LIFE 103 Midterm #1 Study Guide
LIFE 103 Midterm #1 Study Guide 103
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by firstname.lastname@example.org Notetaker on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 103 at Colorado State University taught by Tanya Dewey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Life 103- Biology of Organisms in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Please note You must know the life cycle diagrams for the test Chapter 26 Adaptation trait evolves by selection for a particular function from an ancestor that didn t have the trait Different populations have different solutions to the same problem Phylogeny the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms The phylogeny tree is a diagram of ancestral relationships that describe patterns and tell when large events may have occurred Scientific names are binomial The first part is the genus and the second part is the specific epithet Both parts are required for naming the species Branch point divergence of 2 species Sister taxa groups that share a common ancestor Polytomy more than 2 groups emerge Rooted last common ancestor of all taxa Monophyletic group 1 phylogenic group Paraphyletic group excludes something from a tree Polyphyletic group include something from a different group The tree of life suggest that animals and fungi are more closely related The tree is also largely based on RNA genes because these have evolved slowly Ecology study of distribution and interactions of organisms with other organisms and the environment Organismal ecology study of an organism and its environment Include behavioral ecology that studies responses to stimuli and group interactions and foraging patterns Evolutionary ecology adaptations to the environment Events in ecological time influence evolutionary time processes Population group of species living in same area Community group of interacting population of different species in an area Ecosystem community and abiotic environment Energy flows and chemicals cycle Chapter 27 Concepts What structural and functional adaption set prokaryotes up for success Cel wall maintains shape protects the cell and prevents bursting in a hypotonic environment What makes prokaryotes cell walls different than eukaryote s cell walls eukaryotes such as plants and fungi are made up of cellulose or chitin bacteria cell walls have peptidoglycan a polymer of sugars linked by polypeptides Purpose of peptidoglycan Encloses bacterium and anchors other molecules that extend from the surface The Gram stain uses crystal violet dye and iodine to determine the structure of a bacterium s cell wall Gram positive simple cell wall on outside Gram negative complex outer and inner membrane sandwich the cell wall Miscellaneous structures Capsule layer of polysaccharide or protein that surrounds the cell wall of most prokaryotes Endospores when bacteria lack nutrients they develop an endospore that are resistant to harsh conditions Fimbriae hairlike appendages that allow prokaryotes to stick to their substrates Pili appendages that pull 2 cells together to allow DNA transfer from one cell to the other Motility Taxis directed movement toward or away from a stimulus 12 of prokaryotes are capable of this Chemotaxis directed movement toward or away from chemicals Flagella most common form of movement can be dispersed across surface or concentrated at one end structure of flagella of prokaryotes are different than the flagella in eukaryotes This means that the flagella of bacterial archaea and eukaryotes arose independently Therefore they are analogous structures Parts of a bacterial flagellum Motor hook filament Bacterial flagellum evolved as other proteins were added to the old system This is known as exaptation existing structures take on new functions through descent with modification Prokaryotic DNA Don t have a nucleus DNA located in the nucleoid Have plasmids rings of independently replicated DNA Reproduction Binary fission cell divides into 2 then 4 then 8 etc Meiosis and fertilization do NOT occur in prokaryotes Concept How are prokaryotes able to be diverse if they reproduce by Binary fission 1 They rapidly reproduce 2 High rates of mutation Since they can reproduce so quickly the chances of getting mutations is higher 3 Genetic recombination combination of DNA from 2 sources Transformation take DNA from surroundings Foreign DNA can be put in genome by homologous DNA exchange Transduction phages carry prokaryotic genes from one host cell to another Conjugation DNA is transferred between 2 prokaryotic cells via sex pili Only one of the cells needs the F factor F to be a donor The F cell is the recipient Resistance R plasmids plasmids that carry resistant genes Natural selections favors those that are resistant Which is why antibiotics need to be used only when necessary Oxygen in metabolism Obligate aerobes need 02 for cellular respiration Obligate anaerobes are poisoned by 02 Anaerobic respiration use nitrate ions or sulfate ions to accept electrons instead of 02 on the electron transport chain Facultative anaerobes can use 02 but also use fermentation or anaerobic respiration Nitrogen in metabolism Nitrogen fixation incorporate nitrogen in amino acids and organic molecules Nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria are highly selfsufficient Nitrogen fixing prokaryotes increase the nitrogen available to plants Metabolic cooperation Prokaryotes and quotwork together and use resources they couldn