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GWU / Psychology / PSYC 2544 / Why is job analysis important?

Why is job analysis important?

Why is job analysis important?


School: George Washington University
Department: Psychology
Course: Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Professor: N blacksmith
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Industrial/Organization Psychology
Cost: 25
Name: Industrial/Organizational Psychology Week 4 Notes
Description: Detailed notes from Week 4 of class
Uploaded: 02/05/2016
9 Pages 141 Views 2 Unlocks

I-O Psychology Notes Week 4 05/02/2016 06.56.00

Why is job analysis important?

← Job Analysis – Fundamental Properties and Practices 

← Job Analysis: process that determines “essence” of a collection of  tasks falling within the scope of a particular job title

← Why is Job Analysis important? How can it be used? 

∙ You can write a better description of the job to help applicants  understand the position they’re applying for

∙ Can be used for placement and promotion

∙ Employee selection

∙ Assess performance; rate employees, give them feedback, etc. o Can help to determine who does well

o Define performance variable, measure performance

How can job analysis can be used?

∙ Workforce reduction

∙ Criterion development

∙ Compensation

∙ Recruiting

∙ Training

← Job Analysis  the “hub” of all HR interventions

← Three Key Components of Job Analysis 

← 1) Organizational-oriented job analysis

∙ Determines needs and goals of organization; context – environment  in the organization We also discuss several other topics like Why decolonization?

← 2) Task-oriented job analysis

∙ Begins with statement of actual tasks and what is accomplished by  those tasks

← 3) Worker-oriented job analysis

∙ Focuses on attributes of the worker necessary to accomplish tasks ← KSAOs: Worker Attributes 

How job analysis is done?

∙ Knowledge

o Collection of discrete, related facts and information about a  particular domain If you want to learn more check out Define scarcity.

∙ Skill (e.g., computer or interpersonal skills)

o Practiced act

∙ Ability

o Stable capacity to engage in a specific behavior

∙ Other characteristics: interests, personality, etc.

← How Job Analysis is Done 

∙ Interviews  

∙ Surveys

∙ Observations

← 1) Observation

∙ Problems: subjective, you can miss things, hard to observe someone doing their job (a lot of it is thinking, making decisions, etc.) – you  can’t get inside their heads; hard to observe most professional jobs,  so this method is used less than others  We also discuss several other topics like Where is the electron located?

← 2) Literature review/Previous research Don't forget about the age old question of How to achieve the correct acid/base ratio?

← 3) Interviews

∙ Incumbents (people who are actually doing the job), supervisors ← 4) Critical incidents and work diaries

∙ Keeps track of significant events that can describe something that  happened (critical incidents)

← 5) Questionnaires/surveys

← 6) Performing the job

∙ Doing the job yourself

← Interviews in Job Analysis 

∙ Potential distorting influences in job analysis Don't forget about the age old question of What is paul signac known painting?

o Desire to make one’s job look more difficult

o Attempts to provide answers that SME (Subject Matter Expert) thinks the job analyst wants If you want to learn more check out Who is the mother of jesus?

o Carelessness

← Critical Incident 

∙ A critical incident can be described as one that makes a contribution either positively or negatively to the job/organization

∙ A significant event or experience on the job

← Job Analysis: Newer Developments 

∙ Electronic performance monitoring

o Can be cost effective

o Potential for providing detailed and accurate work log

o E.g., “This call may be monitored for quality control purposes” ← Cognitive Task Analysis 

∙ Methods for decomposing job and task performance into discrete,  measurable units with special emphasis on eliciting mental process  and knowledge content

∙ Think-aloud protocol

o Approach that investigates thought processes of experts who  achieve high levels of performance  

∙ Time consuming and requires a good deal of expertise to do well

∙ Consider the following to determine whether cognitive task analysis  may be worthwhile:

o Persistent performance problems

o Costly errors or accidents

o Training difficult to transfer to job behavior

o Takes a long time to achieve high levels of performance ← Summary of the Job Analysis Process 

