PSYCH 367 Study Guide
PSYCH 367 Study Guide PSY 367
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shelby Nesbitt on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 367 at Grand Valley State University taught by Amanda Dillard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
PSYCH 367 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Biopsychosocial Model vs. Biomedical Model o Biopsychosocial model- health & illness are consequence of pscyh, social & biological factors o Biomedical model- all illness can be explained on basis of bodily processes (little regard for psych & social factors) o How might a researcher operating from these two perspectives investigate a research question? Biopsychosocial would research the possible psychological, social, and biological factors of a certain health behavior or disease Biomedical would only look at the biological/bodily factors Views of illness/health by different civilizations o Stone age Believed evil spirits invaded the mind & then the body would fail *focused on the mind Cured illness w/trephination drilling a hole in the head to release the evil spirits o Ancient Greeks & Romans Humoral theory (proposed by Hippocrates) 4 humors: blood, black bile, yellow bile & phlegm Illness was a result of these 4 fluids being out of balance *focused on the body & was more scientific view compared to stone age o Middle ages God’s wrath caused illness Illness was treated by becoming a good Christian & asking god for forgiveness o Renaissance *body caused illness Vesalius Physician, “father of human anatomy” Did dissections of the human body & had artists do anatomical drawings published volume of them Descartes Philosopher Separation of mind & body (dualism) mind was not governed by laws of nature & only humans have minds o Post-Renaissance *body caused illness Rise of biomedical model used as basis for diagnosis & treatment of illness o Early to mid 1900s Began to question biology as sole basis for illness Sigmund Freud Linked repressed internal conflicts to physical problems/illness conversion hysteria (conflicts in mind manifest as physical problem) Flanders Dunbar & Franz Alexander Linked personality to specific illness “ulcer-prone personality” Psychosomatic Medicine- field w/in psychiatry; study & treat some diseases thought to be caused by emotional conflicts (ulcers, hypertension, asthma); examines both psych and biological origins of disease/illness 3 broad questions of health psych o How do people stay healthy? o Why do people become ill? o How do people behave when they become ill? Definition of health according to World Health Organization o Complete state of well-being that includes physical health, psychological/mental health, and social health o Not just the absence of disease Morbidity- number of cases of a disease that exist at a given point in time Mortality- number of deaths due to particular causes What does research compare mortality rates in the 1900s and 2000 show? o Shows that people in the 1900s died mainly from acute infections such as influenza, pneumonia, tuberculosis & people in 2000 died mainly from chronic illnesses such as diseases of the heart, cancer, stoke. What chronic illnesses are responsible for most mortality today? o Diseases of the heart, cancer, stroke, chronic lower respiratory diseases Experiment o Best way to test research questions b/c able to control for extraneous factors and can establish cause & effect o Random assignment- each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to the experimental & control groups o Dependent variable- what researcher measures o Independent variable- what researcher manipulates/changes Randomized Clinical Trials (RTCs) o *gold standard o They differ from lab experiments b/c you measure variables over time (prospective) and you always include a baseline assessment o Can test w/in-subjects & between-subjects differences o Follow the same subjects over time they’re assessed at baseline & then at multiple points afterwards o Can be “blind” studies (single, double, triple) Attrition- people who started a study but did not finish it; were lost in follow up How are experiments sometimes not possible in health psych? o You can’t randomly assign or control for someone to get a disease Correlations o Association between two variables o Positive correlation- as one variable increases, so does the other OR as one variable decreases, so does the other (variables move in the same direction) o Negative correlation- inverse relationship; as one increases, the other decreases o Disadvantage of correlation? Can’t tell which variable is the cause & which is the effect Cross-sectional research- look at people who are different on one key characteristic at one specific point in time Prospective research- people are followed forward in time to examine the relationship between a set of variables & later occurrences Retrospective research- people are studied for the relationship of past variables/conditions to current ones Case study- research about a person that occurred over a long period of time (years) Which illness has retrospective research been important in? o HIV/AIDS Research on HIV/AIDS & how it has illustrated the disadvantages of correlational research? o Research shows a possible association between HIV/AIDS and psychological disorders, but can’t officially establish a cause/effect relationship between the two Central Nervous system o Brain and spinal cord; information superhighway Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System o Skeletal controls voluntary movements of the body’s muscles o Autonomic controls involuntary movements of the body’s glands and muscles of the internal organs; two additional divisions Parasympathetic: involved in energy conservation, controls the organs/glands under norm/non-stressful conditions (anabolic) Sympathetic: involved in energy consumption, controls the organs in stressful situation/emergency (catabolic) Physiological effects associated with sympathetic arousal? o Pupils dilate, salvation decreases, sweating, increased breathing, increased breathing, digestion inhibited, and adrenal glands secrete stress hormones What does it mean to say the “older” and “newer” parts of the brain? o “Older” parts of the brain sustain basic survival processes (breathing, hear rate all