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AU / Biology / BIOL 1030 / What can reproduce through mitosis meiosis and gamete fusion?

What can reproduce through mitosis meiosis and gamete fusion?

What can reproduce through mitosis meiosis and gamete fusion?


School: Auburn University
Department: Biology
Course: Organismal Biology
Professor: Debbie folkerts
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: vocab, Folkerts, Biology, organismal, Organismal Biology, BIOL 1030, plantae, plants, Bryophytes, protista, protists, Biodiversity, prokarotes, eukaryotes, and Exam 1
Cost: 50
Name: BIOL 1030 Study Guide exam 1
Description: These documents cover what is going to be on exam 1. There are also some flashcards in my uploads section where you can review the vocab for this test.
Uploaded: 02/05/2016
7 Pages 199 Views 1 Unlocks

Endosymbiotic theory: Mitochondria and plastids (such as chloroplasts) originated as prokaryotic cells engulfed by  a host cell. The engulfed cell and the host cell then involved into a single organism.

Can reproduce through mitosis meiosis and gamete fusion?

Endosymbiosis: A relationship between two species in which one organism lives inside the cell or cells of the other.

I. Domain Eukarya

a. 4 kingdoms

b. True nucleus

c. Contains other membrane-bound organelles

d. Cytoskeleton

e. Sexually reproducing (also asexual)

i. Sexual reproduction is different from asexual because it involved meiosis.

ii. Haploid (n): half the number of parental DNA (chromosomes) n=23 in humans

iii. Diploid (2n): 46 in humans

iv. Homologous chromosomes (maternal + paternal similar chromosomes)

v. Mitosis: produces more cells of the same kind.

1. Replication + 1 division.

What are three organisms that reproduce sexually?

2. 2n????2n

3. N????n

vi. Meiosis: 1 replication + 2 divisions

1. 2n???? n with variation caused by:

a. Crossing over

b. Independent assortment

vii. Gamete: reproduction cell; n; undergoes fusion (syngamy) with another gamete to  produce a zygote

viii. Syngamy:

1. Plasmogamy: fusion of cell parts other than nuclei

2. Karyogamy: fusion of nuclei

ix. Zygote: 2n;  

x. Spore: 2n/n, single/multicellular, sexual/asexual, dormancy and dispersal

xi. 3 Basic patterns of sexual reproduction: Don't forget about the age old question of How can job analysis can be used?

1. Zygotic meiosis: (earliest form of reproduction)

How can you tell the difference between sporophyte and gametophyte?

a. Fungi and most Protista

b. The zygote undergoes meiosis

c. Haploid + haploid = zygote +meiosis = haploid + haploid

d. Life cycles include only 1 diploid cell

2. Gametic meiosis:

a. Animalia and some Protista

b. Gametes produced by meiosis

c. Gametes are the only haploid cells in the life cycle

3. Sporic meiosis:

a. Plantae and some Protista

b. Alternation of generations (haploid alternates with diploid)

c. Spores are produced by meiosis in diploids organisms (sporophytes)

d. Gametes are produced by mitosis in haploid organisms (gametophytes)

f. Evolutionary trends:

i. Single-celled ???? multicellular We also discuss several other topics like Could the cold war have been avoided?

ii. Asexual ???? sexual

iii. Zygotic ???? gametic ???? sporic meiosis

iv. isomorphic ???? heterotrophic

1. gametophyte: makes gametes (n)

2. sporophyte: makes spores (2n)

3. Isomorphic: you can’t tell the difference between a gametophyte and a  sporophyte

4. Heterotrophic: you can clearly tell the difference.

v. Dominant gametophyte ???? dominant sporophyte

vi. Isogamy ???? anisogamy (also called oogamy)

1. Isogamy: identical gametes

2. Anisogamy: not the same gametes

II. Kingdom Protista

i. Mostly unicellular

ii. Zygotic, gametric, or sporic meiosis

iii. Heterotrophic, autotrophic, or mixotrophic

iv. 4 or 5 monophyletic clades

v. An abandoned taxon (or soon to be) because taxons should be monophyletic

b. Phylum Diplomonadida

i. Kind of looks like a cartoon kid with glasses

ii. Have multiple flagella

iii. Two large nuclei Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between positive statements and normative statements?

iv. No mitochondria

v. Typically live in the gut of vertebraes.

