Study Guide for Exam 1
Study Guide for Exam 1 Chem 032
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Vaughn on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 032 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Ruggles in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 279 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 2 in Chemistry at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Chemistry 032 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 12 Solubility and Predicting Solubility Quick Review of Intermolecular Forces 1) Electrostatic Forces (example: NaCl and LiCl) 2) Network Covalent (example: CH (CH O) CH 3 2 1000 3 3) Hydrogen Bonding (example: anything ending in NH, OH, or CO H) 2 4) Dipole/Dipole (example CH Cl ) 2 2 5) Dispersion (nonpolar) To Predict: like dissolves like phase of solute and solvent is very important (pay attention to these) solids are generally more soluble than gases (exceptions oxygen because fish need to breath…) these questions will be asked in multiple choice format, which is all or none, meaning there is no partial credit like there is on other problems in the exam Liquid Vs Liquid 1) Identify the solute’s force of attraction (this will tell you what you need to match up with) 2) Identify solvent’s force of attraction 3) Match the forces for the best solubility (like dissolves like) Important: as we increase in carbon number in a molecule, we observe less solubility in water Solid Vs Solid if iconic, then go for water (H 2) covalent or molecular = molecular solvent want the weakest force!!!! Gas vs Gas gas solutes want the strongest force! Equations: M=molarity = mols solute/L solution N=normality mols H /L solution m=molality=mols solute/Kg solvent Henry’s Law solubility of gas at a particular pressure: S =gas wH gasmeans Molarity=Henry’s Constant x Pressure of Gas pressure of gas can be a pure or solventsolvent al pressure Raoult’s Lawsolubility and vapor pressure of liquid solutes o o Psoltuion liquid1liquid1liquid2liquid2 If you increase temperature, you increase vapor pressure ∆H solution H lattice Hydration ∆H solute∆H lattice Vapor Pressure Lowering drop in Vapor Pressure due to the creation of the mixture PSolution XsolventoSolvent Van Hoff Factor (i) For covalent (molecular) i=1 Ionics, ipredicteds not equal 1, it depends on how many ions will dissociate Boiling Point elevation: ∆T=ik m B the more we get into solution, the greater the affect Freezing Point Depression ∆T=ik mF notes, ∆T will ALWAYS be positive, you just need to add or subtract it from the freezing or boiling point depending on which equation you use Osmotic Pressure the vapor pressure change due to the flow of water moving to an area of higher moles ∏=iMRT Chapter 13 Rates terminology in this chapter is very important Rate=∆[substance]/∆time Instantaneous Rates if it is in regards to the starting material, a negative sign must be added stoichiometry is very important here, so to balance, you need to divide by the respective stoichiometry Zero Rate Order rate has nothing to do with A Rate =K[A]o Example: sublimation Integrated form: [A]F=kt+[A]o Half Life: t1/2=[A]o/2k 1st Rate Orderone molecule is important Rate=k[A] ; m=1 Integrated form: ln[A]=kt+ln[A] o Half Life: t 1/2693/k nd 2 Rate Order two molecules are important, exponential 2 Rate= k[A] ; m=2 Integrated form: 1/[A]=ktt1/[A] o Half Life: t 1/2k[A] when you have more starting material, have to have trials in order tofind out what m and n are when you have one starting material, you will be told what the rate order it is integrated rate laws incorpate time into their equations instantanous rates are the most general way to determine the rxn rate
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