t by themselves Heterocysts carry out only nitrogen fixation They deliver nitrogen to nearby cells and in return they get carbohydrates Biofilms surfacecoating colonies that secrete signaling molecules that recruit nearby cells Bacteria contain prokaryotic species Proteobacteria gram negative phototrophs chemoautotrophs and heterotrophs aneorobic or aerobic Types of Proteobacteria 1 Alpha a Related to eukaryotic hosts b Mitochondria evolved from aerobic alpha via endosymbiosis c Form root nodules and fixes Nitrogen 2 Bamma a Sulfur Bacteria b Resides in intestines and is not normally pathogenic c E coli salmonella cholera d During the Haiti earthquakes many died from Cholera because of the camps spread disease quickly and the UN brought it over 3 Epsilon a Many pathogens b Can cause blood poisoning 4 Gram positive bacteria a Mycoplasms smallest cells b Streptomyces source of antibiotics Archaea share traits with bacteria and eukaryotes see table 272 for more traits don t have a nuclear envelope like bacteria don t have peptidoglycan like eukaryotes and have some histones unlike bacteria More closely related to Eukarya than Bacteria Tend live in extreme environments called extremophiles Extreme halophiles live in saline environments Extreme thermophileslive in hot environments Methanogens release methane as a byproduct Chemical Recycling Decomposers break down dead organisms and waste products allowing carbon nitrogen and other elements to be used by other organisms Cyanobacteria and autotrophic prokaryotes us C02 to make organic compounds which then are passed through the food chain They also produce 02 and fix nitrogen Ecological Interactions Symbiosis 2 species live in close contact with each other Host larger organism Symbiont smaller organism Mutualism ecological interaction where both species benefit Commensalism ecological relationship where one benefits and the other isn t harmed Parasitism parasite eats the host Pathogensparasites that cause disease most of which are prokaryotic Mutualistic bacteria bacteria live in our intestines that help digest different types of food Pathogenic bacteria Exotoxins secreted by bacteria that can cause Cholera The exotoxin stimulates intestinal cells to release chloride ions into the gut Endotoxins lipopolysaccharide of outer membrane of gramnegative bacteria Toxins are released when bacteria die and cell walls start to break down Cause salmonella and cause typhoid fever Chapter 28 Most eukaryotes are singlecelled organisms Eukaryotes include protists plants animals and fungi Unlike cells of prokaryotes eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles well developed cytoskeletons Most organisms in eukaryotic lineages are protists and most protists are unicellular Protists can be nutritionally diverse Photoautotrophs Heterotrophs Mixotrophs Sexual Reproduction protists can reproduce sexually or asexually Protists have origins in endosymbiosis Mitochondria evolved by endosymbiosis of an aerobic prokaryote Plastids evolved by endosymbiosis of a photosynthetic cyanobacterium Plastid bearing lineage of protists evolved into read and green algae Red and green algae underwent secondary endosymbiosis Secondary endosymbiosis ingested in the food vacuoles of heterotrophic eukaryotes and became endosymbionts themselves The Super groups of Eukaryotes it is no longer thought that amitochondriates are the oldest lineage one hypethesis divides all eukaryotes into 5 super groups but the book only divided them into 4 groups so it s still controversial 1 Excavata a Feeding group characterized by its cytoskeleton because it has a feeding groove on the side of its body b Includes diplomands parabasalids and euglenozoans Diplomonads They have mitosomes and some of their parasites cause Giardia Parabasaids they have hydrogenosomes and the pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis causes yeast infections Euglenozoans is a diverse clade with spiral or crystalline rods in flagella with unknown function Kinetoplastids have 1 mitochondria that as a mass of DNA called kinetoplast Euglenid has a pocket at one end of cell where 1 or 2 flagella emerge Some are mixotrophs 2 SAR clade a Has 3 diverse clades Stramenopila Alveolata and Rhizaria b Many are photosynthetic c Many of the groups are thought to have arisen by secondary endosymbiosis Alveolata membrane bound sacs called alveoli are just under the plasma membrane ncudes dinoflagellates apicomplexans and ciliates Dinoflagellates are aquatic mixotrophs and heterotrophs and are reinforced by internal plats of cellulose They cause red tides Algae Phylum Apicomplexa They are parasites of animals and their apex has organelles specialized for penetrating their hosts They have sexual and asexual stages and they have a plasmodium parasite that causes malaria Phylum Stramopila they are diatoms that are unicellular algae with a 2 part wall of hydrated silicia Rhizaria are a monophyletic clade made up of amoebas that move and feed by pseudopodia It includes forams and radiolarians that have hard shells and tests and the pseudopodia extend through holes in the test Chromalveolata monophyletic and originated by endosymbiosis with red algae controversia clade that includes the alveolates and stramenopila the book puts these in the SAR clade Archaeplastida a Contain red and green alage and land plants b Heterotrophic protist acquired a cyanobacterial endosymbionts c Photosynthetic descendents evolved into read and green algae d Land plants are