Bio Exam 1 Review
Bio Exam 1 Review Biol 2312
Popular in Introduction to Modern Biology II
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angella Notetaker on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2312 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Michelle Wilson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Modern Biology II in Natural Sciences at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Homeostasis Everything must be maintained within a certain range for continued survival o Negative feedback 1. Set points and correction o Positive feedback 1. Used to enhance a signal 2. Getting from point A to point B Blood clotting Four Different Tissues Epithelium o Covers the inner tube and outer tube o Functions as a barrier against the environment o Regenerate quickly o Can be striated (multiple layers) or simple (single layer) o Has directionality: apical and basal o 3 different cell shapes 1. Squamous: flat 2. Cuboidal: cube 3. Columnar: columns Muscle o Support and movement o 3 types 1. Cardiac: cells have intercalated discs 2. Smooth: involuntary movement 3. Skeletal: voluntary movement, cells are multinucleated Connective o Can be characterized as 1. Dense or not (are the fibers tightly packed) 2. Regular or irregular (are the fibers parallel or not) o Used for connecting/cushioning things o Regenerate slowly o Appears fibrous under microscope o Bone, blood and cartilage are special types of connective tissue Neural o Composed of neurons and neuroglia 1. Neuroglia are supporting cells o Neurons have dendrites attached to a cell body attached to an axon and ends with the terminal o White (axons) and grey matter (cell bodies) o Regenerate very slowly or not at all Membrane potential Resting potential = -70 o Maintained by leak channels and the sodium potassium pump Equilibrium potential o K+ = -90 o Na+ = +40 Depolarize: potential becomes less negative Hyperpolarize: potential becomes more negative Neuron Communication Graded potentials o Small continuous changes in membrane potential Action potentials o Starts in axon o Steps: 1. Threshold 2. Rising phase 3. Falling phase 4. Undershoot 5. Resting potential restored with the help of the Na+/K+ pump o The undershoot is important because it ensures that the action potential moves forward in the axon (dead area) o Can be used as communication between neurons (impulses) in place of neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters o Pre synaptic cell communicating to post synaptic cell o Released in response to action potential o Examples 1. Epinephrine (adrenalin) 2. Dopamine: affects fine motor skills 3. Acetylcholine: muscle activation Nervous System Separated into the Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System o The brain and spinal cord are the CNS o Everything else is the PNS PNS splits farther into autosomatic and somatic o Somatic is voluntary o Autosomatic is everything else ie digestion, breathing, heart rate Autosomatic splits farther into parasympathetic and sympathetic o Sympathetic is fight/flight response o Parasympathetic brings things back to normal after that response Brain White and grey matter Three sections o Forebrain o Midbrain o Hindbrain Cerebrum is the largest part of brain o integration of complex sensory and neural functions o controls voluntary activity in the body o Divided into the left and right hemisphere 4 lobes for each hemisphere o Hypothalamus- sleep, body temp, integration of signals o Thalamus- process and relay signals o Hippocampus- memory formation and recall and emotion Cerebellum sits right on top of the brain stem o Responsible for balance and involuntary motor control Memory Short term vs Long term o Transient electric signals for short term o Secondary receptors created for long term o Long term depression; pathway not used, less reinforcement Spinal cord Responsible for reflex when the delay in transferring information will be detrimental Also has white and grey matter Receptors in the Sensory System Create receptor potentials from stimulus o Stimulus o Transduction o Transmission o Integration Mechanoreceptors For touch and pressure Responds to distortion of membrane Tonic and Phasic Nociceptor Tissue damage and caustic substances Proprioceptor Awareness position of body Baroreceptor Monitors blood pressure Frequency of impulses decreases when blood pressure decreases Electromagnetic For heat and light detection Chemoreceptors Chemical particle detection Prominent in the sense of smell and taste Smell and Taste Taste with papillae which contain taste buds o 6 different tastes: salty, sour, sweet, bitter, umami, and fats o Specific tastes are concentrated in certain regions but exist throughout the tongue Smell o Neurons located in upper nasal cavity coming out of the base of the skull o Requires smell for taste Hearing 3 sections o Outer o Middle o Inner Sound wave causes vibrations o Travel to Corti’s organ in the cochlea Waves causes basiliar membrane to vibrate which bends the hair cells Volume and Pitch o Vibrations occur near the beginning of basiliar membrane= high End = low o Intensity of vibrations determines volume Balance There are rocks that help with balance o Located in utricle and sacculus XY orientation o Also in the ampullae XYZ orientation Nausea and vertigo happen when the signals the ears are giving the brain do not match with the signals the eyes are giving the brain Vision Cornea, lens, sclera, retina, optic nerve Lens focuses the light but cornea helps Retina has three layers o Outer (closest to sclera) contains the rods and cones o Middle contains the bipolar cells o Inner contains ganglion cells Two specialized neurons in retina o Rods and cones Rods see black and white, cones are color and sharpness Most of the cones are located in fovea with decreasing number going away (this is why peripheral vision sucks) Explain why addiction happens. A certain chemical prevents action potentials from occurring. What is this chemical most likely interfering with? On a burn victim missing considerable portions of epithelia, what are the potential consequences? Explain nearsightedness and farsightedness in relation to the lens.
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