LIFE 103 Exam 1 Study Guide
LIFE 103 Exam 1 Study Guide LIFE 103
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Caldwell on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Erik Arthun, Tanya Dewey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 306 views. For similar materials see Macrobiology; Plants and Animals in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
1. What is reflected in the idea of uniformity? 2. Define diversity. 3. What is the series of “bins” that classify and categorize organisms? 4. What are the three domains? Provide an example of each. 5. What two types of data are used to create phylogenies? 6. What is the basis of the Endosymbiotic theory? What two organisms were involved in the origin of this theory? 7. True/False: A Taxonomy is a branching diagram that reflects the evolutionary history of a group of organisms. 8. What is the difference between Homology and Analogy? Provide an example of both types of structures. 9. True/False: Mitochondrial DNA evolves rapidly and is used to explore recent evolutionary events 10.Ribosomal DNA is used to explore ancient/recent evolutionary events while Mitochondrial DNA is used to explore ancient/recent evolutionary events. 11.The study of which type of DNA (Mito or Ribo) led to the discovery that fungi is more closely related to animals than plants? 12.What does “Endosymbiotic” mean? 13.What was it, in the endosymbiotic theory, that evolved into the mitochondria in this relationship? 14.Chloroplasts developed from what ancestral type of Eukaryote? 15.Give an example of horizontal gene transfer. 16.Why do we no longer consider diagrams of life a ‘tree’? What is it now considered? 17.What is the difference between Monophyletic, Paraphyletic, and Polyphyletic groups? 18.What two domains are prokaryotes in? 19.True/False: Archaea are more closely related to plants than they are to animals. 20.What does ATP use pump into the cells of Archaea? a. Why is this done? As in, what does this accomplish? 21.True/False: You can find more prokaryotes in a handful of fertile soil than the number of people alive on earth today. 22.What three shapes do prokaryotes come in? 23.What are the three reasons why it is so difficult to study Archaea today? 24.What percentage of bacteria and archaea are not culturable? 25.What does a prokaryote have in place of a nucleus? 26.What is a cell wall in a prokaryote? How is it different from that of a plant cell wall? 27.Explain what happens when a sex pilus is extended from one bacterium. 28.What is the key difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? 29.What can convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonium? a. Why is this so beneficial to life on earth? 30.True/False: Archaea can be decomposers. 31.True/False: Nearly half of all bacterial diseases are caused by Archaea and Bacteria. 32.Which has a larger genome? A prokaryotic cell or a eukaryotic cell? 33.What shape is a prokaryotic genome? 34.What is the difference in structure between Archaeal and Bacterial cell structure? 35.What is the purpose of a capsule? What single celled organisms have capsules? 36.True/False: Bacterial endospores can remain viable for up to 100 years. 37.How do prokaryotes reproduce? a. What type of growth is this? (think about graphs and charts) 38.Bacterial reproduction is a process of asexual or sexual reproduction? 39.What is the difference between Phototrophs and Chemotrophs? a. What is a similarity between Phototrophs and Chemotrophs? 40.True/False: One difference between Obligate aerobes and anaerobes is that anaerobes are poisoned by Oxygen. 41.What is unique about Facultative anaerobes? 42.What are some causes for diversity within prokaryotes? 43.There are three methods of Prokaryotes exchanging genetic information: Conjugation, Transduction, and Transformation. a. Which one was used in the LIFE 102 lab, the one where we had to write a lab report on it? b. Which one results in lysing of cells? c. Which one uses a sex pilus? d. Which one is between viruses and bacteriophages? e. Which one uses a piece of DNA called the F Factor to produce a critical tool for DNA exchanging? f. Which one “gathers naked DNA fragments” floating around? 44.True/False: Conjugation is considered a “one-way street”. 45.Which is considered the “Extremophiles” – Archaea or Bacteria? Why? 46.What does the root “Halo” mean? Which domain does the term Halophile apply too? 47.What caused the bubonic plague? Archaea or Bacteria? a. What two methods did it travel through to humans? 48.What is nicknamed “the junk drawer of taxonomy”? 49.What is a mixotroph capable of doing? 50.True/False: Protists are Eukaryotic cells. 51.What is the purpose of a cytoskeleton? 