SPN2240 -- Intermediate Spanish II -- Exam 1 Study Guide
SPN2240 -- Intermediate Spanish II -- Exam 1 Study Guide SPN2240
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PHYS 1510 - 015
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabrielle Isgar on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPN2240 at Florida State University taught by Jhoanna Mendez in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Intermediate Spanish II in Spanish at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Spanish Word/Phrase Translation los evangélicos all non-Catholic Christians cualquier any el/la ateo/a athiest la creencia belief el/la budista buddhist el/la católico/a catholic cristiano/a christian los mandamientos commandments vacío/a empty el encuentro encounter la primera comunión first communion el hueco hollow (n.), empty space íntimo/a intimate, private la misa Mass materialista materialism musulmán Muslim el dolor pain la filantropía philanthropy puro/a pure el descanso rest, break el camino road, path la espiritualidad spirituality la Biblia the Bible la creatividad the creativity la necesidad the need la presencia the presence el servicio the service bautizar (c ) to baptize creer (y) en to believe in apegarse (gu) a to cling to; to attach to confesarse (ie) to confess llenar to fill perdonar to forgive inculcar (qu) to instill ocupar to occupy ofrecer (zc) to offer rezar (c ), orar to pray predicar (qu) to preach pronosticar to predict renunciar to renounce, to quit satisfacer (likehacer) to satisfy considerar to consider dejar huella en to leave a lasting impression on (someone) el relleno filling el sol sun el temor fear, dread el/la conocido/a acquiantance el/la hipócrita hypocrite filosofar to philosophoize la armonía harmony la huella trace, footprint la luna moon saltar to jump, to leap soberbio/a arrogant, proud subirse a to go up to darle (irreg.) gracias (a alguiento give thanks (to somebody) for educar (qu) to educate el/la creyente believer el/la santo/a saint encajar to fit escoger (j) to pick, to choose indudablemente undoubtedly, doubtless la concepción idea; conception, understanding la corriente current, movement la devoción devotion manejar to drive morirse (ue, u) to die pedir to order (something) pedir por to ask something on behalf of someone pedirle (I,i) algo (a alguien) to ask for something (from someone) pedirle la mano (a alguien) to ask for someone's hand in marriage pedirle que + subjuntivo to ask someone to do something pegado/a attached to revelar to reveal vender to sell Lección 7 Así lo veo I: Palabras Engañosas Rezar vs. orar Rezar/orar = to pray Rezar - in Islamic, Catholic and Jewish culture is used more Means: to recite something established, such as The Lord's Prayer Orar - used more by Christians, like "los evangélicos" or all non-Catholic Christians Means: to speak to God in a personal way Amigo Falso Predicar = to preach Pronosticar = to predict El Condicional Used if: Hypothetical statement: The conditions don't exist Used to express what might happen given the circumstances What they would do Projected from past: "I said I would do it" At the time I spoke, I was projecting doing something later on Formed by adding an -ía- ending to the infinitive -ía - íamos -ías -íais -ía -ían Irregular verbs: Poder: podr- Tener: tendr- Hacer: har- Decir: dir- Las religiones del mundo hispano Catholicism is, hands down, the most popular religion in Latin America o 70-95% of the population in the Hispanic countries identify as catholic The Catholicism they practice in Latin America is not the same that they practice in the US or Europe o In some areas of Mexico, Central America and indigenous countries, Catholicism is a mixture of traditional prehispanic elements o Results in a mixture of indigenous gods and Catholic saints In the past years, the number of Catholics hasn't increased notably o In Guatemala, "los evangélicos" make up 25% of the population "los evangélicos" = All non-Catholic Christians o In Spain, Don't have the same success Resulting from the immigration from Africa 2-5% of the Hispanic population is Muslim The Jewish community is also present in the Spanish world o In Argentina, As a result of the immigration provoked by the expulsion and persecutions that happened in Europe, most of them are concentrated here Así lo veo II: Palabras Engañosas Temor vs. miedo Temor/miedo = to fear Miedo - used to express the feeling of distress when in front of danger; usually used with tener or dar El temor de Dios (the fear of God) - in this context, temor implicates a moderate fear accompanied by reverence and respect Le negación Spanish uses double negation with words like nada, nadie, ningún (ninguno/a), nunca, jamás, or tampoco if a no is present Nadie, nunca and tampoco are frequently used without the no, in which case