BIOL 1030 Study Guide exam 1
BIOL 1030 Study Guide exam 1 BIOL 1030
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Crystal Boutwell on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1030 at Auburn University taught by Debbie Folkerts in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Endosymbiotic theory: Mitochondria and plastids (such as chloroplasts) originated as prokaryotic cells engulfed by a host cell. The engulfed cell and the host cell then involved into a single organism. Endosymbiosis: A relationship between two species in which one organism lives inside the cell or cells of the other. I. Domain Eukarya a. 4 kingdoms b. True nucleus c. Contains other membrane-bound organelles d. Cytoskeleton e. Sexually reproducing (also asexual) i. Sexual reproduction is different from asexual because it involved meiosis. ii. Haploid (n): half the number of parental DNA (chromosomes) n=23 in humans iii. Diploid (2n): 46 in humans iv. Homologous chromosomes (maternal + paternal similar chromosomes) v. Mitosis: produces more cells of the same kind. 1. Replication + 1 division. 2. 2n2n 3. Nn vi. Meiosis: 1 replication + 2 divisions 1. 2n n with variation caused by: a. Crossing over b. Independent assortment vii. Gamete: reproduction cell; n; undergoes fusion (syngamy) with another gamete to produce a zygote viii. Syngamy: 1. Plasmogamy: fusion of cell parts other than nuclei 2. Karyogamy: fusion of nuclei ix. Zygote: 2n; x. Spore: 2n/n, single/multicellular, sexual/asexual, dormancy and dispersal xi. 3 Basic patterns of sexual reproduction: 1. Zygotic meiosis: (earliest form of reproduction) a. Fungi and most Protista b. The zygote undergoes meiosis c. Haploid + haploid = zygote +meiosis = haploid + haploid d. Life cycles include only 1 diploid cell 2. Gametic meiosis: a. Animalia and some Protista b. Gametes produced by meiosis c. Gametes are the only haploid cells in the life cycle 3. Sporic meiosis: a. Plantae and some Protista b. Alternation of generations (haploid alternates with diploid) c. Spores are produced by meiosis in diploids organisms (sporophytes) d. Gametes are produced by mitosis in haploid organisms (gametophytes) f. Evolutionary trends: i. Single-celled multicellular ii. Asexual sexual iii. Zygotic gametic sporic meiosis iv. isomorphic heterotrophic 1. gametophyte: makes gametes (n) 2. sporophyte: makes spores (2n) 3. Isomorphic: you can’t tell the difference between a gametophyte and a sporophyte 4. Heterotrophic: you can clearly tell the difference. v. Dominant gametophyte dominant sporophyte vi. Isogamy anisogamy (also called oogamy) 1. Isogamy: identical gametes 2. Anisogamy: not the same gametes II. Kingdom Protista i. Mostly unicellular ii. Zygotic, gametric, or sporic meiosis iii. Heterotrophic, autotrophic, or mixotrophic iv. 4 or 5 monophyletic clades v. An abandoned taxon (or soon to be) because taxons should be monophyletic b. Phylum Diplomonadida i. Kind of looks like a cartoon kid with glasses ii. Have multiple flagella iii. Two large nuclei iv. No mitochondria v. Typically live in the gut of vertebraes. vi. Anaerobic vii. (endo)symbiotic viii. Mutualist/parasitic c. Phylum parabasala i. Synapamorphy (defining characteristic): a parabasal organ 1. A large and modified gogi apparatus 2. Connected to the basal body of flagellum ii. Some parasites; some free living 1. Trichomonas vainalis causes an STD 2. Triconympha spp looks iii. Looks like plankton on spongebob iv. Microtubule structure extending through the cell: axostyle d. Phylum Kinetoplastida i. Movement and plastid (organelle) ii. Kinetoplast: a large mitochondria that drive movement iii. Examples 1. Bodo 2. Trypanoscma brucei: parasite of humans and flies. Carries African Sleeping Sickness. iv. Look like snake fish e. Phylum