vi. Anaerobic

vii. (endo)symbiotic

viii. Mutualist/parasitic

c. Phylum parabasala

i. Synapamorphy (defining characteristic): a parabasal organ

1. A large and modified gogi apparatus

2. Connected to the basal body of flagellum

ii. Some parasites; some free living

1. Trichomonas vainalis causes an STD

2. Triconympha spp looks  

iii. Looks like plankton on spongebob

iv. Microtubule structure extending through the cell: axostyle

d. Phylum Kinetoplastida

i. Movement and plastid (organelle) Don't forget about the age old question of Where is the electron located?

ii. Kinetoplast: a large mitochondria that drive movement

iii. Examples

1. Bodo

2. Trypanoscma brucei: parasite of humans and flies. Carries African Sleeping  Sickness.  

iv. Look like snake fish

e. Phylum euglenozoa (Also called euglenophyta when plant-like)

i. Very often photosynthetic

ii. Very motile

iii. Free living

iv. Contain a little red spot called a stigma: a little red spot of pigment that changes  depending on the light and influences the way flagellum moves. Moves towards the light. v. Phototaxis (+): moves toward the light. Don't forget about the age old question of How to use the indirect method?

f. Phylum Dinoflagellata

i. Spins

ii. 2 kinds of flagella:

1. Longitudinal: orients movement

2. Circumferal: goes around a groove in the waist

iii. Looks like an evil space ship

iv. Green

v. Bloom: a large concentration of gymnudinium

vi. Red tide: kills fish; very frequent in Mobile.

vii. Photosynthetic

viii. Example:

1. Noctiluca: sea sparkle; noticeable at night; bioluminescent

g. Phylum apicomplexan

i. Synapamorphy; apical complex

ii. Apex used for penetrating hosts cells

iii. All parasitic

iv. Complex life cycle

1. Multiple hosts

2. Go dormant and form spores We also discuss several other topics like What is paul matisse's known painting?

v. Example:

1. Plasmodium spp. –causes malaria

a. Anopheles mosquito

b. Primary hosts (in which the species carries out sexual reproduction) vs.  

secondary hosts (in which the species carries out asexual reproduction)

vi. Plasmodium life cycle:

1. Mosquito “injects” sporozoite (n)

2. Sp. Travels through blood ???? liver ???? blood

3. Enters red blood cells, trophozoite (n)

4. Carries out schizogamy: mitosis in which one cell produces thousands at one  time; merozoites (n); enters the red blood cells. This causes fever/chills

5. M. becomes a gameotocyte ( a cell which can become a gamete and picked up  by mosquitos)

6. Becomes a gamete

7. Undergoes syngamy to become a oocyst (2n, zygote) embeds in the stomach wall  of the mosquito.

8. Meiosis ???? n sporozoite. Moves to the mouth of the mosquito to infect humans. 9. Primary host: mosquito

10. Seconday host: humans

vii. Example of zygotic meiosis

h. Phylum ciliophoran

i. Huge and diverse group

ii. Most complex cells in the world

iii. Looks like the instep of a shoe.

iv. Food travels:

1. Oral groove (like a mouth)

2. Cytopharynx (like a throat)

3. Food vacuaoles (digestion system)

4. Cytoproct (like an anus)

5. Phogocytosis: cell eating

6. Exocytosis: exiting of food.

v. Ex: Phagomecium multimacronucleatum

vi. Cirrus: tufts of cilia fused to form leg-like structures

vii. Membranelles: rows of cilia fused to form sheet-like structures

viii. Cilia and Flagella internal structures

1. Both have 9+2 arrangement of microtubules

a. 9 fused microtubules on the outside of a cylinder plus 2 unfused  

microtubules in center.

2. Dyhein “arms” attached to the microtubules serve as molecular motors.

3. Flagella undulate; cilia move in an oar-like fashion

i. Phylum Bacillariophyta- Diatoms

i. Have geometric shapes

ii. 2-point cell wall: silicious frustule  

1. One valve fits inside the other and when cells divide each daughter cell forms a  new valve to fit inside the other resulting in smaller cells.

