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Psychology of Human Sexuality Exam 1

by: Morgan Smith

Psychology of Human Sexuality Exam 1 PSYC 2110

Marketplace > University of Connecticut > Psychlogy > PSYC 2110 > Psychology of Human Sexuality Exam 1
Morgan Smith
GPA 3.9

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Study Guide for PSYC 2110 Exam 1. The Scope of Human Sexuality, Sexual Science and Resaerch., Sexual and Gender Development, Female and Male Anatomy.
Psychology of Human Sexuality
Seth Kalichman
Study Guide
Psychology of Human, sexuality, PSYC 2110 Exam 1, The Scope of Human Sexuality, Sexual Science and Resaerch., Sexual and Gender Development, Female and male anatomy
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Smith on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2110 at University of Connecticut taught by Seth Kalichman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.


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Date Created: 02/05/16
Richard von Krafft-Ebing • Psychiatrist (1840-1902) • Psychopathia Sexualis (1886) o 238 case histories of human sexual behavior o sexual practices o first to study homosexuality/bisexuality o sexual pathology leader during his time Iwan Bloch • first proposed the concept of a special scientific and scholarly effort to study sex • dermatologist (1972-1922) • came up with term “sexology”- theoretical study of sex • father of sexology • sexual psychopathies Sigmund Freud • psychologist (1856-1939) • developed a theory of sexuality: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and gential stages o sexual drives pass through the distinct developmental phases o latency: reduced sexual interest and activity o perverse/bisexual residue that persists during adult genital sexuality • neurosis or perversion could be explained in terms of fixation or regression to one of the five phases • Theories of castration complex and penis envy o CC: fear of emasculation in both literal and metaphorical sense o PE: female adolescents experience anxiety upon realizing they do not have a penis. Defining moment to mature female sexuality and gender identity • Oedipus complex: explains the emotions and ideas that mind keeps unconscious o Son’s desire to have sexual relations with his mother o Electra complex: daughter’s desure to have sexual relations with her father o Occur in the Phallic stage (3-6 years) Alfred Kinsey • 1894-1956 • Entomologist studying the diversity of insects • Conducted the first extensive scientific descriptive research of human sexual behavior through sexual histories o Made sex research more legit through applied STATs o Had some inherent flaws • Interviewed more than 16,000 ppl about their sex lives o College students, prostitutes, prison inmates • Founded and directed Indiana university’s institute for Sex Research o People didn’t like that he reported cheating and that being gay wasn’t a pathology o Commonness of sex before marriage, masturbation, homosexuality o Died young and very ostracized • Kinsey scale o Sexual orientation on a continuum o Seven point scale o Most people are in between o Kinsey report Turner syndrome / XO • Missing chromosome- monomy • Egg with no X or sperm has no sex chromo • Characteristics • Short, low hairline, poor breast development, heart problems • They have ovaries, Müllerian system Margaret Mead • Anthropologist 1901-1978 • Report detailing the attitudes toward sex in South Pacific and Southeast Asian traditional cultures influenced the 1960s sexual revolution o Sex and temperament in three primitive societies- feminist movement o Claimed females are dominant in tribes • Proponent of broadening sexual practices within Western religious life • Proposed that an individuals sexual orientation may evolve throughout life Androgyny • Combination of masculine and feminine characteristics • Sexual ambiguity may be found in fashion, gender identity, sexual identity, or sexual lifestyle. • It can also refer to biological intersex physicality o Distinct from behavioral androgyny (personal and social abnormities in gender) and psychological (gender identity) • Gender identity: person who does not fit neatly into the typical masculine and feminine gender roles o Mentally between woman and man or genderqueer/ gender-neutral Psychodynamic theory • Freudian perspective • During the first 5 years of life our identity is formed included expected roles we would play as men and women • Personality is formed in terms of conscious and unconscious forces during psychosexual development • Personality consists of the id ( instincts and pleasure seeking), superego (obey rules of society) and ego ( mediates the two according to reality) • Unconsciousness role: Oedipal and Electra complex • Not accepted for gender role development Helena Wright • 1887-1982 • British born known best for pioneering contraception and family planning • Pioneer in the sexual liberation of women • Wrote “The Sex Factor in Marriage” Kinsey’s flaw • Kinsey interviewed sex criminals and failed to report their behavior to the police • Pretended data from his most notorious subject (sexual omnivore) came from multiple subjects • Inadequate sampling techniques Case Study • Sample size of 1—study of an individual • Atypical sexual behavior patterns learned about through case studies o Observational and clinical research Genetic