euglenozoa (Also called euglenophyta when plant-like) i. Very often photosynthetic ii. Very motile iii. Free living iv. Contain a little red spot called a stigma: a little red spot of pigment that changes depending on the light and influences the way flagellum moves. Moves towards the light. v. Phototaxis (+): moves toward the light. f. Phylum Dinoflagellata i. Spins ii. 2 kinds of flagella: 1. Longitudinal: orients movement 2. Circumferal: goes around a groove in the waist iii. Looks like an evil space ship iv. Green v. Bloom: a large concentration of gymnudinium vi. Red tide: kills fish; very frequent in Mobile. vii. Photosynthetic viii. Example: 1. Noctiluca: sea sparkle; noticeable at night; bioluminescent g. Phylum apicomplexan i. Synapamorphy; apical complex ii. Apex used for penetrating hosts cells iii. All parasitic iv. Complex life cycle 1. Multiple hosts 2. Go dormant and form spores v. Example: 1. Plasmodium spp. –causes malaria a. Anopheles mosquito b. Primary hosts (in which the species carries out sexual reproduction) vs. secondary hosts (in which the species carries out asexual reproduction) vi. Plasmodium life cycle: 1. Mosquito “injects” sporozoite (n) 2. Sp. Travels through blood liver blood 3. Enters red blood cells, trophozoite (n) 4. Carries out schizogamy: mitosis in which one cell produces thousands at one time; merozoites (n); enters the red blood cells. This causes fever/chills 5. M. becomes a gameotocyte ( a cell which can become a gamete and picked up by mosquitos) 6. Becomes a gamete 7. Undergoessyngamy to becomea oocyst (2n, zygote)embedsin thestomach wall of the mosquito. 8. Meiosis n sporozoite. Moves to the mouth of the mosquito to infect humans. 9. Primary host: mosquito 10. Seconday host: humans vii. Example of zygotic meiosis h. Phylum ciliophoran i. Huge and diverse group ii. Most complex cells in the world iii. Looks like the instep of a shoe. iv. Food travels: 1. Oral groove (like a mouth) 2. Cytopharynx (like a throat) 3. Food vacuaoles (digestion system) 4. Cytoproct (like an anus) 5. Phogocytosis: cell eating 6. Exocytosis: exiting of food. v. Ex: Phagomecium multimacronucleatum vi. Cirrus: tufts of cilia fused to form leg-like structures vii. Membranelles: rows of cilia fused to form sheet-like structures viii. Cilia and Flagella internal structures 1. Both have 9+2 arrangement of microtubules a. 9 fused microtubules on the outside of a cylinder plus 2 unfused microtubules in center. 2. Dyhein “arms” attached to the microtubules serve as molecular motors. 3. Flagella undulate; cilia move in an oar-like fashion i. Phylum Bacillariophyta- Diatoms i. Have geometric shapes ii. 2-point cell wall: silicious frustule 1. One valve fits inside the other and when cells divide each daughter cell forms a new valve to fit inside the other resulting in smaller cells. 2. At 1/3 the original size, they sexually reproduce and return to the original size. iii. Photosynthetic algae iv. Once occurred in blooms where remnant frustules formed layers of diatomaceous earth (now used in water filters) j. Phylum Phaeophyta-brown algae i. Very large, like kelp and sargassum ii. Simple, multicellular form iii. Zones of growth are called meristems iv. Can be found on beaches v. Green k. Phylum Rhodophyta-Red algae i. Deep water, marine, macro algae ii. Red pigments suitable for deep water iii. Some edible iv. Produce carrageenan (used in ice cream) v. Produce nori and agar vi. Ameboid Protozoa 1. Amebas-with and without tests 2. Psuedopods: used for movement and phagocytosis a. Psuedopod movement involves a thick ectoplasm and a thin endoplasm. Cytoskeletons bread down and rebuild as one converts to the other. l. Phylum Gymnamoeba i. Naked amoebae without tests ii. Parasitic and free living m. Phylum