Psychology 100 Study Guide Professor Wede Penn State University
Psychology 100 Study Guide Professor Wede Penn State University PSYCH 100
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christopher Raite on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 100 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Joshua Wede in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
All Notes for Professor Wede’s Psychology 100 on Exam 1 Lecture 2 – History MAKE SURE TO FOCUS ON: Behaviorism Case study Control group Correlation Critical thinking Dependent variable Experimental group Functionalism Gestalt psychology Hypothesis Independent variable Laboratory observation Naturalistic observation Operational definition Population Psychoanalysis Random assignment Representative sample Scientific method Structuralism How is Psychology defined? Psychology is… – The scientific study of… human behavior and mental proccesess – Human behavior – mental processes What are the goals of Psychology – Description – Application – Explanation – Prediction Psychology Then When did psychology begin? Impossible to say for sure… When did we start to wonder about ourselves? Pre-Greek Believed Behavior was influenced by gods Mind centered in the heart, or other organs The Greek (~300 BC) Nativism: Nature – The idea that our thoughts, ideas, and characteristics are inborn – Learn about ourselves by examining ones’ thoughts and feelings Introspection – modern term meaning “looking within” – Socrates & Plato Empirism: Nurture – Knowledge is gained through experience (senses) – Aristotle Middle Ages Then… No One Cares 1 A.D. to 1000 A.D. - War takes precedence 1000 A.D. to 1500 A.D. - Religion takes precedence Demonic Possession – Age of Enlightenment and Reason Revisit the old debate Are we Nativists? Nurturists? Does anything exist outside our mind? – Rene Descartes, Immanuel Kant, Franz Mesmer, George Berkeley The Scientists 1800s – Charles Darwin (1859) - Origin of Species- Natural Selection – Gustav Fechner (1860) - Psychophysics History of Modern Psychology How It All Started: Philosophy + Physiology = Psychology Psychology’s Roots – Structuralism, Functionalism, Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, Gestalt Psychology Structuralism (1879) – The study of the most basic elements, primarily sensations and perceptions, that make up our conscious mental experiences Involves Introspection – Wilhelm Wundt (Germany) 1 Psychological Laboratory (1875) Considered the founder of modern psychology Functionalism (1890) – The study of the function rather than the structure of consciousness How our minds adapt to changing environment – Behavioral observations conducted in a laboratory. “What do certain behaviors and mental processes accomplish for the person?” – William James (United States) 1 Psychological Laboratory in US Psychoanalysis 1900’s-Look into Early mind – Childhood experiences greatly influences the development of later personality traits and psychological problems emphasizes unconscious conflict & past events (early childhood traumas) – Behaviorism (1920’s) – Emphasized the objective, scientific analysis of observable behaviors Mental events are triggered by external stimuli which lead to behaviors – Looked at behavior and its measurement rather than “consciousness” of Wundt and James Gesalt Psychology – Emphasized that perception is more than the sum of its parts – Studied how sensations are assembled into meaningful perceptual experiences – Belief that the mind must be studied in terms of large meaningful units instead of the small units of structuralism Psychology Now We define psychology today as the scientific study of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (inner thoughts and feelings). Modern Perspectives – Psychodynamic: Focus on unconscious and early development – Behavioral: Focus on operant conditioning, punishment and reinforcement – Humanistic: Focus on the human potential, choosing own destiny – Bio-psychological: Attribute human and animal behavior to biological events – Cognitive: Memory, intelligence, perception, learning, etc. – Sociocultural: Relationship between social behavior and culture – Evolutionary: Biological, mental traits shared by all humans Clinical Psychology vs. Psychiatry Lecture 3 – Methodology The Scientific Method • Steps (details can vary) 1. Perceive 2. Hypothesize 3. Test 4. Draw conclusions 5. Report, Revise, Replicate 6. Repeat • Research Design: – Specific method a researcher uses to collect analyze and interpret data – Three types: • Descriptive research • Correlational research • Experimental research Descriptive Research Naturalistic Observation: In natural habitat -advantages: see natural behaviors -disadvantages: no control over the environment, outside activities can hurt behavior Laboratory Observation: In lab -advantages: complete Control over environment, can uses specialized equipment -disadvantages: not natural behavior in a lab Case Studies: Small groups of people are studied in great detail in a small room -advantages: very easy to poll and randomly select -disadvantages: hard to get a representative sample, because you don’t know subjects previous knowledge Survey – Techniques for ascertaining the self reported attitudes