sex § XY or XX § Anatomicalà male genitals/ female genitals • Body sex- external features • Gonadal sex is a part of this Secondary sex characteristics. • Features that appear at puberty • Not directly part of the reproductive system unlike sex organs • Female: • breasts o provide milk for nourishing infants o primarily composed of fatty tissue that supports the mammary glands § mammary glands: 15-25 lobes of mammary glands in each breast § release milks through the ducts to common opening: nipple o nipple surrounded by areola § areola stimulation produces milk § sensitive to cold and engorges with blood during temperature changes § variability of how sensitive the areola is • increase body fat around hips, thighs, butt • pubic hair and body hair • smaller hands and feet than men • Male: • Increase mass of muslces, vocal cords and bones • Deepening of voice • DHT in skin makes facial and body hair grow but slows growth of head hair • Increased stature • Larger hands and feet Gender Identity • how you experience your gender • internal sense of ourselves as being male or female • Usually matches body type but not always • If it matches your body type: cis gender • If it does not match your body type: trans gender o Gender dysphoria: sense of self as a man or women can be disturbing to you- not being happy with yourself, don’t have a clear sense of who you are o Used to be considered a psych disorder § NOW gender dysphoria is a psych disorder • Trans gender and gender dysphoric can go through sex reassignment surgery o Think that they will be cis gender and happy at the end of the surgery § Not always the case- gender dysphoria can happen after they undergo surgery o Step 1: living as a member of the desired gender while receiving treatment § After psych evaluation- see if dysphoria is related to transgenderism § Reversible body therapies • Electrolysis for hair removal • Dress like a man • Synthetic hormones § Counseling and legal advice o Step 2: Sex reassignment surgery § Not reversible § Male to female • Remove testicles • Creating a vagina o Reshape penile tissue to clitoris o Reshape scrotum to labia • Breast implants § Female to male • Remove breasts, uterus, ovaries • The clitoris is surgically reshaped to a penis o Smaller penis because less tissue • Labia to scrotum • Prosthetic testicles • Falloplasty o Creating of an artificial penis in conjunction with clitoral tissue o Sometimes the penis is not functional for erection o Penile implants help erectile functioning sexual orientation • a person's sexual identity in relation to the gender to which they are attracted • heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual. XXX • Triple X syndrome/ trisomy X • No unusual physical features- they may be taller than normal • Normal sexual development and are able to conceive children H-Y antigen • Antigen on Y chromosome • Differentiates the human embryo into the male phenotype • Induces undifferentiated gonad to develop into testes XYY • Physically a man • Extra Y chromosome • No reduced IQ • Taller than other boys • No increased aggression AIS • Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome • Affects sexual development before birth and during puberty • People with this condition are genetically male (XY) • Bodies cannot respond to androgens so they have mostly female sex characteristics or signs of both male and female development • Complete AIS- body cannot use androgens at all. o External sex characteristics of females but do not have a uterus (infertile) o Undescended testes o Raised as females/ have female gender identity • Partial AIS o Normal female sex characteristics/ both/ or normal male o Raised as males or females • Mild AIS o Male sex characteristics o Infertile and enlarged breasts at puberty DHT-deficient • Normally testosterone is converted into DHT • If men lack the enzyme to convert testosterone into DHT o There is no masculization of external genitalia in utero o Born with ambiguous genitalia o Body cannot respond to testosterone Gynecomastia • Swelling of the breast tissue in men • Imbalance of homormes estrogen and testosterone • It is not serious but may cause embarrassment • May go away on its own or surgery and medication are used Prolactin • luteotropic hormone • enables females to produce milk • secreted from the pituitary gland in response to ovulation and nursing Progesterone • plays a role in maintaining pregnancy • hormone is produced in the ovaries, the placenta and the adrenal glands • helps prepare female body for conception and pregnancy • regulates the menstrual cycle • plays a role in sexual desire Oocyte • cell in an ovary that may undergo meiotic division to form an ovum • immature ovum or egg cell • oocyte is produced in the ovary during gametogenesis • the female germ cells produce a primordial germ cell • undergoes mitosis forming oogonia then during oogenesis the oogonia becomes primary ooctyes Gender Role • Behaviors characteristic of males and females • What is expected of different genders in society • Normative expectations of males and females § Vary from culture to culture § Latitude around gender coded behaviors • Women have more latitude in gender coded behavior than males • Men and boys have been ridiculed more for being feminine • Blurry lines around gender roles • Theories of Gender role Development o Psychodynamic Perspective § Freudian