descended from green algae Uniknots a Includes animals fungi and closely related protists b Also includes Amoebozoans that have lobe or tube shaped pseudopodia Golden algae a Most are unicellular but some are colonial b Contain yellow and brown carotenoids Brown algae a Largest and most complex algae b All are multicellular and most live in marine environments c Body is plantlike but the body of brown algae is called a thallus d The thallus has root like holdfast whose purpose is to anchor the algae Also has stem like stipe that supports leaf like blades Red algae a Multicellular and are largest seaweeds b Red due to their accessory pigment phycoerythrin Green algae a Has 2 main groups the chlorophytes and charophyceans b Most live in freshwater other live in damp soil or snow In the snow they look pink Alternation of Generations ife cycle where there hare haploid and diploid forms heteromorphic generations are structurally different isomorphic sporophytes and gametophytes looks similar but differ in chromosome number Plasmodia slime molds Not multicellular it is a single mass of cytoplasm that is undivided by plasma membranes and contains many nuclei Product of mitotic nuclear divisions that aren t followed by cytokinesis Cellular slime molds al haploids in life cycle are asexual stak and spores are very similar and closely related in sexual reproduction the diploid zygote undergoes meiosis and amoebas are haploid Chapter 29 Timeline of plants Cyanobacteria34 billion years old Green algae 470 million years old Ferns 370 million years old First seed plants 300 million years old Chlorophytes and charophytes which are algae are most closely related to land plants Charophyte algae are small because they are just a collection of cells that don t have a means of transporting nutrients therefore they must be near water How did plants start moving to land Sporopollenin prevent zygotes from drying out in charophytes Why did plants do well on land No competition of sunlight Lots of C02 available Lots of nutrients in the soil There were few herbivores and pathogens What are some of the problems being on land Lack of water Lack of structural support All land plants have 4 traits that charophytes don t have 1 Alternation of Generations 2 Sporangia where spores are formed 3 Gametangia where gametes are formed 4 Apical meristems Some land plants have other traits that charophytes and other plants don t have 1 Cuticle waxy coating that prevents water loss 2 Secondary compounds can be toxic compounds that are used as defense against herbivores and other compounds that protect from UV radiation Nonvascular plants are Byrophytes which are Liverworts9 hepaphyta Hornworts9 Anthocerphyta Mosses9 Bryophyta Vascular plants Seedless Seeds Vascular tissues carry nutrients to the plants Therefore Byrophytes do not grow very tall and stay close to the ground Life cycle of mosses Figure 296 1 After meiosis spores are haploid and male or female 2 Spores grow in gametophytes a Anteridia where sperm is produced male b Archegoria where eggs are produced female Sperm move via water and fertilize egg in Archegoria Zygote is then diploid Sporophyte grows on parent plants Cycle repeats P P PS Alternation of Generations 1 Gametophyte is haploid and produces haploid gametes via mitosis 2 Fusion of gametes result in diploid sporophyte which make haploid spores 3 Diploid embryo stays in tissue of female gametophyte 4 Placental transfer nutrients transfer from parent to offspring Byrophyte Sporophytes Are the smallest sporophytes of all extant plant groups which stays consistent with the hypothesis that larger sporophytes evolved later in vascular plants A bryophyte sporophytes consists of a foot a seta and sporangium foot9 embedded in the archegonium where it absorbs nutrients from the gametophyte seta9 a stalk that conducts the absorbed nutrients to the sporangium sporangium9 uses these nutrients to produce spores by meiosis The top of a sporangium capsule has a peristome that opens up in dry conditions and releases moss spores Why are mosses important Mosses can colonize bare soil and help retain nitrogen soil Can habit extreme environments such as mountain tops tundra and desserts Ability to live in dry conditions for long periods of time Phenoic compounds in moss can absorb UV radiation Peat moss is used as a fuel sources in Europe and Asia Peat moss contains 30 of the world s soil carbon which stabilizes C02 concentrations Unless global warming continues water levels will drop and peat will be exposed to the air Then peat will begin to decompose and release stored carbon Ferns and other seedless vascular plants were the first plants to grow tall Unike the nonvascular plants early vascular plants had ranched sporophytes that were not dependent on gametophytes for nutrition The ancestors of vascular plants had life cycles with dominant sporophytes transport in vascular issues called xylem and phloem and welldevoloped roots and leaves including sporebearing leaves called sporophylls Xylem9 bring water and minerals in tubeshaped cells called tracheids that carry water and minerals up from the roots Water conducting cells have lignin that strengthens their cell walls Phloem transports sugars amino acids and other organic products Leaves increase surface area of the plant body and serve as the primary photosynthetic organ of vascular plants Only lycophytes oldest lineage of extant of vascular plants have microphyulls small spineshaped leaves supported by a single