animals have these parts o “Newer” parts are the cerebral cortex with four lobes that are involved in higher order processes only present in humans Functions of: o Medulla- controls heart rate and breathing o Cerebellum- coordination of voluntary movements o Thalamus- takes incoming info & sends it to specific areas of the brain to be processed Ex) sends visual info to the occipital lobe o Hypothalamus- involved in lots of different activities Stress response, helps medulla, regulates basic drives (hunger, thirst, sex), rewards (nucleus accumbens= reward center), “transition center” (transition anxiousness in cortex to physical effects) o Amygdala- linked to aggression & fear o Cerebral cortex- higher order thinking (intelligence, personality, memory, thinking) Four lobes: Occipital- visual info Temporal- hearing info Parietal- processes touch & sensory info Frontal- personality, thinking, speech How to study the brain? o Lesions- brain tissue destroyed/damaged Can be experimentally destroyed but ONLY in animals Can study people with NATURALLY occurring brain damage not a true experiment b/c we can’t control anything Usually use retrospective research to study effects of the brain damage on normal functions o Electroencephalogram (EEG)- records electrical activity on surface of the brain Can see where most activity occurs inn brain during a task o MRI- takes pictures of brain Can detect structural changes between people & over time Shows “slices” of the brain in picture form o fMRI- look at function of the brain and not just the structure Can see what parts of the brain use the most energy during a particular task **tool of choice** Endocrine System o How does it differ from the nervous system? It’s another communication system BUT it uses hormones instead of neurotransmitters It’s slower acting & takes longer to affect the body, but the effects last longer o What common chronic illness is associated with this system? Diabetes (type 1 & 2) Type 1- autoimmune disorder, body destroys cells that help make insulin “insulin-dependent diabetes” Type 2- associated with obesity & stress, body produces insulin but it’s not as effective Cardiovascular System o What does blood do? Transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, waste products, and hormones o Functions of arteries & veins? Arteries- carry oxygenated blood away from the heart Veins- carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart o Common chronic illness associated with this system? Cardiovascular disease atherosclerosis Immune System o How does immunity develop? Natural- acquired by disease Artificial- vaccinations & inoculations o What is the difference between nonspecific immunity & specific immunity? Nonspecific- general response to any infection/disease; mediated by anatomical barriers (skin), phagocytosis (WBCs “eating” microbes), antimicrobial substances, inflammatory response Specific- fight against particular microorganism & their toxins; two reactions Humoral- B lymphocytes, protection against bacteria, neutralizing toxins, preventing viral reinfections Cell-mediated- T lymphocytes, operates at cellular level, T cells secrete chemicals that kill invading organisms & infected cells o What is an autoimmune disease? When the immune system attacks the body’s own cells/tissues What chronic illness is associated with the respiratory system? o Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease chronic bronchitis & emphysema How is health behavior defined? What is a habit? o Health behavior- behaviors people do that enhance/maintain their health o Habit- a health behavior that is firmly established & often performed automatically Alameda county study o Large, longitudinal study that assessed individual’s health behaviors, physical health, social & psych health o Wanted to see if there was a relationship between health habits & mortality o Findings related to chronic illnesses? Less likelihood of having one or more & less severe if they had one Cumulative effects o Findings related to mortality? 5-year follow up The more health behaviors someone engages in the longer they tend to live **graph in powerpoint slide #7 o How did variables such as socioeconomic status (SES) influence the findings? Lower SES shows a stronger relationship with the health behavior factors but only changed it slightly Mokdad et al. (2004) o What percent of deaths in 2000 were due to preventable behaviors? About ½ o What were top 3 behaviors linked to mortality? Tobacco use, poor diet/physical inactivity, alcohol consumption o What behaviors didn’t tend to change from 1990 to 2000? Smoking kids were starting to smoke while older people who had smoked for years were dying o What behaviors did they find a substantial increase in during this time period? Poor diet and physical inactivity increased 3 times the rate of tobacco What is meta-analysis? o Method designed to increase the reliability of research by combining and analyzing the results of all known trials of the same product or experiments on the same subject Newsom et al. (2004) o 250,000 respondents from 4 large epidemiological studies in U.S. & Canada o Measured alcohol consumption, exercise, smoking, & dietary behaviors o Correlation of 0.10 Relapse- tendency for people to revert to a previous behavior after initial successful change o How does it differ from a lapse? A lapse is a onetime slip, but a relapse is a slip that turns into a regular occasion of the behavior Relapse rates for addictive behaviors like smoking & alcoholism? o 50-90% Conditions under which people are most likely to relapse? o Social influences, biological predispositions/physical cravings, low self-efficacy, mood, situations/places What is a chipper? o Type of intermittent smoker that may not be dependent on nicotine o How do they not fit the traditional category of smoker? A natural course for smoking would be to increase the behavior over time & have a physical addiction to nicotine A chipper does not increase the behavior over time (maintains it) & they don’t seem to have a physical addiction to nicotine What has research found with respect to psychological differences between chippers, regular smokers, and nonsmokers? o Chippers are similar to regular smokers & nonsmokers but differ on sensation seeking, self-control, and impulsivity o Chippers increase