Study Guide for PSYCH 1630
Study Guide for PSYCH 1630 PSYC 1630
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren McDowell on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1630 at University of North Texas taught by Nine Calmenson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology 1 in Psychlogy at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
PSYCH 1630.003 CHAPTER ONE: The Science of the Mind SONA site Summaries (four points) If you want feedback and chance for revision: April 1, 2015 at 5:00PM Last dat to turn in for credit: April 15, 2015 at 4:00PM Research (need ten credits) Wednesday of pre-ﬁnals week: May 4, 2015 at 5:00PM2 Credits must be assigned to courses by May 6, 2015 at 5:00PM If you don’t show up to 3 Sona studies then you will get locked out ____________________________________________________________________________ There will be three critique papers: one page essays about a given research study, due at 11:59 • February 10, 2015 March 9, 2015 • • April 6, 2015 There will be four exams: one dropped test grade • February 3, 2015 • March 2, 2015 • March 30, 2015 • April 27, 2015 • May 4, 2015 - Final Research participation: ten credits from SONA, worth forty points of ﬁnal grade Ten extra credit points are possible: you can do ten more sona studies for extra credit PSYCH 1630.003 CHAPTER ONE: The Science of the Mind STUDY OF THE MIND: the behavioral and mental processes that affect your thoughts and emotions PHILOSOPHY: personal introspection, while psychology is the scientiﬁc method to test thoughts, feelings, and behaviors PSYCHOLOGY ROOTS: chemistry, philosophy, and neuroscience Psychology’s initial goal questions aim to answer human nature, relationship between body and mind, roles of nature vs. nurture How did the Science of Psychology begin? Early attempts at psychology involved voodoo, lobotomies, and draining dirty blood TREPANATION: cutting a hole in someone’s head GREEKS: physicians in 500BCE were questioning the brain, mind and body FRANZ JOSEPH GALE: 1796, had this idea that there were different parts of the brain did different things STRUCTURALISM: ﬁrst initial movement that started psychology, breaking things down WILHELM WUNDT: ﬁrst psychologist, germany, structuralism GESTALT: german for “whole”, mind ﬁlls in missing information FUNCTIONALISM: william james, viewed behavior as purposeful, interested in why, darwinism BEHAVIORISM: pavlov, classical conditioning (antecedent, behavior, consequence, ABC) SKINNER: radical behaviorism, operant condition, crows and peanuts, free will is an illusion COGNITIVE REVOLUTION: brain is like a computer, cognition is thinking that happens before a certain behavior, challenges behaviorist assumptions SIGMUND FREUD: not really a scientist, responsible for psychoanalysis, unconscious is id. violence, sex, ego. did not use any type of science. HUMANISM: where we are today, human nature is innately good, maslow (hierarchy of needs) and rogers (therapy), treating clients as peers rather than subordinates, validating feelings, reaction to freud, starting from belief that human nature is good PSYCHOLOGY: addresses questions about people’s thoughts and behaviors. PSYCH 1630.003 CHAPTER ONE: The Science of the Mind SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATION: normal, day-to-day observations are often biased • Science helps remove subjective biases • provide evidence that their observations are objective. • Setting rules in advance for what observations will be included in a study. • Example: Helping others • Double-blind • Some kinds of observations, such as physiological responses or computer-based reaction times, are inherently more objective than human observation. • Reliability: multiple observers agree EXPERIMENTATION: process of generating a testable hypothesis based on your theory, and then collecting systematic observations, or “data,” to see whether the hypothesis is supported. • begins with a theory – a proposed set of facts and relationships between facts that explain and predict observed phenomena. GOOD HYPOTHESIS: falsiﬁable, testable PEER REVIEW: not enough to just collect data, has to be reviewed before being published DARLEY AND BATSON: theories of helping, more religious, being early, good samaritan, all stepped over injured man on street in experiment. used correctional method CASE STUDY: in depth examinations of speciﬁc person or small group NATURALISTIC STUDY: study of animals or environment SURVEYS: used to ask many people of their opinion or thoughts on something VARIABLES: 0 means no association, closer to 1 means high association CORRELATION METHODS: can be used when you cannot manipulate theorized variable but correlations cannot prove casual relationship CORRELATION IS NOT CAUSATION EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: can be used to prove casual relationships, control every aspect of the situation, somewhat artiﬁcial RELIABILITY: The consistency of an operational measure across time and observers VALIDITY:The extent to which an operational measure actually measures the concept it is supposed to measure ETHICAL GUIDELINES: reasonable incentives, consent, minimal harm, conﬁdentiality Advantage: Controls for Cohort Disadvantage: More difﬁcult, expensive Disadvantage: Historical events confounded with Age
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