins (painkilling chemicals) Taste and Smell Certain odor and taste preferences present at birth Smell-use as directional tool to guide self toward mother Adjusting to the New Family Unit Toward end of pregnancy mother produces oxytocin-stimulates contraction of the uterus, a calm mood and increases responsiveness to the child Fathers show increase in hormones prolactin, estrogen and drop in androgens Chapter 4-Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood Body Growth Changes in Body Size and Muscle-Fat Makeup o Baby fat is at peak in 9months-helps to maintain stable body temperature o 2 ndyear-toddlers tend to slim down. This trend continues into mid-childhood o muscle tissue is slower to develop and peaks during adolescence Individual and Group Differences o Infancy: Girls=shorter + lighter + higher fat: muscle ration than boys Growth norms=height and weight averages/norm for age African American children tend to be above this average Asian children tend to be below Skeletal age-measure of bone development o Xrays of long bones are taken to determine how much of cartilage has hardened into bone. o Girls tend to be in front of boys (also tend to have fewer developmental problems) o African-American children tend to be in front of Caucasian Changes in Body Proportions o Different body parts grow at different rates Two patterns are used to describe this: Cephalocaudal Trend-in prenatal period the head grows/develops quicker than the lower body Proximodistal Trend-growth goes from center to outward Brain Development At birth the brain is closer to maturation than any other part of the body Two main ways of looking at brain development: o Neuron Development Neurons-nerve cells which store/transmit info Brain has around 100-200 billion Not tightly packed Synapses are in between neurons. Where fiber from different neurons come close Neurons communicate by releasing neurochemicals(cross synapse) Prenatal period-neurons=produced in neural tube. They then migrate to their new home and differentiate (establish function by extending fibers to create synaptic connections. Programmed cell death- of synapses is accompanied by 20-80% cell death Stimulation is essential to neuron survival Synaptic pruning-neurons that do not = stimulated lose their synapses. It keeps neurons that are not currently needed to a neutral state where they can support development in the future About 40% of synapses are pruned in childhood and adolescence Reason for dramatic increase in brain size: Glial cells-make up ½ the brain’s volume o Responsible for myelination which is the coating of neural fibers in myelin(fatty shealth) which helps with the efficiently of message transfer o Glial cells increase in large numbers between the fourth month of pregnancy and second year of life o Increase in neural fibers and myelination are what causes the rapid increase in brain size Neurobiological Methods o Neurobiological methods-used to study activity and regions and organization o Methods that measure changes in electrical activity in cerebral activity. EEG-electroencephalogram Brain-wave patterns are looked at for stability and organization(show mature cortical function) ERP-electroencephalogram As person processes stimulus, detects location of brain-wave activity Detects general location of activity o Neuroimaging techniques-show 3D computerized images of the brain + active areas shows abnormalities in brain functioning + specialization of certain regions fMRI-functional magnetic resonance imaging detects change in oxygen by tracking blood flow magnetically. Shows moving images PET-positron emission tomography Depends on X-ray photography and injection of radioactive substance Neither of these neuroimaging techniques work well for children as it involves being still and laying down for an extended period of time One that does work is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) Only examines functioning of cerebral cortex Is optical fibers that put on the scalp via a hat so the baby can move Development of the Cerebral Cortex o Cerebral cortex-85% of brain’s weight and has not most synapses + neurons Surrounds rest of brain o Cortical regions with most extended period of growth=frontal lobes. Prefrontal cortex-in front of areas that control body movement Responsible for thought-consciousness, integrating information, using memory, reasoning, planning, inhibiting impulses, and using problem-solving strategies Goes through rapid formation/pruning of synapses and myelination during preschool year and again in adolescence o Lateralization-specialization of the two hemispheres. Allows for more to go on than if both were doing exact same things. Left: Verbal abilities Positive emotion Better at analyzing sequentially and analytically(piece-by-piece) Right: Negative emotion Spatial abilities Better at processing info in broad view, holistically. Better for regulating negative info o Brain Plasticity-when cerebral cortex is highly plastic and many areas are not yet committed to certain functions, there is a higher capacity for learning. If part of the cortex is damaged than another bit can compensate. Sensitive periods-exist after birth as well as pre-birth. For example there must be varied visual stimulation for brain’s visual center Cortisol is a stress hormone and is linked to persistent illness + behavioral and learning problems. The sensitive periods here refer specifically to brain development o Things that impede brain growth: Overstimulation-can cause them to withdrawal Impoverished environments Two types of brain development: o Experience-expectant brain growth Young brain’s rapidly developing organization. Depends on day-to-day/ordinary experiences. Exploring environment, human interactions. Provides foundation for experience-dependent brain growth o Experience-dependent brain growth Happens throughout life. It involves additional growth and the refining of brain structures that already exist due to specific learning experiences that are unique to them Ex. Playing the piano and reading Changing States of Arousal o Sleep schedule changes rapidly with development + crying/fussiness also decline o Newborns naps between 16-18 hours a day o By age 2 need about 12 hours of sleep a day Melatonin-hormone that is produced staring in the middle of the first year that produces