2. At 1/3 the original size, they sexually reproduce and return to the original size. iii. Photosynthetic algae

iv. Once occurred in blooms where remnant frustules formed layers of diatomaceous earth  (now used in water filters)

j. Phylum Phaeophyta-brown algae

i. Very large, like kelp and sargassum

ii. Simple, multicellular form

iii. Zones of growth are called meristems

iv. Can be found on beaches

v. Green

k. Phylum Rhodophyta-Red algae

i. Deep water, marine, macro algae

ii. Red pigments suitable for deep water

iii. Some edible

iv. Produce carrageenan (used in ice cream)

v. Produce nori and agar

vi. Ameboid Protozoa

1. Amebas-with and without tests

2. Psuedopods: used for movement and phagocytosis

a. Psuedopod movement involves a thick ectoplasm and a thin  

endoplasm. Cytoskeletons bread down and rebuild as one converts to  

the other.

l. Phylum Gymnamoeba

i. Naked amoebae without tests

ii. Parasitic and free living

m. Phylum Radiolaria

i. Axopodia (pseudopods reinforced with microtubules making them stiff and needle like) ii. Silicious tests with perforations

n. Phylum Foraminifera

i. Retuculopodia: threadlike and branching pseudopods

ii. Chambered calcareous tests

iii. Ancient oozes formed the white sands of Dover and pink sands of Bermuda. Some are the  largest protists ever lived.

o. Phylum Myxomycota-plasmodial slime molds

i. Body form of plasmodium: a multi-nucleate mass of protoplasm

ii. Complex life cycles include spore formation

p. Phylum Chlorophyta-green algae

i. Have cell walls

ii. Chloroplasts

iii. Can be solitary or colonial

q. Phylum Choanoflagellata

i. Collar cells adapted for filter-feeding

ii. A collar of microvilli and a single flagellum

iii. More closely related to Animalia than any other group.

Study Guide Exam 1

1. *Look at the flashcards for vocab*

2. Introduction, Bacteria, and Archeabacteria 

3. Know the 3 domains and kingdoms for each:

4. Know what a Gram Stain is

5. Know the difference in aerobe, anaerobe, and faculatative

6. Know the different nutritional modes (heterotrophs, autotrophs, photoheterotrophs, etc.) 7. Know ecological relationships (mutualists, pathogens, decomposers, etc.) 8. What are extremophiles and give an example

9. Cyanobacteria: know the similarity to chloroplasts

10. Proteobacteria: know they are gram negative, similar to mitochondria

11. Spriochetes and chlamydias are both gram positive

12. Mycoplasmas: smallest of all bacteria, no cell wall and so gram negative. 13. Know the endosymbiotic theory

14. Eukarya 

15. Know that they have a true nucleus, cytoskeleton, and other membrane bound organelles 16. Know the difference in haploid and diploid

17. Know the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction

18. Know the 3 basic sexual patterns

a. Zygotic meiosis

i. Haploid organisms undergoe mitosis to form gametes. Zygotes undergoe  meosis to form haploid organisms.

b. Gametic meiosis

i. Diploid organisms undergoe meiosis to form gametes. Zygotes undergoe  mitosis to form diploid organisms.

c. Sporic meiosis

i. Alternation of generations.

ii. Diploid organisms undergoe meiosis to form spores which undergoe mitosis  to form a haploid organisms. Haploid organisms undergo mitosis to form  gametes. Gametes undergoe syngamy to form a diploid organism.

19. Know the evolutionary trends

i. Single-celled ???? multicelled

ii. Asexual ???? sexual

iii. Zygotic ???? gametic ???? sporic meiosis

iv. Isomorphic ???? heteromorphic

v. Dominant gametophyte ???? dominant sporophyte

vi. Isogamy ???? anisogamy (oogamy)

20. Protista

21. Phylum Diiplomonadida: think many flagella

22. Phylum Parabasala: they have a parabasal organ. Basically a huge golgi app. 23. Phylum kinetoplastida: they have a plastid that helps them move.

24. Phylum Euglenozoa: they have a little red spot called a stigma that changes depending on  light and drives their movement.

25. Phylum Dinoflagellata: they have two flagella: longitudinal, circumferal a. Occur in blooms

26. Apicomplexan: has a apical complex that lets them penetrate hosts. 27. Know the plasmodium life cycle

28. Plylm ciliophoran: most complex cells in the world

29. Phylum Bacillariophyta: diatoms

30. Phylum Phaeophyta: brown algae

31. Phylum Rhodophyta: red algae

32. Phylum Gymnamoeba: naked amoebae

33. Phylum radiolarian: axopodia

34. Phylum foraminifera: have branching pseudopods

35. Phylum Myxomycotia: plasmodial slime molds

36. Phylum cholorphyta: green algaea

37. Phylum choanoflagellata: close to humans

38. Kingdom Plantae 

39. Sporic meiosis

40. Bryophytes: gametophyte dominated life cycle

41. Know the Bryophyta life cycle.

42. Know the differences between the Hepatophyta and Anthocerophyta life cycles.  43. Know the ploidy of each step of the life cycles.

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