Lifespan Development Exam 1 Study Guide
Lifespan Development Exam 1 Study Guide 2603
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2603 at University of Oklahoma taught by Lara Mayeux in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/05/16
Lifespan Development Study Guide 1 Chapter 1: The Lifespan Perspective: Development is the pattern of change that happens from conception through the rest of life is lifelong no dominant age period is multidimensional has biological, socioemotional, and cognitive parts is multidirectional some aspects of growth lose potential with age (language learning, romance vs friends) is plastic capacity for change (“teach an old dog new tricks”) is multidisciplinary different fields of study involved is contextual occurs within a setting has growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss these factors are in competition is a coconstruction of biology, culture, and the individual these factors work together Context has 3 parts: normative agegraded influence similar for people of a certain age group normative history graded influence people in age groups that experienced the same historical events nonnormative life events unusual events that impact a person’s life Culture is the behavioral patterns, beliefs, and products of a group of people Cross cultural studies may examine two or more cultures to study if development is universal Ethnicity comes from culture, nationality, race, language, and religion Socioeconomic status is a position in society based on social, educational, and economic factors. Gender is a person’s characteristics as a male or a female Social policy is a governed action to promote people’s welfare Environment refers to the area a person lives and develops in The Nature of Development: Biological processes are changes in a person’s physical nature Cognitive processes are changes in thought, intelligence, and language Socioemotional processes are changes in relationships, emotions, and personality Developmental cognitive neuroscience studies development, cognitive processes, and the brain Developmental social neuroscience studies socioemotional processes, development, and the brain The prenatal period is from conception to birth Infancy is from birth to 1824 months Early childhood is from the end of infancy to 56 years old Middle and late childhood is from 6 years to 11 years old (elementary school years) Adolescence is from 1012 years to 1821 years (transition from childhood to adulthood) Emerging adulthood is from about 18 to 25 years, marked by experimentation and exploration Identity exploration changes in identity Instability in love, work, and education Selffocused few obligations and great amount of autonomy Feeling inbetween not labeling self as an adolescent or adult Age of possibilities optimistic about future and ability to direct life in a positive way Early adulthood begins in late teens and early twenties and lasts through 30’s; establishing independence, careers, and beginning families Middle adulthood about 40 years to 60 years old; expanding involvement and responsibility Late adulthood begins during 60’s or 70’s and continues until death; reviewing life and retirement Chronological age number of years since birth Biological age age in terms of health Psychological age person’s adaptive capacity compared to others Social age connectedness to others and social roles Nature and Nurture issue the argument of whether development is mostly influenced by a person’s genetic material (nature) or how they were raised by their parents (nurture) Stability change issue studies if early traits will remain the same or they will change and develop over time Continuitydiscontinuity issue discusses whether change occurs gradually or in stages Theory a set of ideas to make predictions and explain events Hypothesis a testable prediction that explains a cause and effect situation Scientific method a 4 step process involving forming a question, collecting information, analyzing information, and drawing conclusions Theories of Development: Psychoanalytic theories describe development as unconscious and effected by emotions. Behavior is a characteristic and the mind must be thoroughly examined to understand behaviors. Freud’s theory problems are the result of early experiences in life Oral stage pleasure center is mouth; birth to 1.5 years old Anal stage pleasure center is the anus; 1.5 to 3 years old Phallic stage pleasure center is the genitals; 3 to 6 years old Latency stage repressed sexual interest, social skills gained; 6 years to puberty Genital stage sexual reawakening, pleasure sought outside family; puberty onward Erikson’s psychosocial theory life is divided into 8 distinct stages Trust vs mistrust Autonomy vs Shame and doubt Initiative vs guilt Industry vs inferiority Identity vs identity confusion Intimacy vs isolation Generativity vs stagnation Integrity vs despair Cognitive Theories focuses on conscious thought Piaget’s cognitive development theory children go through four stages of development Sensorimotor stage birth to 2 years Preoperational stage 2 to 7 years Concrete operational stage 7 to 11 years Formal operational stage 1115 through adulthood Vygotsky’s Sociocultural theory children actively construct knowledge; culture and social interaction guide development Information processing theory gradually increasing capacity to learn, primarily using memory and thinking Behavioral and social cognitive theories studies what can be directly observed Skinner’s operant conditioning positive or negative reinforcement will cause certain behaviors to continue or discontinue. Bandura’s social cognitive theory focus on observational learning, or imitation and modeling Ethological theory observing the organism in its natural environment; focus on the survival value/adaptability of behavioral systems Ecological theory set environment around person microsystem: closest to developing person where a lot of time is spent mesosystem: relationships between microsystems exosystem: direct influence on developing person macrosystem: culture chronosystem: change over time Eclectic theoretical orientation taking aspects from multiple theories rather than just one Research on Development: Naturalistic observation watching real world behavior without controlling the situation Interview asking directly for information, often using a questionnaire Standardized test test with uniform procedures Case study long term study on a single person Descriptive research watches and records behavior Correlational research studies relationship between multiple events and characteristics Correlation coefficient degree of similarity between two variables Experiment procedure with manipulated factors in order to predict an outcome Cross sectional approach people of different ages are compared at the same time Longitudinal approach same people are studied over several years Cohort effects characteristics from time of birth, era, and generation Ethnic gloss using broad racial terms to make a group seem more homogenous than it is Chapter 2: The Evolutionary Perspective: Evolutionary psychology adaptation, reproduction, and survival of the fittest Evolutionary perspectives on developmental psychology Natural selection and adaptation survival of the fittest; shapes cognitive abilities, behaviors, appearance over many generations Genetic Foundations for Development: Chromosomes structures of DNA DNA molecule that contains genetic information Genes units of hereditary information Mitosis cell duplicates itself Meiosis cell division that forms sex cells (gametes) Fertilization egg and sperm fuse to create a zygote Zygote single cell from which an organism develops Genotype genetic material Phenotype outward expression of genes Down Syndrome intellectual disability caused by extra copy of chromosome 21 Klinefelter syndrome presence of an extra X chromosome (XXYmale; XXXfemale) Fragile X syndrome X chromosome becomes fragile and often breaks Turner syndrome X chromosome is missing or incomplete XYY syndrome males have an extra copy of Y chromosome Phenylketonuria (PKU) cannot metabolize phenylalanine Sicklecell anemia red blood cells can be elongated, causing clotting and anemia Heredity and Environment Interaction: Twin study behavioral similarities studied between identical and fraternal twins Adoption study studies whether characteristics are inherited from genetics or environment Nichepicking individual choosing their own environment Epigenetic view development involves genetics and environment (nature and nurture) Shared environmental experiences shared experiences between siblings Nonshared environmental experiences siblings’ unique experiences Prenatal Development: Germinal period first 2 weeks after conception Embryonic period 2 to 8 weeks after conception Organogenesis organ development Fetal period 2 to 7 months after conception Neurons nerve cells that process information Teratogen harmful agents that cause cognitive or physical impairment Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) abnormalities caused by mothers drinking alcohol during pregnancy Birth and Postpartum Period: Doula caregiver for mother at all stages of delivery Natural childbirth delivery without use of drugs; uses relaxation and education Apgar scale evaluates newborn health at one and five minutes after birth Low birth weight infants less than 5.5 pounds at birth Preterm infants born 3 weeks or more before full term Kangaroo care skin to skin contact with preterm infants Postpartum period about 6 weeks after birth, mother adjusts back to prepregnant state Postpartum depression about 4 weeks after delivery, mother experiences anxiety and despair during postpartum period
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