perspective § During the first 5 years of life our identity is formed included expected roles we would play as men and women § Unconsciousness role: edipal and electra complex § Not accepted for gender role development o Social Learning Theory § Albert Bendura § Pick up gender roles from people around us § First experience of gender coded behavior comes from our experiences and observations of our family § We continue to observe people outside of our family • Life –long process of evolving gender-coded experiences § Biological influences- not all environment and observation o Cognitive-Developmental theory § Similar to social learning theory but takes into account a broader range of experiences and INTERPRETATION of events o Gender Schema Theory § Doesn’t emphasize how our gender behaviors evolve over our lifetime § Has more to do with our internal interpretations at every point in our lives § Cognitive structures we develop of how we think we are expected to ask • Social pressures • What is being shaped is our attitudes and beliefs and they get translated into schema • All our behaviors are scripted by our cognitive structures o Multifactorial Theories § A little bit of everything § What we observe is important/parents important/schema important/biological influences important § Interactive and how they interact Social learning theory • Albert Bendura • Pick up gender roles from people around us • First experience of gender coded behavior comes from our experiences and observations of our family • We continue to observe people outside of our family • Life –long process of evolving gender-coded experiences • Biological influences- not all environment and observation Luteinizing hormone • hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland. • females, an acute rise of LH ("LH surge") triggersovulation [2and development of the corpus luteum. • males, where LH had also been called interstitial cell–stimulating hormone(ICSH), [3]it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone.]It acts synergistically with FSH. Types of hymen • Thin membrane of skin at the opening of the vagina • Different forms of hymen (type and how much opening) o Cribiform: tissue not solid and porous o Annular: large opening o Septate: opening with a strand of skin that runs down o Imperforate: mostly closed • Cultural baggage: o Some cultures believe hymen is sign of virginity § If in tact- virgin § Not true because of different forms and can tear with different activities Sexual Differentiation • Sexual differentiation- how you end up with male or female and the rest of the spectrum o Nature v nurture § Internal bio forces relative to external social cultural forces that shape us as people § Not so controversial anymore • Biological essentialism- perspective that your inborn genetics and physiological factors are the determinants of your characteristics • Social constructionism- our personality, trait, behaviors are determined by social influences/environment o Polarities of NN sides of psychology o Today we know it is a false dichotomy § Defining moment- when you emerge from mother’s womb someone declares you a boy or girl • Determines color blanket, color nametag, your name • Biological essentialism- determination of shape of your genitals • Social constructionism- how people around you treated you based on your genitals o Neither NN alone can explain sexual differentiation o Have to take an interactionist view o Sex: biological maleness or femaleness § Genetic sexà XY or XX § Anatomicalà male genitals/ female genitals • Body sex- external features • Gonadal sex is a part of this o Gender: psychological maleness or femaleness § Identity- personal sense of being male or female § Gender role- behaviors expected of males or females • Brain sex • 4 major levels of sexual differentiation o genetic § 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 chromosomes § karyotype—display of all chromosome pairs § chromosomes are made up of genes made up of DNA rd bands are large segments of DNA § 23 pair of chromosomes determine sex • XX – female/ XY--- male o Gonadal § Ovaries and testes o body sex o brain sex • differentiation o Sperm attacks egg and their chromosomes match up § Gymnosperm- sperm carrying X chromosome • Gymnosperm +egg—XX § Y carrying sperm fertilizes egg • XY o Cells start dividing into zygote o By 6 weeks you have an embryo that has differentiated tissues that are forming organs o Cant tell at six weeks what sex the embryo is § it is undifferentiated § it is bipotential- can develop into either male or female • 8 weeks can see the beginnings of differentiation • 15 weeks fully differentiated • process: o fertilize egg- XX or XY o 6 week undifferentiated embryo has gonads sitting up in its body cavity § Wolfian tube system § Müllerian tube system § urogenital sinus § external organ- undifferentiated glands/ genital tubercle ú medulla—ovaries ú cortex—testes § below that is the labial scrotal swelling o around 6 weeks gonads start producing HORMONES o 8- 15 weeks- gonads differentiate § ovaries XX ú Müllerian system develops fallopian tubes, oviducts, uterus ú Wolfian degenerates ú undifferentiated gland will develop into a clitoris ú labial scrotal swelling- internal parts of vagina § testicles XY—SRY is the sexual differentiating region on Y chromo that determines gonad goes to testes ú Müllerian degenerates ú