SMAD exam 1 study guide
SMAD exam 1 study guide SMAD 101
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katie Feinberg on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SMAD 101 at James Madison University taught by George Johnson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Intro to media arts and design in Art at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
SMAD Exam #1 Study Guide *Notes* Roles of Media in Society 1. Agricultural: 8000 BC present (still in lesser developed countries), one way communication Basic resource: food/land Type of employment: farm/trade Technology: agricultural tools Nature of mass communication: 1 way print Industrial: 1750present (still many industrial societies), companies making things Basic resource: manufactured goods/energy Type of employment: factory workers Technology: Steam engine/assembly line Nature of mass communication: 1 way print/electronic media Information: 1955present, wall street/now/where things are made Basic Resource: info/knowledge Employment: info workers Basic technology: computers/networks Nature of mass communication: interactive media ● supplies us with data ● interconnectedness amongst individuals ● United States mass communication: the process by which a complex organization with the aid of one or more machines produces/transmits public messages that are directed at large, different, and scattered audiences… channeled through MASS MEDIA Three Types of Media 1. Mass Media: Point to multipoint message distribution, message for the MASSES, uses a mediated channel, message is controlled by the sender. Examples: Newspaper, radio, TV, film, etc. 2. Personal Media: Point to multipoint, interpersonal and intrapersonal, uses technology to PERSONALIZE (netflix, ads), user has more control. 3. Mediamorphosis: Transformation of MEDIA in technology, brought about by pressures. Examples: political, competitive, social aspects (web) and technological innovations. ● As each new form of media develops, it influences the development of other forms,. ● Metamorphosis: new media emerge gradually from older media… coming from the same technology. ● Propagation: New media promotes dominant traits from earlier forms. (radio and television) ● Survival: all forms of media are compelled to evolve/adapt ● Opportunity: A new media are not adopted on technological merits alone. ● Delayed adoption: Take longer than expected to become commercial successes. Important Theories Convergence of Media: integration of media into a common technological base Diffusion of Innovation: the process by which innovation spreads in a social system. Digital Convergence: all media going institutions are converging, increasing access to info (One machine: printing, copying, etc.) Factors Leading To Digital Convergence: ● Interactive: Allow 11 interaction between individuals or individuals/content ● Demassified: Exchange info with individuals ● Asynchronous: Interacts with an individual at a time CONVENIENT for that person ● Convenience: info can be converted, manipulated, and reached more easily. (One step service) Two Types of Innovations: 1. Sustaining Innovations: product comes along but it doesn’t replace… enhances it sometimes (The Advanced Typewriter) 2. Disruptive Innovations: product comes along and wipes the other product out. (Computer replaces typewriter) The Diffusion of Innovations: Saffo’s 30 Year Rule: 1st decade: lots of excitement/puzzlement/etc. 2nd decade: lots of flowing in and flowing out, beginning to make its way through something. 3rd decade: Technology taken for granted Roger’s 5 Critical Attributes of Successful Diffusion of New Innovation: 1. Relative advantage 2. Compatibility 3. Complexity 4. Observability 5. Reliability FIDLER adds a 6th principle: FAMILIARITY STEVEN JOHNSON SAYS innovation needs the 10/10 rule… 10 years to make and 10 years to market. The Stages of Diffusion of an Innovation Awareness → Interest → Decision → Trial → Adoption Digital Native:Always had technology (us) Digital Immigrants: Slowly moved through the process of technological innovations. Brian Winston’s Social Necessities ● Economic: Needs to meet the needs of the company, purchase power of market ● Technology: Compatible with other technologies ● Social: Acceptance of product, the need for it ● Regulation: Government/trade support Signals Analog Signal: continuous variation, all info is transmitted, even noise Digital Signal: Takes samples, translates waves into series of I’s and O’s DIGITAL ADVANTAGES: ● Less noise ● Easier to manipulate ● Compressible ● Intelligent channels: imports info to get a reaction ● Integrated networks: brings different networks into one CLIFF EFFECT: Losing signal Involvement of Digital Language Marshall McLuhan’s Global Village: IMMEDIATE transfer of info… makes the globe “smaller”, more reachable, common experiences are defined by media. Example 9/11 Increased Speed, Reach and Understanding: Compressed messages, sent quicker, virtual reality to enhance the IMMEDIACY of understanding Protecting Intellectual Property: Easier to copy, spreads info. Types of Communication: ● Intrapersonal: Communication with SELF (Example: writing in diary) ● Interpersonal: Faceface communication with another/machine assisted communication with another ● Mass Communication: Point → multipoint. (Example newspapers, TV, radio) FUNCTIONS OF MASS COMMUNICATION: 1. Surveillance: providing news worthy info (Channel 11 News) 2. Correlation: interpreting info/making comments/expressing opinions about news (Letter to the Editor) 3. Transmission of Culture: binding people across a distance