52.There are four supergroups within the Eukarya group: Excavata, SAR clade, Archaeplastidsa, and Unikonta: a. Which one got its name from its physical appearance? b. Which one has Brown Algae, “some of the most important photosynthetic organisms on the planet”? c. Which has fungi? d. Which one has kelp and all of its variations in it? e. Which one is divided into three groups, two of which cannot photosynthesize? f. Which one includes the closest relative to land plants? g. Which one has Alveolates? How did Alveolates get their name? h. Which has land plants? i. Which one has three subgroups, two of which can produce hydrogen gas as a byproduct of anaerobic respiration? j. Which one has red algae and green algae? What is unique about the color absorbance of red algae? k. Which has humans? 53.It is estimated that __% of the planet’s photosynthesis is performed by protists. 54.How do fungi eat? 55.Spores are haploid/diploid for fungi. 56.What is the definition of Plasmogamy? 57.What is the process of nuclei fusing over time called? 58.(For fungi) Diploid cells are produced for sexual/asexual reproduction and haploid cells are produced for sexual/asexual cells. 59.Chytrids are the common ancestor of what? 60.Of fungi, which is the most genetically diverse group? (Glomeromycetes, Zygomycetes, or Higher Fungi) 61.What is a very important feature of Basidiomycetes that makes them critical for life on this planet? 62.True/False: Higher Fungi Ascomycetes can be either unicellular or multicellular. 63.What are Mycorrhizae and why are they considered so important in class? 64.What is the advantage of having fungal cell walls made of chitin? 65.What is the name of the tiny filaments that make up mycelia? a. Why do the filaments have a very high surface area? 66.(For fungi) Spores are haploid/diploid. 67.What are lichens the product of? (Hint: it’s a form of relationship!) 68.What is the duty of Sporopollenin when it comes to a nonvascular plant’s reproductive system? 69.Why are plants called “Embryophytes”? 70.What two factors for coming to land as a plant was very important for diversifying? 71.What two factors for coming to land as a plant were listed as challenges for survival? 72.What does “apex” mean? 73.(For nonvascular plants) archegonia are male/female parts that produce _____ while antheridia are male/female parts that produce ____. 74.True/false: Archegonia generally require water as a method of transport. 75.What do we mean when we say nonvascular plants have an “alternation of generations”? 76.Fusion of what gives rise to diploid sporophytes? 77.What is a sporophyte? 78.How are haploid spores produced by plants? 79.Gametophytes and gametes have similar abilities, thus share similar name roots. What is this commonality? 80.Why was “dependent embryos” listed as one of the five traits of land plants? 81.True/False: Gametophytes are the larger and longer-living stage for nonvascular land plants than the sporophyte stage. 82.Gametophytes are HAPLOID/DIPLOID, produce haploid/diploid _______ through mitosis/meiosis, and fuse to form a ________. 83.Sporophytes are HAPLOID/DIPLOID, produce haploid/diploid ______ through mitosis/meiosis, and are released into the environment to develop into ______. 84.What is the duty of the Cuticle? 85.What is the purpose of the Stomata? 86.What does “Mycorrhizae” literally translate to? 87.Archegonia create male/female parts for reproduction. 88.Antheridia create male/female parts for reproduction. 89.True/False: For Bryophyte land plants, the gametophyte stage is the more dominant stage. 90.Provide an example of a Heterosporus organism. 91.Provide an example of a Homosporus organism. 92.What is Peat and what makes it so valuable for the planet? 93.From what do Liverworts get their name? 94.What does Xylem transport? 95.True/False: Phloem transport minerals and water. 96.Lignin is in xylem/phloem and does what? 97.Why was the development of roots so valuable to plants? 98.What are the two Phyla of seedless vascular plants? 99.For ferns, do spores produce a bisexual or either/or sexual spore? 100. What does Gymnosperm directly translate to? 101. What makes up a seed? 102. True/False: The gametophyte is microscopic for Gmnosperms. 103. What is the advantage to the modification to the gametophyte for gymnosperms? 104. What is the benefit of pollin? 105. What are some methods of pollination and seed dispersal? 106. What is the definition of Dessication? 107. Megasporangium develop into male/female gametophytes and produce sperm/eggs for gymnosperms. 108. Microsporangium develop into male/female gametophytes and produce sperm/eggs for gymnosperms. 109. What are the three parts that make up the Ovule? 110. True/False: Megasporangium tissue is Diploid tissue. 111. What is the common name for the Integument? 112. What is the name of the part of the ovule that ultimately becomes the nutrients used by the embryo? 113. What does microsporangium produce? 114. What is the benefit of having female cones on the top of the tree for a pine tree, as opposed to being on the bottom branches of the tree?
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