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UA / Psychology / PSY 4183 / What are animal methods?

What are animal methods?

What are animal methods?

Description

School: University of Arkansas
Department: Psychology
Course: Behavioral Neuroscience
Professor: Nathan parks
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: PSYC and Behavioral Neuroscience
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide 3 - Behavioral Neuroscience
Description: Contains an overview of this unit's lecture. Includes helpful images, example questions, and answers to the blackboard practice questions along with explanations. This unit's exam will cover everything from Week 9 - Week 11 notes (also posted). Good luck Studying!
Uploaded: 04/09/2016
9 Pages 48 Views 3 Unlocks
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Behavioral Neuroscience Study Guide – Exam 3


What are animal methods?



*Study Tip: When studying for this class exams you should overview ALL of your notes in a good  amount. It is good to focus on the more complicated concepts but do not neglect the simpler  concepts because there will most likely be questions on it as well. This guide focuses on  explaining on the more complicated concepts but you should not study this guide alone.

Overview of Neuroscience Methods:

Animal Methods

- Patch Clamping: Micropipette is used to seal off a piece of the neuronal membrane - Immunocytochemistry: “programming” antibodies to detect specific proteins - Microdialysis: Extracts ECF fluid from inside the brain to the outside through a pump  - Tracing: Labels neurons (via dye, autoradiography, virus etc…)so you can follow their  pathways

- Optogenetic: Alters neurons to be light sensitive so it can be triggered with different Knockout  wavlengths


What are human methods?



- Ablation: Destroying of tissue

- Single-cell recordings: Placing an electrode into a brain area and passively record what occurs - Electrical Stimulation: Place an electrode in the brain area and use it to stimulate - Knockouts: Removing a gene from an animal and noting differences We also discuss several other topics like What do u mean by exclusive economic zone?

Human methods

- Patients: Compare populations with brain damage V. those without brain damage - Electrocorticography (ECoG): Implanted across the frontal cortex, can locate activity (i.e.  seizure sources)

- Electrical brain Stimulation (EBS): Stimulating the brain with the ECoG

- Computerized Tomography (CT): Combines 2-D x-rays to create 3-D image of the brain  structure

- Positron Emission Tomography (PET): Functional 3D images measured by brains consumption  of radioactive glucose


What is the sensory apparatus?



- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Magnetic fields and radio frequency’s used for structural  and functional 3D brain imaging

- Functional MRI (fmri): When the MRI is set to measure function, not structure. Measures  blood oxygenation

- Electroencephalography (EEG): Places electrodes on the scalp to measure electrical activity - Magnetoencephalography: Measures magnetic fields generated by the brain - Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): Disrupts cortical activity with a magnetic pulse,  causing a brief error

- Behavioral Genetics: Attempts to correlate behavior with similarity/variability in the genome

Overview Vision:

Stimulus

- Light (Wavelength, Amplitude) = Electromagnetic energy)

o Saturation = purity of color

The Sensory Apparatus Don't forget about the age old question of How does conformity influence behavior?

- The Eye

- The Retina

Neural Pathways

- Retinohypothalamic : Retina to hypothalamus

- Retinopretectal: Retina to pretectum

- Retinocollicular: Retina to superior colliculus

- Retinogeniculostriiate: retina to LGN

o Handles all detailed and conscious vision

o Retina????LGN????V1

Cortical Representations

- Area V1

o Ventral Stream (When)

o Dorsal stream (Where)

Stimulus Don't forget about the age old question of What does action potential mean?

Humans can detect light between a wavelength of 380nm – 760 nm

- Amplitude = Affects brightness

- Wavelength = Affects color ???? Perception is further affected by:

o Hue

o Saturation

o Brightness If you want to learn more check out What is ventilation in a respiratory system?

Sensory Apparatus 

∙ Light enters the eye and hits the retina (in the back) then proceeds to go through its 3 layers: ∙ The retina layers have Laminar organization and function BACKWARDS from their anatomical order o Light passes through the ganglion layer ???? bipolar layer???? photoreceptor layer because they  are transparent.  Don't forget about the age old question of How do you find the electric force between a proton and an electron?

o Once the light hits the photoreceptor layer it triggers the information processing and works  its way BACKWARDS through the layers. The ganglion cells connect to the optic nerve which  then send the information to the brain

Retina layers (in functional order) 

1. Photoreceptor layer: Transduces light into neural signals (forms synapse with bipolar cells) a. Rods : Night Vision

b. Cones: Detailed/color vision

i. S-Cones If you want to learn more check out Why did the slaves revolt in the haitian revolution?

ii. M-Cones

iii. L- cones

2. Bipolar cells: Transfer information from the photoreceptors to ganglion cells 3. Ganglion Cells: Project to the brain through the optic nerve

RODS V. CONES

CONES 

RODS

Most concentrated in the Fovea (central retina)

Most Concentrated in the Peripheral retina (not  present in the fovea)

Sensitive to moderate – high levels of light

Sensitive to Low levels of light

Provide Information about hue

Provide only monochromatic information

Provides excellent acuity

Provides poor acuity

Visual Pathways

=Contralateral Organization

Eye: Has both Visual Hemifields (Right and left)

