New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PSY 1000, Exam 2 Study Objectives

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: Perry Klemanski

PSY 1000, Exam 2 Study Objectives PSY 1000

Marketplace > Western Michigan University > Psychlogy > PSY 1000 > PSY 1000 Exam 2 Study Objectives
Perry Klemanski
GPA 3.7

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This study guide will help you ace your Psych exam (2) regarding chapters 3 and 4 Good luck with your future class endeavors, Hoaloha
General Psychology
Study Guide
50 ?




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star
"So much better than office hours. Needed something I could understand, and I got it. Will be turning back to StudySoup in the future"
Corbin Crist DDS

Popular in General Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Perry Klemanski on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1000 at Western Michigan University taught by Ring in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Western Michigan University.


Reviews for PSY 1000, Exam 2 Study Objectives

Star Star Star Star Star

So much better than office hours. Needed something I could understand, and I got it. Will be turning back to StudySoup in the future

-Corbin Crist DDS


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/05/16
Unit 2: Research and Consciousness Chapters 3 and 4 1) Be able to explain the differences between objectivity and subjectivity. (51­52)  Objectivity – Certain facts about the world can be observed and tested  independently from the individual (Ex: Scientist) Subjectivity – Once someone observes an event, their interpretation of  the situation automatically becomes subjective. Subjective means that  someone’s knowledge of an event is shaped by prior beliefs Difference of the two: Objective is mainly based on facts and can be  proven and agreed upon by many people. Subjective is a more personal  view, where your perception of an event is based on past experiences 2) What are objective measurements? (52)  Objective measurements – The measure of an entity or behavior that,  within an allowed margin of error, is consistent across instruments and  observers. This is the foundation of scientific methodology 3) What is reliability? What is validity? (53­54)  Reliability – When it provides consistent and stable answers across  multiple observations and points in time Validity – The degree to which an instrument or procedure accurately  answers what it claims to measure 4) What is generalizability? Be able to describe populations and samples.  Be able to explain what a representative sample is. (54) Generalizability – Refers to the degree to which one set of results can  be applied to other situations Population – The group that researchers want to generalize about Sample – A select group of population members Random Sample – Every individual of a population has an equal  chance of being included Convenience Samples – Samples of individuals who are the most  readily available Representative Samples – Studies a sample of a certain population  since you can’t study every person in a certain topic 5) What are demand characteristics? (56­57)  Demand Characteristics – When researchers give off inadvertent cues  that provide information as to what the research is examining 6) What is the placebo effect? What is a placebo? What is the difference  between the two? (56) Placebo Effect – An improvement in health that is not attributed by a  medication Placebo – The thing that is given in a placebo experiment 7) Describe what a case study is. (63)  Case Study – An in depth report about the details of a specific case 8) What is naturalistic observation? What is laboratory observation? Be  able to explain the difference between these methods and experimental  designs. (64 and lecture)  Naturalistic observation – An observation in the natural environment (Unobtrusively) Laboratory observation – Observations that are controlled in a  laboratory 9) Be able to describe surveys and questionnaires based on self­reporting. What is the socially desirable response? (53, 56, 64)  Self reporting – face to face interviews Surveys – Phone surveys, paper and pencil (Also face to face) 10) What is correlational research? What does a correlation measure?  (65­66)  Correlation Research – Studies between the degree of association of  different variables. Independent and dependent 11) Why does a correlation not establish a cause and effect relationship  between two variables? What are three potential interpretations of the  relation between two correlated variables? How are correlations helpful?  (66­67 and) Graphs can represent the causality between two variables. There is a  range of causality in graphs ranging from ­1.0 to +1.0. The closer to 1 it  is the more correlation it has with each other 12) What is the experimental method? In regards to variables, how do  experiments differ from other research methods? (68) Random Assignment – A technique for dividing samples into two or  more groups Confounding variable – Used with experimental research, and the  researcher cannot control all the variables that might affect the results  (Rain on a plant being measured, While using controlled water to grow  it) Dependent variable – The observation or measurement that is  recorded during the experiment Independent variable – the variable that the experimenter  manipulates (with the dependent variable) to distinguish the two groups 13) Of the methods covered above (naturalistic observation, laboratory  observation, case study, self­reports, correlations, experiments), which is  best for demonstrating a cause and effect relationship? Be able to identify advantages and drawbacks for these approaches. When given examples,  be prepared to classify them according to the above methods. Experimental method 14) Be able to define independent and dependent variables. If given an  example, be able to classify it as an independent or dependent variable.  