sensation seeking compared to nonsmokers o Regular smokers scored lower on self-control & higher on impulsivity compared to chippers Shiffman et al. (1995) o Regular smokers & chippers o Two 2-day periods- one period when allowed to smoke, the other not allowed to smoke Random assignment for which 2-day period came first o Reported cravings, mood & sleep disturbances o Also took cognitive tests o Results: During nonsmoking period: Regular smokers reported more intense cravings; feeling more irritable; poorer sleep o Regular smokers affected in all areas of the study & chippers were not Four reasons health behaviors are independent & unstable o From person to person the most important factor in particular health behavior is different o Within one person different health behaviors are controlled by different factors o The factor controlling a behavior may change over the history of the health behavior o Natural factors that change over a person’s lifetime can affect behavior What is a theory? o A set of analytic statements that explain a set of phenomena o 3 characteristics of a good theory? Can be applied, tested, & combine/organize to explain phenomena o 1/3 of health psych studies are guided by theories according to Taylor Different levels of influence: intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional factors, community factors, and public policy 3 assumptions of intrapersonal & interpersonal theories (cognitive-behavioral) o Behavior is mediated by cognitions (what people know & think affect how they act) o Knowledge is necessary for, but not sufficient to produce most behavior changes o Perceptions, motivations, skills & the social environment are key influences on behavior What is an attitude? o A favorable/unfavorable evaluative reaction toward someone/something exhibited in feelings, beliefs, and/or behavior o 3 pieces that go into attitude Behavioral processes Affective processes Cognitive processes o Functions of attitude Organization & structure Self-expression Gain approval Examples of when attitudes were not predictive of behavior o Landmark Study (Corey, 1937) College students’ attitudes toward cheating No association with their cheating behavior o Review (Wicker, 1969) Reviewed 45 studies examining association between attitude & actual behavior Found little to no association 3 conditions when attitudes predict behavior o The attitude is salient (made aware of) o Social influences o Attitude is specific to the behavior or action Health Belief Model o Health behavior is determined by two factors Perceived health threat & belief doing behavior can effectively reduce risk o Most studied construct- specific beliefs about vulnerability o Criticism: Focused on perceived risk measures that are too cognitive affect related to risk has been ignored Weinstein et al. (2007) o Examined associations between various measures of perceived susceptibility & decisions to obtain influenza vaccine faculty, staff & students at 2 mid-western schools o Finding- examining peoples’ “gut feeling” of risk better predicts their behavior Dillard et al. (2012) o Examined associations between various measures of perceived susceptibility and behavior intentions to have CRC screening Theory of Planned Behavior o Best way to predict behavior is INTENTIONS o Intentions shaped by Attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control Implementation Intentions o Say how you’ll do a behavior, when you’ll do the behavior, and where you’ll do it o Luszczynska (2006) 114 MI patients Intervention- learned about implementation intentions and formed them Criticism of the Theory of Planned Behavior o Risky behaviors are typically NOT planned but instead are reaction to a social situation What is behavioral willingness? o “openness to risk opportunity”; how willing/open someone is to a behavior o Tends to predict behavior a little bit better o Best predicts for risk behavior in adolescents; common pattern is that behavioral intention is low but behavioral willingness is high o Related to experience? Little experience of a behavior= more behavioral willingness How are cognitive-behavior interventions different from attitude-behavior ones? o They are more individualized/personalized o Usually done along with a therapist o Use steps of monitoring Cognitive-behavior therapy techniques o Cognitive restructuring Thought repression, counter-arguing o Role modeling Therapist models behaviors that client has to enact & practice then do it on own in daily life Associative learning o Operant conditioning Self reinforcement rewarding oneself to increase a behavior Positive reinforcement- reward w/something desirable Negative reinforcement- removing something negative o Classical conditioning Natural stimulus/response learning Antabuse with alcoholic example Doesn’t really work because humans are aware of the association between the stimulus & response Social Cognitive Theory o Observation of others in environment influences learning o “Vicarious Learning” Occurs when it increases self-efficacy o Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) uses this theory Transtheoretical Model o 5 stages: Precontemplation- are aware they have a problem; change may be due to pressure from others; no intention of changing their behavior “Are you seriously intending to change the problem behavior in the near future, within the next 6 months?” Would answer no Contemplation- seriously considering change, but haven’t decided to take action; may be “stuck Process: evaluation of pros & cons Would answer yes to the same question provided in precontemplation stage Preparation- intending to take action in the next month; made failed attempt to quit in the past & has made small behavioral changes Would answer yes to the question: “are you seriously intending to change in the next month?” Action- visible changes to behavior (reduction or quit), changes have lasted 1 day to 6 months; relapse is high possibility Maintenance- actively working to prevent relapse (relapse still possible); free of the behavior for 6 months o Not successful the first time through the cycle; many people recycle through many times & relapse is the rule rather than exception o Most individuals w/addictive behaviors fall in the first stage contemplation
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