Optic Tract: Keeps track of the visual hemifield on its side

Optic chiasm: Contains both sides of space (loss = blindness)

Receptive fields of Ganglion Cells 

On Center Cells: Pick up light stimulus on a  

dark background

Off Center cells: Pick up dark stimulus on a  

light background

Cortical Representations 

1. Area V1: Retinotropic organization ( and don’t forget contralateral) pictured in the image  below

V1 Receptive fields

o Binocularity: Refers to a neuron having a receptive field in each eye

o Orientation selectivity : Responds preferentially to edges with a particular  orientation

o Direction selectivity: receptive fields respond preferentially to a stimulus with a particular  orientation moving in a particular direction

o Color selectivity: receptive fields respond preferentially to particular color. V1 color  selective cells exhibit response properties much more complex than those in the retina or  LGN

2. Ventral Streams = What

i. Lateral Occipital Cortex (LOC)

ii. Fusiform Face Area (FFA)

iii. Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA)

o Damage causes visual agnosia – The inability to identify objects visually 3. Dorsal Streams = Where

i. Middle Temporal Area: Involved in the processing of motion

ii. Posterior Parietal Cortex (PPC): Consists of several subareas that represent  space as it pertains to the orienting of attention, planning and  

compensation of eye movements, and visual control of limbs

Damage 

o Akinetopsia: an inability to perceive motion

o caused by damage to middle temporal area)

o Optic Ataxia: –failure to generate visually guided movements  

o Caused by damage to PPC

o Neglect Syndrome: Neurological disorder that occurs after damage to PPC o Typically the right posterior parietal is damaged ???? they would neglect the  left side of space  

▪ Example: If they were to draw a clock they would probably draw only  the right side of the clock (12->6)

▪ Ignore the left side of space on a large and small/detailed scale (ex: in  the clock example above maybe they would only draw the right  

portion of the 6)

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS FROM CLASS

1. How could you determine which brain areas the Inferior Colliculus projects to?

2. What method would you use to measure the electrical current generated by  opening a single nicotinic receptor

3. What method would you use to understand what type of objects a neuron in visual  cortex reports?

4. What method would you use to determine the role of D2 receptors on long-term  memory?

5. A patient in the ER was accidently shot with a nail gun. It is suspected that the nail  is lodged in the patient’s brain. What type of structural brain scan should be  performed? Why?

6. What method would you use to measure electrical signals generated during a  seizure?

7. What method would you use to measure the volume of the hippocampus in the  healthy human brain?

8. What method would you use to stimulate cortical tissue in the healthy human  brain?

9. The optic nerve is made up of axons originating from____

10. What Type of photoreceptor are you using to see during the day? 11. How would damage to the right optic tract affect vision?

12. Damage to the left lateral geniculate nucleus would lead to:

A. Complete blindness

B. Blindness in the right visual field

C. Blindness in the Left Visual Field

13. Bilateral damage to the primary visual cortex would lead to  

D. Complete blindness

E. Blindness in the right visual field

F. Blindness in the Left Visual Field

Answers to EXAMPLE QUESTIONS from Class

1. Answer: Anterograde Tracing (with dye )

2. Answer: Patch clamping

3. Answer: Single-cell recording

4. Answer: Knockout method (use a mouse that has the D2 receptor turned off and compare it  to a similar mouse with the D2 receptor still in tact)

5. Answer: CT Scan, MRI would be dangerous since it would cause the nail to move. CT scan will  provide the next best imaging besides MRI

6. ANSWER: EEG

7. Answer: MRI (it is the ideal way to see an image)

8. Answer: TMS

9. Answer: Ganglion cells

10. Answer: Cones

11. Answer: You would lose the left field

12. B. Blindness in the right visual field

13. D. Complete Blindness

Answers to PRACTICE questions From Blackboard

1. INCREASE in firing rate (turned on)

2. Decreases firing rate from base line

3. Remains at Base line  

4. Remains at Base line

5. Remains at Base line

Explanation of Answers 1-5: This is an Off-Center cell and the black dots and lines represent darkness while the background is light. Recall in the notes (week 10) that Off center cells pick up dark stimulus on a light background. Dark spots in the center  stimulate it while dark spots in the surround inhibit it.

- In 3-5 there is equal parts darkness going through the center and surro und so  there is no OVERALL simulation or inhibition

6. C. 2

7. A. inject a retrograde tracer into the inferior colliculus

8. A. single-cell recordings from the hippocampus

9. A. Fovea

10. Complete damage to left V1 will cause right hemifield blindness. Bilateral damage to the FFA  will give patient the inability to recognize faces

11. Adding a second type of rod would give you color vision at night because you could  differentially represent wavelengths

12. The FFA would become the “wolf-face” area and they would be bad at recognizing human  faces

13. Allows you to pick up contrast by balancing out/cancellig

14. Left LGN damage will cause right visual field blindness. This type of V1 damage would cause  them to lose left peripheral field

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