New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

General Chemistry II Exam I Study Guide

by: Harita Sistu

General Chemistry II Exam I Study Guide CHEM 1312-001

Marketplace > University of Texas at Dallas > Chemistry > CHEM 1312-001 > General Chemistry II Exam I Study Guide
Harita Sistu
GPA 3.86

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

[UPDATED] I have completed the study guide with the rest of the topics. Once again i apologize for any inconvenience.
General Chemistry II
Dr. Taylor
Study Guide
general chemistry study guide
50 ?




Popular in General Chemistry II

Popular in Chemistry

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Harita Sistu on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1312-001 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Taylor in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 160 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at University of Texas at Dallas.


Reviews for General Chemistry II Exam I Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/05/16
GENERAL CHEMISTRY II REVIEW FOR EXAM 1 CHAPTER 13 – PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS Intermolecular Forces in Solution “Like dissolves Like” – if solute and solvent have similar intermolecular forces (polar­polar,  nonpolar­nonpolar, ionic­polar), solution will form Formation of Solution Step 1: disrupt solute­solute attraction, delta H 1> 0 (endothermic) Step 2: disrupt solvent­solvent attraction, delta H  > 0 (endothermic) 2 Step 3: formation of solute­solvent attraction, delta H  <30 (exothermic) Delta H soln delta H 1+ delta H 2 delta H 3 Entropy – chaos or disorder It is the tendency of energy to spread out and occupy as much volume as it can. Entropy explains why gases dissolve together even in the absence of intermolecular forces and  even though there is no change in energy when the solution is formed. Various concentration units  Factors that affect Solubility  Temperature If delta H > 0, increase in temperature increases solubility If delta H < 0, increase in temperature decreases solubility  Pressure (only in gases) Increase in pressure increases solubility Henry’s Law: c = kP, where c=concentration, k=Henry’s Law constant, P=pressure                        Consequently 1(c 1P ) = 2c 2P )  Colligative properties – depends only on number of solute particles in soln and not on nature of  solute.  Vapor pressure lowering: In a solution containing a volatile solvent and a non­volatile  solute, solute particles decreases VP of solvent as they block solvent particles from  escaping into gas phase. Raoult’s Law (mostly liquid­liquid): P  = x 1 , w1 1e P = VP of 1 lution P  = VP of pu1e  solvent and x = mole fraction of solvent Graph:                                                                             Graph with 2 solutes:             Boiling Point Elevation: BP of solution is GREATER than pure solvent.  Delta T = iK  mb  Freezing Point Depression: FP of solution is LOWER than pure solvent.  Delta T = iK mf K fnd K  =bmolal FP depression and molal BP elevation constants, m = molality  Osmotic Pressure (π): pressure required to stop osmosis Π = iMRT, where M = molarity, i = Van’t Hoff’s factor, R = 0.08206 L atm mol K , T = ­1 ­1 temperature in Kelvin  Van’t Hoff Factor (i): accounts for effects of disassociation   what you put∈¿ actually got i= ¿ Actually got: nonelectrolyte – 1, strong electrolyte – 2, weak electrolyte – between 1 and 2 Colloids: dispersion of particles of one substance throughout another substance. Ex.,  aerosols, foams, emulsions etc. Aqueous colloids: hydrophilic – water loving, and hydrophobic – water fearing  Emulsification: stabilizing an unstable colloid Tyndall effect: light beams scattered by dispersed particles; no scattering by solutions as  particles are too small. CHAPTER 19 – CHEMICAL KINETICS: study of how fast reactions take place Reaction rates: speed of a reaction Collision theory: most reactions occur through collision (mainly of 2 particles) Rate of reaction α no. of effective collisions per second Effective collsion – actually yields products (enough energy and right orientation) Concentration of reactants α reaction rate Molecular Kinetic Theory: molecules have KE that breaks bonds on collision Activation energy (E )a “enough energy” required to initiate reaction Temperature α KE  Temperature α reaction rate Transition State Theory As particles come closer to each other  KE decreases and PE increases (they slow down) Average Reaction Rate (unit – Ms )­1 −delta[A] A  B => Rate =   (­ve as reactant disappears with time) deltat delta[B] Rate =   (+ve as product appears with time) deltat [A] and [B] are concentrations       Instantaneous Rate Rate α [A] Rate = k[A], where k = proportionality constant at constant temperature k = rate/[A] Stoichiometry and Reaction Rate aA + bB  cC + dD Rate= −delta[A] −=elta[B] = delta[C] = delta[D] ( )eltat ( )deltat ( )deltat ( )eltat Rate Law aA +bB  cC + dD => Rate = k[A]  [B] , where k = proportionality constant, x and y =  reaction order (NOT obtained from chemical equation) Integrated Rate Laws First Order: ln[A] = ­kt + ln[A] t 0 1 1 Second Order:  [A] =kt+ [A]           {all are in y = mx +b form} t 0 Zeroth Order: [A] t ­kt + [A] 0 Half – life Reactions ln?(2) t1/2    first order k t = 1 1/2 k[A] 0    second order [A] t1/2 0    zeroth order 2k STUDY GUIDE CONTINUED Arrhenius Equation k=Ae −Ea/RT  , where Ea = activation energy R = 8.314 J mol K  A = frequency factor T =  temperature Taking natural log on both sides: −Ea 1 ln(k= R (t +ln (A)  => y = mx + b Reaction Mechanisms: most reactions occur in a series of steps called reaction mechanisms Elementary reaction: simpler one­step reaction. Elementary rxns add up to give overall rxn A + B  C + F                  A + D = reactants, E + F = products, C = intermediate, B = catalyst  C + D   E + B                   A + D  E + F Rate determining step: the slowest step in the mechanism (elementary step with the largest  activation energy) In elementary steps rate law: exponents ARE coefficients from balanced equation of elementary  step. To be a valid mechanism:  Each elementary step has 1 or 2 reactants  Elementary rxns add up to give overall rxn  Rate­determining should have same rate law as the one determined experimentally for the overall rxn Catalysts: a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction (by lowering its activation  energy) without being used up itself. Heterogeneous catalyst – reactants and catalyst are in different phases Homogeneous catalyst – reactants and catalysts are dispersed in single phase Enzyme catalyst – biological catalyst *catalysts HAVE to be in rate determining step (and in the rate law)


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.