or opinions of people o Representative sample is key o Random sampling – Each person must have an equal chance of being selected o Problems with surveys Wording effect- key words change answers Ex. 1992 Roper Poll: Asked if people believe holocaust never happened, and about 30% of people answered yes 1994 Roper Poll: Changed wording of the poll, revised the double negative and asked if people believe that the holocaust happened, nearly everyone answered yes Knowledge – A person should be able to understand all words in a survey Representativeness- Lots of bias in the world so it’s very hard to get a representative sample Summary Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation all describe behaviors Generally easy and inexpensive to get data Problem is that they might not be representative of the population you are interested in Correlational research Correlation – A measure of the relationship between two variables Range: +1.0 to -1.0 Variable – anything that changes or varies A. Scatterplot - a graph comprised of points generated by values of two variables. The slope of points depicts the direction, and the amount of scatter indicates the strength of relationship. Correlation and Causation **CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION** Illusory Correlation – The perception of a relationship when none exists Superstitions Stereotypes and prejudice Order in random events – People are always looking for patterns in our environment Given large number of random outcomes, a few are likely to express order. Experimentation Like other sciences, experimentation forms the backbone of research in psychology. Exploring Cause and Effect Many factors influence our behavior The goal of an experiment is to manipulate variable of interest, while controlling everything else Variables Independent variable (IV) – Variable that is manipulated by the experimenter Has an effect on the dependent variable The variable that is manipulated! Dependent variables – Factor that is proposed to change in response to the independent variable and is measured by the experimenter Random assignment – Minimizing differences in a sample The key to experimentation Minimize individual differences Each person has equal chance to be in any condition of the experiment Describing Data Meaningful description of data is important in research Misrepresentation can lead to incorrect conclusions. 1. Measures of central tendency a. Mode- The most frequently occurring score in a distrubition b. Mean-The arithmetic average of scores in a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by their number c. Median- The middle score in a ranked distribution 2. Measure of variability a. Range- Difference between the highest and lowest scores b. Standard deviation- A complete measure of how much scores vary around the mean Key Terms FOR LECTURES 4 +5 3. Agonist 14.Interneuro 24.Receptor 4. All-or- ns sites none 15.Limbic 25.Resting 5. Antagonist system potential 6. Associatio 16.Motor 26.Reuptake n areas cortex 27.Sensory 7. Brain 17.Motor neurons stem neurons 28.Somatose 8. Broca’s 18.Myelin nsory area 19.Neuroplas cortex 9. Cerebellu ticity 29.Synapse m 20.Neurotran 30.Synaptic 10.Cortex smitter vesicles 11.Excitatory 21.Occipital 31.Temporal synapse lobe lobe 12.Frontal 22.Parietal 32.Terminal lobe lobe Branch 13.Inhibitory 23.Peripheral 33.Thalamus synapse nervous 34.Wernicke’s system area Lecture 4 – Neurons and Neurotransmitters Neuroscience and Behavior • Everything psychological is simultaneously biological • Everything we do/think happens because of patterns of activity in our brain Neurons • The body information system is built from billons of interconnected cells • Estimates of 100 billion (w/ 100 trillion connections between the them) Parts of a Neuron • Dendrite – Branching extensions at the cell body receives messages from other neurons • Cell Body (Soma) - Life support center of the neuron. • Axon - Cords of single extension of a neuron, covered with the myelin sheath to insulate and speed up messages to other neurons • Terminal Branches of axon - Branched ending of axons. Transmitting messages to other neurons. Action Potential • A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon • Generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane. • Input at dendrites • Strong enough input crosses a threshold and the cell fires – Action Potential: Ions run in and out of a cell body • Properties of action potentials o All-or-none response When activity exceeds the threshold neuron will fire and go below the threshold o Intensity All the same intensity Synapse Junction between the axon tip and the dendrite Tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft Molecular Structure • Molecules have a particular 3-d shape • Different molecules have different shapes Neurotransmitters and Receptors • Similar to a lock and key o Accepts some neurotransmitters o Rejects others • When it accepts a neurotransmitter, it starts a chain reaction of events o physical, chemical, electrical o locally changes the cell membrane excitation (depolarization) inhibition (hyperpolarization) • Excitatory neurotransmitter – More likely for receiving cell to fire o agonists mimic/enhance neurotransmitter effect on receptor