they must precede the verb and any object pronounds o Examples: Nadie lo cree. No one believes it/him. Nunca lo diría. I would never say that. Tampoco lo creo. I don't believe it/him either. Así lo veo III: El Maravilloso Verbo Pedir Pedir: to order (something) (in a restaurant) Pedirle algo a alguien: to ask someone for something Pedirle que + subjuntivo: to ask someone to do something Pedir por: to ask (something) on behalf of/for (the sake of someone) Pedirle la mano (a alguien): to ask for someone's hand in marriage Lo + adjetivo The neuter article lo can be used with adjectives to make nouns in Spanish Lo único, for example, would be the only thing Lo físico would be the physical Repaso del preterite y del imperfecto Preterite: Used to talk about isolated events in the past that advance a story -ar endings o -é, -aste, -ó, -amos, -aron -er/-ir endings o -í, -iste, -ió, -imos, -ieron Imperfect: Used for background events and states, things that were ongoing or in progress when something else happened -ar endings o -aba, -abas, -aba, -ábamos, -aban -er/-ir endings o -ía, -ías, -ía, -íamos, -ían Santos y vírgenes en el mundo hispano In Latin America and Spain, like the rest of the countries, they believe in <<el santo patron>> o Considered the saint that protects a certain group of people o Ex. San Cristobal is considered the patron saint for travelers o Ex. Senora del Rosario is considered the protector of Guatemala and Colombia Most of the countries have <<un santo patron>> and <<una santa patrona>> o The female saint is someone like <<la Virgen Maria>> o Every year they worship them during <<las fiestas patronales>> El santoral -- the calendar of saints that indicates the date that you celebrate these fiestas The idea of the patron saint came about in the indigenous areas colonized by Spain in response to <<las misiones religiosas>> o During this time the monks found a patron saint for each pueblo considering two factors: La cercania a una fecha importante en el santoral catolico The closeness to an important date in the santoral catolico El santo patron del fundador de la mision o del fraile francisano a cargo The patron saint that funded the mission or the monk that was in charge Even though we don’t know all the details of the start of all these patron saints, we do know that the celebration of these patron parties is deeply rooted in Hispanic customs o Their devotion has maintained this tradition since the times of conquest Lección 8 Así lo veo I: Palabras Engañosas Salvar/guardar/ahorrar -- all mean "to save" Salvar -- to rescue a person Guardar -- to keep safe, referring to guarding a thing, document, etc. Ahorrar -- to save money Religión y política en El Salvador: El Arzobispo Óscar Romero (1917–1980) There was a civil war in El Salvador from 1980 to 1992 o Caused by: A decade of lost liberty A huge gap between the rich and the poor Violence between the government military and the left-wing opposition Before the war, more than 50 religious people were attacked, threatened, tortured and assassinated by the government's military o Priests and nuns condemned them as violations of human rights and demonstrated their solidarity with the victims Óscar Romero -- the archbishop of San Salvador o Took responsibility for the defense of the unprotected people o He preached against the violence and in defense of the poor people in the country o Preached that the Church will find the salvation if they identify with the poor people, the oppressed, and the humiliated o In 1980 he asked publicly to the US government to abandon the finances of the militaries in El Salvador o A month later, while celebrating mass in a chapel at a hospital, he was assassinated by a member of a group called <<escuadrón de la muerte>> (a paramilitary radical group) o During the funeral in the cathedral of San Salvador, where almost 50 million people showed up, more than 30 people were killed in a terrorist attack By snipers of the state 30 years later, he is now a symbol of Christian liberalism and many refer to him as <<San Romero de America>> Los mandatos Formal Affirmative: Yo form in the subjunctive Present tense yo form provides the stem and the opposite vowel ending is used Informal Affirmative: Third-person singular form in the present tense Common irregulars: Ser -- sé Ir -- ve Venir -- ven Hacer -- haz Decir -- di Poner -- pon Formal Negative: No + yo form in the subjunctive Informal Negative: No + same as formal affirmative but with the -s ending for tú Object and reflexive pronouns are added to the end of affirmative commands but in front of negative commands Así lo veo II: Religión y política en España durante y después del franquismo Catholicism has had an intimate relationship with politics in Spain during centuries 1931-1939 they established a constitution which separated church