Radiolaria i. Axopodia (pseudopods reinforced with microtubules making them stiff and needle like) ii. Silicious tests with perforations n. Phylum Foraminifera i. Retuculopodia: threadlike and branching pseudopods ii. Chambered calcareous tests iii. Ancient oozes formed the white sands of Dover and pink sands of Bermuda. Some are the largest protists ever lived. o. Phylum Myxomycota-plasmodial slime molds i. Body form of plasmodium: a multi-nucleate mass of protoplasm ii. Complex life cycles include spore formation p. Phylum Chlorophyta-green algae i. Have cell walls ii. Chloroplasts iii. Can be solitary or colonial q. Phylum Choanoflagellata i. Collar cells adapted for filter-feeding ii. A collar of microvilli and a single flagellum iii. More closely related to Animalia than any other group. Study Guide Exam 1 1. *Look at the flashcards for vocab* 2. Introduction, Bacteria, and Archeabacteria 3. Know the 3 domains and kingdoms for each: 4. Know what a Gram Stain is 5. Know the difference in aerobe, anaerobe, and faculatative 6. Know the different nutritional modes (heterotrophs, autotrophs, photoheterotrophs, etc.) 7. Know ecological relationships (mutualists, pathogens, decomposers, etc.) 8. What are extremophiles and give an example 9. Cyanobacteria: know the similarity to chloroplasts 10. Proteobacteria: know they are gram negative, similar to mitochondria 11. Spriochetes and chlamydias are both gram positive 12. Mycoplasmas: smallest of all bacteria, no cell wall and so gram negative. 13. Know the endosymbiotic theory 14. Eukarya 15. Know that they have a true nucleus, cytoskeleton, and other membrane bound organelles 16. Know the difference in haploid and diploid 17. Know the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction 18. Know the 3 basic sexual patterns a. Zygotic meiosis i. Haploid organisms undergoe mitosis to form gametes. Zygotes undergoe meosis to form haploid organisms. b. Gametic meiosis i. Diploid organisms undergoe meiosis to form gametes. Zygotes undergoe mitosis to form diploid organisms. c. Sporic meiosis i. Alternation of generations. ii. Diploidorganismsundergoemeiosistoformsporeswhichundergoemitosis to form a haploid organisms. Haploid organisms undergo mitosis to form gametes. Gametes undergoe syngamy to form a diploid organism. 19. Know the evolutionary trends i. Single-celled multicelled ii. Asexual sexual iii. Zygotic gametic sporic meiosis iv. Isomorphic heteromorphic v. Dominant gametophyte dominant sporophyte vi. Isogamy anisogamy (oogamy) 20. Protista 21. Phylum Diiplomonadida: think many flagella 22. Phylum Parabasala: they have a parabasal organ. Basically a huge golgi app. 23. Phylum kinetoplastida: they have a plastid that helps them move. 24. Phylum Euglenozoa: they have a little red spot called a stigma that changes depending on light and drives their movement. 25. Phylum Dinoflagellata: they have two flagella: longitudinal, circumferal a. Occur in blooms 26. Apicomplexan: has a apical complex that lets them penetrate hosts. 27. Know the plasmodium life cycle 28. Plylm ciliophoran: most complex cells in the world 29. Phylum Bacillariophyta: diatoms 30. Phylum Phaeophyta: brown algae 31. Phylum Rhodophyta: red algae 32. Phylum Gymnamoeba: naked amoebae 33. Phylum radiolarian: axopodia 34. Phylum foraminifera: have branching pseudopods 35. Phylum Myxomycotia: plasmodial slime molds 36. Phylum cholorphyta: green algaea 37. Phylum choanoflagellata: close to humans 38. Kingdom Plantae 39. Sporic meiosis 40. Bryophytes: gametophyte dominated life cycle 41. Know the Bryophyta life cycle. 42. Know the differences between the Hepatophyta and Anthocerophyta life cycles. 43. Know the ploidy of each step of the life cycles.
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