sites • Inhibitory neurotransmitter – More likely for receiving cell to stop firing o antagonists block/reduce cell’s response to other neurotransmitters How Neurotransmitters Influence Us • Serotonin- Regulates mood and sex drive • Prozac- One of the most widely prescribed drugs in the world o Some forms of depression seem to be related to limits in the use of serotonin o SSRI Prozac keeps serotonin bound to a receptor for longer than usual, increasing the effect (Inhibitory neurotransmitter) • Dopamine pathways are involved with diseases like schizophrenia, Tourette’s syndrome and Parkinson’s disease Nervous System • Nervous System: Consists of all the nerve cells. It is the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system. • Central Nervous System (CNS): The brain and the spinal cord • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Everything else in body NOT including brain and spinal cord Kinds of neurons • Sensory Neurons - Carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS. • Motor Neurons – Carry outgoing information from CNS to muscles/glands, neurons we use to move • Interneurons - Most neurons we have in our body and all the neurons in the brain are interneurons Central Nervous System • The spinal cord and reflexes • Simple reflexes: Hard wire reactions that are stored in the spinal cord Neural Networks • Interconnected neurons form networks in the brain. • These networks are complex and modify with growth and experience. • Provide basis for all cognition Lecture 5 – The Brain What's the deal with left and right brains? How can I measure what the brain does? •Neuropsychology •EEG (electroencephalogram) •PET (positron emission tomography) •fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) Neuropsychology -People get damage to certain areas of the brain - Lose certain abilities Electroencephalogram (EEG) -An amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain’s surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp. -Watch the electrical current change through time - Great temporal resolution - Poor spatial resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) -Ingest radioactive glucose -Scanner detects where glucose goes while brain performs a given task Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -MRI Scans: Like an x-ray machine, but can look at soft tissue - Can see the structure of the brain - Excellent spatial resolution -Functional MRI -measures concentrations of oxygen -Can I read your mind? •Researchers have started to study whether fMRI measurements can indicate what you are thinking or experiencing – Reliably predicts whether you are looking at a house or a face –Can tell whether you are adding or subtracting two numbers (Haynes et al., 2006) -Can I detect a lie? Brain Structures - Brainstem - the oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord enters the skull. - Responsible for automatic survival functions -Thalamus - the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem. - Direct messages to the sensory area of the cortex -Cerebellum - the “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem. - It helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance -Limbic system - A doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum - Associated with emotions such as aggression and drive for sex and food Structure of the Cortex - Each brain hemisphere is divided into four lobes seperated by promient fussures Our Divided Brain - Our brain is divided into two hemispheres Contralateral Processing -Processing in the brain is done on the opposite side of the body - Control of the left arm is from the right side of the brain -Information from the left field of view (not left eye) is processed in the right side of the brain Corpus Callosum - Hemispheres connected by a mass of nerval fibers -In severe cases of epilepsy, the corpus callosum may be cut, in order to prevent seizures from spreading throughout the brain -Behavior changes very little Split Brain Patients -Shown different words to left or right visual field -Subjects given two tasks –Verbal report –Spatial task (pick object, draw object, etc.) Results -If “key” flashes on left side –Subject cannot name it –Subject can pick up key with left hand -If “ring” flashes on right side –Subject can name it –Can pick it up with right hand Hemispheric Specialization -Lateralization -Left hemisphere – Specializes in language -Right hemisphere – Specializes in art and music perception -This seems to indicate that each hemisphere processes different information -Results led to further study and common belief –Left side: language, analytical, classification –Right side: art, music, recognition of faces and shapes Functions of the Cortex -Motor Cortex – Area at rear of frontal lobe controlling our voluntary movements -Sensory Cortex (parietal cortex) receives information from skin surface and sense organs. -Visual and Auditory Function -Particular areas of the brain associated with vision and audition - Vision – occipital lobe -Audition – temporal lobe -Association areas-More intelligent animals have increased “uncommitted” or association areas of the cortex. -Language - Aphasia is an impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impaired speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impaired understanding). Brain's Plasticity -Brain is sculpted by our genes but also by our experiences. -Plasticity – Refers to the brains ability to modify itself after some sort of illness or injury Key Terms For Lectures 6+7 Absolute threshold Habituation Psychophysics Absolute threshold Just noticeable Rods difference Accommodation Sensation Opponent process Afterimage theory Sensory adaptation Blind spot Perception Transduction Cones Trichromatic theory Lecture 6 – Sensation and Perception Sensation & Perception • How do we construct our representations of the external world? • Sensation • Detection of physical energy (stimulus) from the environment and conversion into neural signals • Perception • How we select, organize, and interpret our sensations Information processing • Cognition requires two types of processing • Bottom-up Processing • Begins with sensory information • Works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information • Top-down processing • Begins with knowledge and expectation • Interpret sensory, physical data Physical World Psychological World Psychophysics A study of the relationship between physical Light Brightness Sound Volume characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them. Pressure Weight Sugar Sweet Absolute Threshold – Minimum amount of stimulation needed to detect a stimulus 50% of the time Difference Threshold –Minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time o Weber’s Law - Two stimuli must differ by a constant percentage (rather than a constant amount), to be perceived as different. Sensory Adaptation Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. Attention The world contains more information than we can fully interpret or process all at once The ability to deal with some stimuli and not others is Selective Attention Part of attention seems to be due to mental effort on your part Part of attention seems a natural side effect of mental effort Part of attention seems effortless Attention is a powerful force o When you are busy doing something else, you can fail to observe even very significant things o That’s why is not a good idea to talk on a cell phone while driving a car Another way to interpret these results is that attention is necessary to detect stimulus changes o Explains how people can “look” but not “see” walking into doors driving into trains why magicians use flashes of light! We can’t possibly process all of the information from our environment Selective attention allows us to process information that is important to us o Focus on limited parts of the environment Can lead to unintentional blindness/change blindness o Failing to detect visible object when attention is directed elsewhere Lecture 7 – Vision Why do we see afterimages? Transduction In sensation, transformation of stimulus energy into neural impulses. Phototransduction – conversion of energy into neural impulses The Stimulus Input: Light Energy Light Characteristics Wavelength (hue/color) Intensity (brightness) Saturation (purity) Wavelength (Hue) Wavelength the distance from the peak of one wave to the peak of the next. Different wavelengths of light result in different colors Intensity (Brightness/Lightness) Intensity – Amount of energy in a wave Related to perceived brightness Parts of the eye Cornea Transparent tissue where light enters the eye. Iris Muscle that expands and contracts to change the size of opening Pupil Adjustable opening that lets light into the eye Lens Focuses the light rays on the retina. Retina Contains sensory receptors that process visual information and send it to the brain. The Eye The Lens Accommodation The eyes lens change shape to help focus objects in the retina Nearsightedness Image focused in front Farsightedness Imaged focused behind retina Retina The light sensation in the inner surface of the eye Contains reception of cones Plus layers of other neurons (bipolar, ganglion cells) that process visual information. Fovea, Optic Nerve & Blind Spot Fovea Optic nerve Carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain. Blind Spot Point where optic nerve leaves the eye Test your Blind Spot Close your left eye, and with the right eye fixate on the black dot. Move the page towards and away from your eye. At some point the dot on the right will disappear due to blind spot. + Photoreceptors Visual Information Processing Optic nerves connect to the thalamus in the middle of the brain, and the thalamus to the visual cortex. Nerve cells in the visual cortex respond to specific features, like edges, angle, and movement. Shape Detection Specific combinations of temporal lobe activity occur as people look at shoes, faces, chairs and houses Theories of Color Vision Trichromatic Theory Retina contains three receptors maximally sensitive to red, blue and green wavelengths. Color Blindness Most people are trichromatic If red cones filled with green photopigment (or vice versa): dichromats more common in males (approx. 10%) Opponent Process Theory We process four primary colors opposed in pairs of red- green, blue-yellow, and black-white (Hering). Competition between colors Can not see both at the same time
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