Intro to Sociology Exam 1 Study Guide
Intro to Sociology Exam 1 Study Guide 1500-23210
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by ysu34 on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1500-23210 at Youngstown State University taught by Denise A. Narcisse, Ph.D. in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Youngstown State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
SOC-1500-23210 and -23205 Introduction to Sociology, Spring semester, 2016 Professor: Dr. Narcisse STUDY GUIDE for Exam 1 GENERAL INFORMATION 1. Exam 1 will be next Wednesday, February 10, 2016, during our regular classroom session, and in the room we have been meeting in all semester 2. The exam includes 35 multiple-choice questions. Some of these are application questions 3. You will need a #2 pencil and your Bannner ID # in order to complete your answer sheet THE SPECIFICS From lecture and/or Chapter 1 of your textbook, know 1. Examples of what sociologists mean by external factors • Our economy • Our family and friends • The media (films, TV, magazines, internet) 2. Factors that contributed to the emergence of sociology • French revolution- the scientific study of society and human behavior emerge in mid 1800s in Europe, the ruling class is over thrown and people begin to question the way of doing things • Industrial revolution- emerged in North America in late 1800s, factories emerged and started to produce farmer’s once produce much faster, spiral effect, farmers relocated to cities but they weren’t equipped • Good/ better things people don’t really like to do because it’s new and they don’t • understand it 3. The person who invented the term sociology • Comte (France) 4. Colleges in the United States that established the first departments of sociology • University of Kansas • University of Chicago • University of Atlanta 5. What a sociological explanation of something is, well enough to identify an example of it • Lance Armstrong- cyclist, blood doping to win races, Saying he used blood doping because his fans expect him to win at all costs is a sociological explanation for his blood doping, Blood doping- transfusion of white blood cells to increase stamina longer 6. What a sociological explanation of something is not, well enough to identify an example of it • Tiger Woods- claiming to be a sex addict as the reason he cheats on his wife 7. Who Jane Addams was and the award she received for her reform work • Studied and provided social services to the poor who immigrated to Chicago from Europe in the 1800s • She established the Haul House • The Haul House was a settlement house that provided social services like literacy • programs, job training, and recreational programs for children • She received a nobel peace prize in 1931 for her noble efforts • Believed that new discipline/ sociology should be used to make the world a better place by social reform 8. Who the first Mexican American to receive a PhD in sociology was • Julian Samora 9. Who W.E.B. DuBois was • William Edward Burnhart Dubois • First African American to earn a doctorate, PhD at Harvard University • He was a sociologist in the United States to combine sociology and social reform, he believed sociology should be used to make the world a better place • Research based on race relations, more about relationships between whites and black • He wanted to improve race relations • He and Jane Addams founded the NAACP (National Association for Advancement of Colored People) 10. Where Tsinghau University is located • Bejing, China 11. The year that the Department of Sociology at Tsinghau University was first established • 1926 12. Who Herbert Spencer was and what how he believed society would improve • Interested in evolution of society from a criminative state to a civilized one • He disagreed with Comte’s idea that sociology should guide social reform • He argued that society should be allowed to improve through a natural process, through this people would be weeded out if they were weak and were allowed to survive if they were strong • Social Darwinism- argues through natural process, weak is weeded out, strong survives 13. What Emile Durkheim said was a key factor (or concept) that explained suicide • Studied suicide extremely • Emphasized importance of social integration and understanding suicide • Social integration- he meant to the extent which we are tied or connected to a social group like our family, friends, and neighbors 14. Groups that Emile Durkheim believed were most likely to commit suicide • He found that people that were not well integrated in a society were more likely to commit suicide, examples would include protestants more likely to commit suicide than Catholics, men more than women, and single people more than married people. We can tie social integration with gender. 15. Sociologists who did NOT believe sociology should be used for social reform, as discussed in lecture • 16. What Social Darwinism states • Social Darwinism- argues through natural process, weak is weeded out, strong survives 17. The name of the sociologist who wrote about the “power elite” • C. Wright Mills 18. The function of the education, religious, and family systems, according to Talcott Parsons • was to socialize people in society and to instill common values into people 19. The definition of “theory” • a general statement about how some parts of the world get together and how they work • A theory implies a cause-effect relationship • Example: a lack of social integration increases people's vulnerability to physical abuse • Theories generate what we call a hypothesis 20. The definition of “hypothesis,” as presented in lecture • often takes the format of an if-then statement • Example: a hypothesis based upon the above theory would go like this; If a woman is socially isolated from friends and family then she is more likely to become a victim of physical abuse rather than a woman who is not • Theories and hypothesis must be tested, we must examine evidence that either supports or refutes/disagrees with it 21. What “applied sociology” is, well enough to identify an example of it (See Fig. 1.3 of your textbook) • Applied sociology is the use of sociology to solve problems- from the micro level of classroom interaction and family relationships to the macro level of crime and polution • Fig. 1.3 shows going beyond applied sociology by using it to solve problems. • We know sociologist founded NAACP, today some work to solve problems in the workplace, rape, pollution, or even terrosist attacks 22. What “basic sociology” is, well enough to identify an example of it. (See Fig. 1.3 of your textbook) • Basic soiology is sociological research for the purpose of making discoveries about life in human groups, not for making changes in those groups • Some sociologists analyize some aspect of sociology with no goal other than gaining knowledge. • They need to use their research and expertist to help reform society, like bringing better conditons to the poor and oppressed 23. The letter of the alphabet that represents the “independent variable” • X 24. The letter of the alphabet that represents the “dependent variable” • Y 25. Sociological theories that use micro-level analysis • Social Interaction Theory 26. Sociological theories that use macro-level analysis • Structural Functionalism Theory • Conflict Perspective Theory 27. Another name for functionalist theory, as stated in lecture • consensus theory 28. Well known functionalist theorists, as presented in lecture • Emile Durkheim • Robert Merton • Talcott Parsons 29. Explanations that conflict theorists give for rising divorce rates in America • in the past it was customary for husbands to dominate their wives in marriage • in addition, women were encouraged to be economically dependant of their husbands • so, women often had no choice but to stay in bad marriages • something called marriage bars encouraged this, marriage bars were policies that allowed employers to fire a woman when she got married • today marriage bars are illegal and considered discriminatory • so, today women are freer to divorce and not stay in bad marriages • today many women don’t have to depend on their husbands for survival, they have their own jobs and money 30. As discussed in lecture, what “marriage bars” were • marriage bars were policies that allowed employers to fire a woman when she got married From lecture and/or Chapter 2 of your textbook, know 31. As discussed in lecture, the definition of “reliability,” well enough to identify an example • refers to results that are consistent over time • Example: A football player who scores a touchdown season after season after season is an example of reliability. He is consistent. • We can also be consistently incorrect. 32. As discussed in lecture, the definition of “validity,” well enough to identify an example of it • refers to the extent to which you are actually measuring what you intend to measure • There were people who tested Lance Armstrong and his teammates to see if they were blood doping and using steroids. Were those people measuring what they intended to? No, because they didn’t know what they intended that’s why they found nothing, technology wasn’t updated, so the tests were invalid. 33. Why it is necessary to conduct research, as discussed in lecture • To systematically test theories, by this we mean to conduct research in a certain way and ideally in a chronological order involving about 8 steps • To provide evidence that supports or refutes (disagrees with) theory • To ensure what we think is true and consistent is actually true and consistent - this involves validity and reliability 34. As discussed in lecture, whether or not research findings can be consistently incorrect • We can be consistently incorrect 35. (A throw away question that everyone can and will get correct)
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