a feeling of drowsiness later at night. Influences on Early Physical Growth Heredity o Weight is influenced by genetic makeup o Catch-up growth-if child is malnourished when younger can return to path set by genetics when this is rectified. Organs may be permanently damaged/compromised though. Nutrition o 25% of nutrition is devoted to growth of babies o infant needs X2 energy per pound than adults to keep up with development o Breastfeeding is suggested until the child is 2 years old o Breast milk contains more fat + nutrients and therefore is better for the child o Correlation between breast milk and obesity prevention Malnutrition o ~27% of children in world suffer from malnutrition before they are 5yrs old. o Tends to result in damage to liver, heart, brain and other organs as well as stunted growth o When get proper nourishment-tend to gain excessive weight due to low basal metabolism rate. o Food insecurity-uncertain access to food that can lead to a healthy life Affects 21% of US children Learning Capacities Classical Conditioning-neutral stimulus is paired to a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response. After nervous system makes the connection between the two defined stimuli then neutral stimulus produces the behavior o Process: unconditioned stimulus (UCS) consistently produces an unconditioned response (UCR) o Neutral stimulus (doesn’t lead to reflex presented) is presented about same til as the UCS and is therefore associated with the reflex. o If learning has happened then the neutral stimulus will now produce a response that is similar to the reflexive one. Neutral stimulus is now called a conditioned stimulus (CS) and its response is a conditioned response (CR) o If CS alone enough and not paired with UCS then CR will not happen. This is called extinction o Fear is hard to condition in babies because they can’t run away. Therefore it doesn’t benefit them. Operant Conditioning-infants operate (act) on the environment and stimuli that follow the act will decide/change the probability that it will occur again. o Stimulus that increases occurrence is a reinforce o Removing desirable stimulus/giving unpleasant one to discourage behavior is a punishment Habituation- Gradual reduction in strength of a response due to repeated exposure o Recovery-change in environment causes responsiveness to return to higher levels o Makes learning more efficient as recognize what don’t know o remote memory-memory of a stimulus from a while ago o recent memory-memory of a stimulus from recently Imitation-copying behavior of someone else o Infants trying to match what they see with what they feel o Mirror neurons-in cerebral cortex of primates. Fire identically when hear/sees an action and carries out said action by themselves. Believe they are also related to empathy and understanding of intentions Motor neuron growth between birth and age 2. Motor Development The Sequence of Motor Development o Gross-motor development-control over actions that help to maneuver around environment o Fine-motor development-smaller movements (reaching/grasping) Motor Skills as Dynamic Systems o Dynamic systems theory of motor development-states that mastery of motor skills involves getting increasingly complex systems of action. When they work as a system, different abilities blend together and work with each other, which promotes exploring/controlling environment. o as movement is repeated, then synapses=developmental o new skills=product of four factors: central nervous system movement capacities of body goals of child environmental supports specific to that skill Fine-Motor Development: Reaching and Grasping o Reaching=very important as enables child to grab object/interact and play o Prereaching-attempts (more like a swipe) toward object in front of them o once infant can reach then modify grasp ulnar grasp-clumsy motion where fingers are held close to the palm. By four months adjust to size of object. pincer grasp-thumb and index finger (end of first year) The steps involved in Reaching and grasping o Prereaching o Ulnar grasp (palming) o Transferring object form hand to hand o Pincer grasp Perceptual Development sensation-baby knows that it is being exposed to some sort of stimulus perception-activeinterpreting and organizing what see Hearing o Over first year organize sounds into more and more elaborate patterns o Newborns can distinguish sounds within the human language. o Statistical learning capacity-analyzing speech for patterns they learn/acquire structures that they can later associate with meanings before 12 months. This is the reason they learn so fast in terms of speech understanding. Vision o Perception narrowing effect-perceptual sensitivity that grows increasingly attuned to info that one encounters most frequently. o Large amount of development during first 7-8 months due to rapid development of eye/visual centers in cerebral cortex. o Visual acuity-fineness of discrimination o Depth perception-ability to judge how far objects are from ourselves and from other objects. o Visual cliff Allowed researchers to conclude that recognize shallow/deep dropoffs around time that start crawling o Motion-first depth cue that infants are sensitive to o Binocular depth cues-happen because both eyes have different visual fields o Pictorial depth cues-depth in pictures/art/texture change o Progresses in this order because first can control head, then explore surfaces o As get older, like to look at increasingly complex patterns o Tend to look for structure within a pattern o Like human facelike structures o Face that is most exposed to at young age tends to be what most comfortable with later (males V female, race, etc.) Intermodal Perception o Intermodal stimulation-input from more than one sensory system at the same time o Intermodal perception-makes sense of various inputs by creating a whole o Amodal sensory properties-put together systems by finding amodal sensory properties which is info that overlaps between various systems Understanding Perceptual Development o Invariant features-those that don’t change o Eleanor and James Gibson Differentiation theory-infants search for invariant features of an environment Stable relationships-notice stable relationships within environments Their theor
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