from state o With the victory of the nationalists in the Spanish Civil War (1936- 1939) Catholicism became the official religion of Spain during the dictatorship of Francisco Franco (1939-1975) Very strict orthodox catholic during this time Granted many privileges to the church: Tax exemptions Salaries for Priests Reconstruction of the destroyed churches during the war Also establish laws which conform to Catholic culture Prohibition of divorce Imposition of religious education in schools (Catholic) Banning of contraceptives o For his part, the church gave Franco the right to appoint the bishops and priests in Spain o After his death in 1975, Spain witnessed Secularization of society and politics Though 80% of Spaniards were considered Catholic only 20% attended mass The political and social process of secularization in Spain is a matter complicated by continuous disagreements between the religious hierarchy and the organs of the administration of the State o Legalization of same-sex marriage and educational programs in schools are still points of conflict between the Church and the State Verbos que requieren preposiciones Aprender a -- to learn Ayudar a -- to help Consistir en -- to consist of Contar con -- to count on, rely on Dejar de -- to stop (doing something) Pensar en -- to think about Pensar de -- to think about (have an opinion) Soñar con -- to dream about Tratar de -- to try (to do something) El pasado de subjunctivo: Introducción Used in order to state things that if they happened in the past, you would've done something o Pasado de subjuntivo ---> condicional Formed by using the third-person plural (ellos/ellas) preterite step and adding -ara for -ar verbs and -iera for -er and -ir verbs o Plus the typical endings to mark person and number (who) o Example: vinieron --> vin- + iera = viniera (for tú + -s = vinieras) o Example: tomaron --> tom- + -ara = tomara (for nosotros + -mos = tomáramos) Note the accent in the nosotros form All the uses of the subjunctive in the present tense also occur in the past o Will be focusing on the use of past subjunctive with para que as well as impersonal expressions (era impossible que…) Así lo veo III: Amigo Falso Molesto Doesn't mean molested Means annoyed o Synonyms: disgustado, descontendo, u ofendido El pasado de subjuntivo: Continuación Used in contexts similar to those of the present subjunctive but only used in past contexts Normally used if the main clause of sentence that triggers the use of subjunctive is in the past Uses the same expressions of will and desire (querer que, desear que, necesitar que, esperar que) but in past tenses o Example: esperaba que, quería que El Maravilloso Verbo Echar Echar o To throw/toss o To produce, yield; to spew o To pour/give Echar used with a reflexive pronoun or with certain prepositions o Echar de -- to through someone out of somewhere o Echarse -- to throw oneself on/onto something Echar used in common expressions o Echar a perder -- to spoil o Echarse a perder -- to go bad, to go down the drain, to be ruined o Echar de menos -- to miss o Echarle la bronca -- to tell someone off, to yell at someone o Echar una siesta -- to take a nap o Echar las tripas --to throw up Spanish Word/Phrase Translation ahorrar to save money alejarse de to move away from concordar (ue) to reconcile, to agree desnudo/a nude el condón condom el reino kingdom encarcelado/a imprisoned gobernar (ie) to govern guardar to save; to save a document/thing la fe faith la pastilla pill la postura stake, posture, attitude la salvación salvation la tierra land, earth mezclar to mix permitir to allow radical radical rígido/a rigid, strict salvar to save; to rescue somero/a superficial apostar (ue) to bet cobrar to collect; to charge defender (ie) to defend desagradable disagreeable, unpleasant descuidar to neglect desgraciadamente unfortunately echarse a perder to go bad, to spoil el hábito habit (of a nun) el negocio business el/la agonizante dying person el/la difunto/a dead person, deceased el/la huérfano/a orphan enriquecerse (zc) to get rich entrometerse en to meddle in, to intrude in evangélico/a protestant (adj.) fanático/a fanatical hacer (irreg.) daño to cause pain la cuota fee, quota poner (irreg.) su granito de arento do one's part pudrir to rot rodear to surround soltero/a single supuestamente supposedly la carencia lack el/la causante cause el/la consejero/a advisor el crecimiento growth el/la indígena indigenous person el soporte support detener (like tener) to stop encasillar to classify encuadrar to frame, to fit estorbar to hinder; to obstruct; to get in the way guardarle rencor a alguien to hold a grudge (against someone) juzgar (gu) to judge odiar to hate atrapado/a caught, trapped lejano/a distant, remote molesto/a annoyed vengativo/a vindictive
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