← 1) The more information gathered from the greatest number of  sources, the better the job analyst can understand the job

← 2) Most job analyses should include considerations of personality  demands, work context, and organizational goals

← Competency Modeling 

∙ Identifies characteristics desired across all individuals and jobs  within an organization

∙ Connects individuals with organizational viability and profitability ∙ Natural extension of job analysis logic, rather than a replacement ← Occupational Information Network (O*NET) 

∙ Giant database of job analysis information for tons of jobs ∙ Introduced by the federal government to replace the Dictionary of  Occupational Titles (DOT)

∙ Electronic medium, so it can be updated instantaneously as  changes occur

← Job Analysis and Employment Litigation 

∙ Competent job analysis does not guarantee validity, but absence of  credible job analysis could be very damaging

∙ Growing gap between evolution of I-O Psychology and Uniform  Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978)

∙ SIOP principles (2003) are more updated and consistent with current research

← Job Performance Criteria

← Basic definitions:

∙ Performance: actions or behaviors on the job

∙ Effectiveness: evaluation of results of performance

∙ Productivity: ratio of effectiveness (output) to cost of achieving that  level of effectiveness (input)

← Conceptual vs. Actual Criteria 

← Conceptual = theoretical construct, abstract idea  

← Actual criteria = observed measures of criteria

∙ Objective criteria (e.g., records, sales numbers)

∙ Subjective criteria (e.g., manager ratings)

← Often there are problems with how job ratings and performance are  evaluated  

∙ Could be missing components

∙ Could be contaminated by other factors not having to do with the  job (contamination)

← Conceptual 

← Campbell’s Eight Factor Model

∙ 1) Task specific behaviors include those behaviors that an  individual undertakes as part of a job – they are the core  

substantive tasks that delineate one job from another

∙ 2) Non-task specific behaviors are those behaviors which an  individual is required to undertake which do not pertain only to a  particular job

o Example: a task specific behavior of a sales person might be  showing a product to a potential customer, while a non-task  specific behavior of a sales person might be training new  staff members

∙ 3) Written and oral communication tasks refer to activities where  the incumbent is evaluated, not on the content of a message  necessarily, but on the adeptness with which they deliver the  communication

∙ 4) An individual’s performance can also be assessed in terms of  effort, either day to day, or when there are extraordinary  circumstances

o This factor reflects the degree to which people commit  themselves to job tasks

∙ 5) Personal discipline – be in good standing with the law, not  abuse alcohol, etc.

∙ 6) The degree to which a person helps out groups and his or her colleagues – this might include acting as a good role model,  coaching, giving advice or helping maintain group goals

∙ 7) Many jobs also have a supervisory or leadership component – the individual will be relied upon to undertake many of the things  delineated under the previous factor and in addition will be  responsible for meeting out rewards and punishments

∙ 8) A managerial task would be setting an organizational goal or  responding to external stimuli to assist a group in achieving its  goals – in addition, a manager might be responsible for monitoring  group and individual progress towards goals and monitoring  organizational resources  

← Task vs. Contextual Performance (OCB and CWB)

← Task Performance 

∙ Requirements vary from job to job

∙ Individual differences tied to abilities and knowledge

∙ Activities part of job description

← Organizational Citizenship (OCB) 

∙ Common to most jobs

∙ Individual differences tied to personality

∙ Activities not part of job description

∙ Supports organizational environment

← Counterproductive Workplace Behavior (CWB) 

∙ Voluntary behavior violating significant organizational norms and  threatening organization, its members, or both

∙ Interpersonal deviance

∙ Organizational deviance

← Types of Actual Performance Behavior 

∙ Production (e.g., units per day)

∙ Sales

∙ Turnover

∙ Absenteeism

∙ Accidents

∙ Manager ratings

∙ CWB Actual Criteria

o Theft

∙ OCB Actual Criteria

o Number of hours helping other employees

05/02/2016 06.56.00

05/02/2016 06.56.00

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