Fair warning: students traditionally have a lot of difficulty with these  concepts. (68)  15) What are confounding variables? (68)  Something that you can’t control (Rain) 16) What is the control group and what is the experimental group? (68)  Control Group – The group that doesn’t receive the treatment is the  control group (Acts as a comparison to the experiment {Independent  variable}) The experimental group – the group that receives the treatment 17) Be able to describe and recognize examples of between­subjects and  within­subjects designs Between­Subjects – design that’s given a treatment to two people and  comparing the effects (two people) Within­Subject – the same subject is being studied (one person) 18) What is an institutional review board? (71)  IRB – A committee of researches and officials at an institution charged  with the protection of human research participants 19) What is informed consent? Does this mean that participants must  know every aspect of a study in advance? (73)  Must be informed about the purpose of the study and give consent  without pressure. Although researchers can use deception 20) What is a biological rhythm? What is a circadian rhythm? (87)  Biological rhythms – Periodic ebb (Flow, outtake) and flow of your  biological system Circadian rhythm – Your sleep rhythm and it lasts for 24 hours 21) What is REM and non­REM sleep? Be able to describe all the stages  of sleep. During which type of sleep are you mostly likely to experience  vivid dreams? Be able to recognize and list the physiological  characteristics of REM sleep. (89)  REM – A stage of sleep characterized by quickening brain waves, deep relaxation, inhibited (Doesn’t move) body movement, and rapid eye  movements NREM – the four stages that aren’t REM Stage 1 – The brain waves slow down and higher in amplitude Stage 2 – sleep progresses, we respond to fewer and fewer external  stimuli (lights) Stage 3 – Brain waves continue to slow down (Delta waves) Stage 4 – Deepest stage (Hardest to wake up) 22) What is sleep deprivation? What are the negative consequences  associated with sleep deprivation? What is sleep displacement? (91)  Sleep deprivation – Occurs when someone can’t sleep ­Job consequences ­Poor schoolwork ­Sleep displacement can occur in turn Sleep Displacement – Occurs when an individual is prevented from  sleeping at the normal time although she may be able to sleep earlier or  later in the day than usual (Jet Lag) 23) Be able to explain how the following perspectives explain the  importance/interpretation of dreaming: psychoanalytic approach,  activation­synthesis approach, and problem solving approach (93­95)  Psychoanalytic – Dreams are wish fulfillment, and we act out our  sexual desires. He believed there was latent content to these actions,  which needs an interpreter. Activation­Synthesis hypothesis – Suggests that dreams arise from  brain activity 24) Be able to define the following sleep disorders: narcolepsy,  somnambulism, and REM behavior disorder. Be able to list which stage  of sleep (REM or non­REM) is involved with each disorder. (98­99 and  lecture)  Narcolepsy – A disorder in which a person experiences extreme daytime sleepiness Somnambulism – Sleep walking Sleep apnea – Trouble breathing during sleep (usually wake up by  coughing) 25) What are the two types of sleep misperception? Which one is likely  to result in risks and problems? (99)  Sleep misperception – Underestimating how much sleep you actually  get at night (You get more sleep then you think) Positive Sleep state misperception – Getting less than hour than what  you think 26) Be able to define hypnosis, including details on what it is not. What  are the two theories of hypnosis? (103)  Hypnosis – A procedure of inducing a heightened state of suggestibility Dissociation Theory – Consciousness is divided into two parts: an  observer and a hidden observer Social­cognitive theory – emphasizing the degree to which beliefs and  expectations contribute to increased suggestibility Can’t hypnotize someone into robbing a bank 27) Be able to explain the effectiveness of hypnosis in relation to pain  management, memory improvement, and the recovery of lost memories.  (104­105)  Therapy for depression and pain can be done through hypnosis Don’t have to worry about dependence of the cure (Like drugs) 28) What are psychoactive drugs? (111)  Anything that alters your brain and how you view things 29) What is drug tolerance? What is homeostasis and how might it help  explain tolerance? What is withdrawal? What is a compensatory  response? (119 and lecture)  Tolerance – Need more of the drug to get the same results Homeostasis – Equilibrium  Withdrawal – physical symptoms of not having a drug Compensatory response – The setting you’re in while taking a drug  effects its potency 30) Be able to explain the think­drink effect. Perceiving something before you go into it influences how you will act  when you are on that certain drug.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.