by educating about values/social norms (People talking about netflix/etc) 4. Entertainment: Entertaining people without necessarily offering any knowledge. (DHall Soup) Linear Communication Model: Harold Laswell: who says what towhom throughwhich channel withwhat effect Shannon and Weaver’s Linear Model: Shannon And Weaver: A message gets sent through a transmitter to a medium to a receiver. What effects this linear model? Field of experience (the experience a person has about the topic), the noise (semantic: certain words people may not understand), feedback (from receiver back to the transmitter) Gatekeeping Model: Weastley and Maclean: An official source goes through an event then the message goes through an individual to an editor then it becomes a mediated message and it then goes to an audience. Different Theories: Uses and Gratifications Theory people take an active role in choosing media for the purpose of satisfying needs Alex Tan’s Typology of Needs: ● Cognitive needs ● Affective needs ● Personal integrative needs ● Social integrative needs: the group you “run” with ● Escapist needs Expectancy Value Theory: similar to above in that people use media based on SATISFYING NEEDS. ● Seek media based on EXPECTATIONS ● Media has VALUE when it meets expectations ● We alter our future expectations of media depending on whether they meet our needs. Play/Entertainment Theories: Use media to satisfy needs for PLEASURE and ENTERTAINMENT. Play Theory: Frued’s Pleasure Principle ● We seek to reciprocate pleasurable experiences through media ● Pleasure is determined by the consumer: differentiates between consumers Dependency Theory: ● Mediated messages only effect people to the degree that they depend on media info ● Dependency is a 3 way interaction amongst media, audiences and society. ● Three types of effects: cognitive, affective, behavioral HEGEMONY: Antonio Gramsci the ruling class exerts dominance over others through the use of social institutions and accepted behaviors. (the police, military, education, religion, media) Those who own channels of mass communication possess cultural hegemony of the rest of us… creates the division of the superior and the inferior. MEDIA’S AGENDA: ● McCombs and Shan: Media sets the agenda of what is considered IMPORTANT issues/media gives more importance to certain issues. (Public thinks the topics that are emphasized in the media are most important) DOWNSIDE OF THIS… Noelle Neuman: ● People are not open to share views if they think they are in the minority (SILENCE) ● Spiraling Effect: views perceived to be dominant gain more ground/alternatives withdraw INFO GAP HYPOTHESIS: ● Information societies (US), INFO = POWER ● Big gap between the INFO RICH and the INFO POOR What determines this gap? level of education/availability to resources like computers/internet/etc. Media Bias Media has built in features that privilege some information while minimizing others. ● Partisan Bias : the cause of media bias is PROMOTED ● Propaganda Bias: deliberate intention for making a case for a policy/person but without explicitly stating it. ● Unwitting Bias or Editorial Judgment: Selective stories that you’re going to cover but you’re limited in terms of time or space PRINT VS. ELECTRONIC MEDIA BIAS Print: First amendment issues Electronic: Film (Documentaries can display certain sides), television BIAS NOT ALWAYS A BAD THING… ● Advertisers gain from knowing the biases of the media’s audience ● Audiences want slanted news BUT SOMETIMES IT IS… ● Consumers have a hard time seeking all perspectives ● Audience lacks skills in critically analyzing messages/lacks an understanding of media bias to construct any independent conclusions. Media Effects Research Methods ● Content Analysis: Determine the amount of violent/sexual content in media. ● Surveys: Determine the amount of media use and how it is used. ● Experiments: Determine cause and effect by manipulating independent variables. POWERFUL EFFECTS OF MEDIA: 1. Hypodermic needle or BULLET hypothesis: implementing a media message into people’s minds. (Hitler) 2. Propaganda and advertising: propaganda for a product… trying to persuade someone to do something. 3. When we see violent/sexual stimuli… for a short period of time we are more inclined to be more violent or sexual CRYSTALLIZATION: Sharpening of a vague attitude. Haven’t made up your mind? REINFORCEMENT: Reinforces any preexisting attitudes. HAVE made up your mind? ALBERT BANDURA’S Social Learning Theory: ● People establish goals that entail rewards/positive consequences ● People choose behaviors that have the potential to achieve the goals ● People interpret the consequences of behaviors as REWARDS or PUNISHMENTS ● Choices are affected by the perceived success/failures of the past. Social Cognitive Theory: ● Media can teach us to model our behaviors, values, beliefs ● Media may teach us but it is other adopters that motivate us to behave ● Media more influential when other adopters are abset. Cultivation/Stalagmite Theory: ● Popular media (especially TV) shapes or CULTIVATES views of social reality MAINSTREAMING: Influences from culture/special forces are diminished. "But everyone has one!" RESONANCE: When a person is exposed to something in real life, it’s similar to media. "Wow this is just what it looks like on tv" Media As Storyteller Video: ● George Gerber asks does media make us scared for violence? or does it influence us to BE violent? ● The Cultural Indicator Research Project: exposure to media violence has a lot of negative effects. ● Humor makes violence “easier to swallow” ● The Payne Fund Studies: violent movies have a powerful effect on children ● Cultivation: a stable system of messages and images that cultivates our image of the world ● Mean World Syndrome: world is a place of constant horribleness displayed in media… always having to look “behind our shoulder” ● Minorities are displayed negatively in the media… Hispanic Americans are the most violent according to TV. Violence in Media ● Media violence is a major problem says AMA ● ¼ women will be a victim of assault in their live Effects… 1. Catharsis: people who see violence in media can make them more likely to commit a violent act. 2. Disinhibition: We lose logic 3. Imitation: More prone to act violently 4. Desensitization Studies show that viewing violent media contributes to aggressive behavior. Sexually Explicit Media ● Sexually violent materials ● Degrading materials ● Nondegrading materials ● Nudity ● Child Porn Cognitive Effects… 1. Change in moral values 2. Change in perception of normalcy 3. More callous (Having an insensitive regard for others) Behavioral Effects… 1. Imitation 2. Criminal sexual behavior Direct cause and effect relationship between consumption of hardcore sexual material and violence. Representation of Women and Minorities: GENDER ● Women= 50% of population… still underestimated/stereotyped ● Media’s representation of women is influential on children ● “Sex and the Single Girl” Helen Gurly Brown represented tension between traditional role and modern role of women. LATINOS ● NAACP criticized networks for lack of diversity ● Latinos are the largest minority ● 1808 “El Mississippi” = first Latino paper RAUL CORTEZ founded KCOR AM first radio in San Antonio and first spanish TV station AFRICAN AMERICANS ● Fredrick Douglas “The Northern State” a narrative of life as an American Slave ● Hattie McDaniel= first black to receive Academy Award in 1939 ● Bill Cosby= first black on prime TV GAY/LESBIAN ● Increased after 1969 Stonewall Riots in NYC ● “Friendship and Freedom” first gay publication ● Will and Grace, Ellen SOCIAL/ HEALTH CONCERNS OF TV: ● promotion of drugs ● promotion of sex/sexually transmitted diseases ● time displacement (not a social/active activity) ● increases depression GLOBAL IMPACT: 1. MASS MEDIA: effects social/political environment on all levels (national, local, etc), influences how public views social issues 2. CLOSED SOCIETIES: discourage freedom of thought/expression, made people think how government wanted them to think, government filters info to keep people uninformed 3. OPEN OR TRANSPARENT SOCIETY: Media monitors/reports on government operations, government makes positive decisions on behalf of the people, encourages participatory democracy (we have a vote) Four Systems 1. Peritarian: Most dominant system in the world, free press, corporations, NOT government involved in media 2. Social Responsibility: Government CAN step in and control, media is independent but can call government, EXAMPLE: Britain 3. Authoritarian system: Government OWNS it, seen in lesser countries like Libya and Iran, control all media, media is used as propaganda 4. Soviet Communist system: reflects ideologies of Karl Marx/Fredrick Angels, China/Cuba, “ideas of ruling class=ruling ideas”, media are publically owned, make things look black and white. Cultural Context Can bring people together or separate them. ● Mass Media can accelerate cultural changes ● Different meanings for different cultures High Cultural Context: Japan, China: rely on symbolism/implied meanings Ex: Red flag to us, symbol to specific country Low Cultural Context: US we have spoofs of our country on The Simpsons and Family Guy Cultural Imperialism: Spread of culture into another area without that societies consent ● Print Media: easiest to control expensive to produce requires literacy ● Broadcast Media: easy to control expensive to set up radio: lowest cost/tv: highest cost doesn’t require being literate ● Digital Media Less expensive than broadcast/print Little/no regulation Multimedia Speedy delivery Digital Divide: There is a divide between the people who have/don’t have internet access. Digital Divide 2.0: People may have access to internet but don’t use it to access info *CHAPTER 1* Encoding: The activities that a source goes through to translate thoughts and ideas into a form that is perceived by the senses. (Speaker ENCODES thoughts into words) Decoding: Interpreting messages Message: the actual physical product the source encodes (The words you speak, a TV show) Channel: the way that the message travels to the receiver. (Sound waves carry spoken words) IntERpersonal Communication: A person or group is interacting with another without the aid of mechanical device. Gatekeeper: Any person (or group) who have control over what material eventually reaches the public. Websites bypass gatekeepers. (Editor of newspaper, news director at a TV station) *CHAPTER 2* The Functional Approach: resumes that the best way to understand media is to investigate how the media is used. SocializationThe transmission of values Parasocial RelationshipUsing media to combat loneliness/developing a “relationship” with media characters. *CHAPTER 18* People have been concerned about media effects since the 1940s when people feared the influence of radio on politics. Surveys/experiments= most frequent techniques to study the effects of mass communication. Prosocial Behavior:Positive behaviors that tv promotes like sharing, cooperating, developing selfcontrol and helping. (evidence of this has been found by conducting experiments and surveys)
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