strand of vascular tissue All other vascular plants have megaphylls leaves with highly branched vascular system Spore Variations sporophylls9 modified leaves that bear sporangia Fern sporophylls have clusters of sporangia called sori that is on the undersides of the sporophylls n lycophytes and gymnosperms groups of sporophylls form conelike structures called strobili Homosporous9 one type of sporangium that produces one type of spore Most seedless vascular plants are homosporous Heterosporous9 plant species that has 2 types of sporangia and produces two kinds of spores Chapter 31 Fungi Fungi are diverse and widespread Good for ecosystems because they break down organic material and recycle vital nutrients How do fungi obtain nutrients heterotrophs9 absorb nutrients from outside their bodies They use enzymes to break down molecules into smaller organic compounds Body structure of fungus most common are multicellular filaments and single cells called yeasts Some can grow as both filaments and yeast others only grow just as filaments Hyphae9 network of tiny filaments that consist of tubular cell was surrounding the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of the cells Chitin9 strong and flexible polysaccharide that provides strength to the cell walls and enhance feeding by absorbtion Septa9 crosswalls that divide hyphae Septa have pores large enough to allow ribosomes and mitochondria flow from cell to cell Coenocytic fungi fungi that lake septa They have a continuous cytoplasm having hundreds of nuclei Mycelium9 an interwoven mass that that infiltrates the material on which the fungus feeds Mycorrhizae9 mutually benefical relationships between fungi and plant roots Mycorrhizal fungi have specialized hyphae called haustoria Haustoria are used to extract or exchange nutrients with their plant hosts There are 2 main types of mycorrhizal fungi 1 Ectomycorrhizal fungi form sheaths of hyphae over the surface of a root and typically grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex 2 Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi extend branching hyphae through the root cell wall and into tubes formed by pushing inward Mycorrhizae are important in ecology and agriculture because almost all vascular plants have mycorrhizae and rely on them for nutrients Reproduction Fungi produce spores that can be sexual or asexual They can produce spores from different types of life cycles Asexual reproduction myceium makes spores that then germinate All of them are haploids and clones Sexual reproduction When mycelium touch each other plasmogamy occurs Plasmogamy is the union of the cytoplasm of 2 parent mycelia A mycelium where the haploid nuclei contributed by each parent that do not fuse right away are called heterokaryon A dikaryotic mycelium is where the haploid nuclei pair off tow to a cell one from each parent Centuries may pass before karogamy occurs During karogamy the haploid nuclei fuse and produce diploid cells The diploid phase is shortlived and undergoes meiosis producing haploid spores Lineages of fungi 1 Chytrids a Live in fresh water and on land b Are decomposers parasites or mutualists c Have flagellated spores called zoospores d Are a paraphyletic group e The Chytrid fungus thickens frogs skin and they die 2 Zygomycetes a Diverse clade b Molds parasites and commensal symbionts c Sexually reproduce zygosporangia 3 Glomeromcytes a Are from arbuscular mycorrhizae 4 Ascomycetes a Live in fresh water marine environments and land Have sexual spores in saclike asci contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps Vary in size and complexity Called sac fungi because of their asci Have asexual spores called conidia f Spores are formed at tips of hype called conidiophores 5 Basidomycetes a Mushrooms puffballs and fungi b Have a club like structure c 75 species are luminescent DP9939 Fungi are most closely related to animals Archae are more closely related to Eukarya Peter the Great s army was wiped out due to ergotism a fungus that grows on rye and wheat What is a mushroom Life cycle of a basidiomycetes usually includes longlived dikaryotic mycelium In response to environmental simuli the mycelium reproduces sexually making basdiocarps fruiting bodies Dikaryotic is haploidhaploid Fungusplant mutualisms Endophytes live inside plants and create toxins that deter herbivores and defend against pathogens Fungusanimal symbiosis fungi share digestive services with termites and ants They break down food into simpler compounds that the termites and ants can eat Uchens symbiotic relationship between a photosynthetic microorganism and a fungus Most often ascomycetes sometimes basidiomycetes algae or cyanobacteria occupy and inner layer below lichen surface algae give carbon cyanobacteria give nitrogen and fungi give a place to grow 3 Forms of lichen 1 Fruticose shrublike and is a primary food source in the tundra 2 Foliose leaflike 3 Crustose crustlike Humans and lichens used as dyes perfumes and incense ichens are susceptible to air pollution Sources LIFE 103 teacher Dale Lockwood References for chapters or other parts of a book follow the order Authors Year Chapter title In Editors Book title Place of publication publisher Page numbers for that chapter Jane B Reece Lisa A Urry Michael L Cain Steven A Wasserman Peter B Minorsky Robert B Jackson Neil A Campbell 2014 Chapters 26 27 28 29 31 Campbell Biology Volume 2 New Jersey Upper Saddle River 547629 648665
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