Wolfian develops vas deferens, seminal, accessory glands, prostate etc ú undifferentiated gland will develop into a penis ú labial scrotal swelling- scrotum o differentiated gonads start producing hormones § if SRY present-- testes ú testes still have medulla tissue and it produces estrogen ú testes are made of the cortex and produce testosterone • causes the Wolfian system to develop • Müllerian system doesn’t develop because testes produce MIS (Müllerian inhibitory substance) § if SRY absent—ovaries ú ovarian tissue produces estrogen ú androgens in females produced in adrenal glands ú mullerian system develops because there is no MIS ú wollfian system doesn’t develop because it does not develop sensors to testosterone o 6 WEEK OLD HUMAN EMBRYO important for exam • Some structures come from same organ but are different tissue o Ovaries and testes are analogous- come from the same organ but not the same tissue § Come from undifferentiated gonad • Homologues- develop from same tissue • Analogous—different tissue but develop from same organs • Secondary sex characteristicsà hormones and bodies sensitivity to them • Disorders of sex development • Chromosomal o Chromosomal disjunction: normal separation of chromosomes and chromatids during meiosis I and meiosis II § Anaphase I and II o Missing chromosome- monomy § Turner’s Syndrome X0 o Extra chromosome- trisomy § Klinefelter’s Syndrome XXY ú Egg with both X chromosomes or ú Sperm with both X and Y ú Tall, narrow shoulders, gynecomastia, small testes, infertile • Testes don’t develop FULLY • Tissues sensitive to androgens § Extra X not significant extra Y not super significant cannot have Y0 • Hormonal: Exposure to synthetic hormones during prenatal period o Fetally androgenized females § Development of female gets disrupted § Either take hormones or body produces too many androgens § Masculinized in terms of external structures o Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) § Tumor on adrenal gland- produce too many androgens ú On mother or on embryo § Undifferentiated organs o DHT deficiency syndromes § Don’t have enough DHT is dihydrotestosteron ú What testosterone is converted to in the tissues ú XY babies ú Develop testes—produce MIH, produce testosterone ú External structures don’t develop because tissues aren’t sensitive to testosterone § Androgen insensitivity syndrome ú Have testes producing androgen but body doesn’t respond • Genital trauma o John Money- identical twin boys § During circumcision one of the penises was cut off § Sex-reassignment Estrogen • primary female sex hormone • responsible for the development and regulation of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics Dysmenorrhea • pain during menstruation • usually involves abdominal cramps scrotal temperature • Testicles are located in the scrotum to keep them outside the body • Body temperature is 98.6 F o Too hot for sperm maturation/ lowers sperm count • Scrotum’s temperature is about one degree cooler Amenorrhea • Absence of menstruation/ one or more missed periods • Women who have missed at least 3 periods in a row • Girls who haven’t begun menstruation by 15 • Causes o Pregnancy o Problems with reproductive organs o Problems with hormonal levels Corpora Cavernosa • Corpus cavernosum in the penis (cavernous body of the penis o one of a pair of sponge-like regions of erectile tissue, o corpus cavernosa (cavernous bodies) contain most of the blood in the penis during an erection. o Corpus spongiosum and corpus cavernosa are areas of tissue along the length of the penis • Corpus cavernosum of the clitoris similar to the male corpus cavernosum o Body of the clitoris contains biological tissue that helps to create an erection o Comes in a pair of corpora cavernosa o No corpus spongiusum- only two vestibular bulbs Cremaster Muscles • Thin layer of skeletal muscle found in the inguinal canal and scrotum at the base of the penis o Surrounds the testis and spermatic chord o One on each side of the body Epididymis • Tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system o Seminiferous tubules make sperm in the testes o Sperm exits through epididymis • Single highly coiled tube that is a warehouse for sperm • Connects the efferent ducts from the rear of each testicle to its vas deferens • Epididymis o Warehouse for sperm o During sexual response, it contracts and squeezes sperm into vas deferens o Can become infected by STDs § Chlamydia- epididymitis Seminal vesicles • Pair of accessory glands in males • Make most of the content of semen/seminal fluid (70%) • 2 inches behind the bladder • Open into ejaculatory ducts- join to vas deferens o Where sperm enters into seminal fluid Kaplan model • Kaplan Triphasic Model is a model of human sexual response developed in 70s by Helen Singer Kaplan • Attempts to address the sexual response cycle as it conceptualizes three relatively independent phases o Sexual desire phase o Vasocongestion of the genitals/excitement phase o Reflex muscular contracts of the orgasm phase/ resolution phase Masters and Johnson’s sexual response cycle • Four-stage model of physiological responses to sexual stimulation o Excitement phase o Plateau phase o Orgasmic phase o Resolution phase • Proposed in the book Human Sexual Response Grafenberg spot • G-spot • Ernst Graffenburg discovered the G-spot • Located 1/3 way into vagina in the vaginal wall • May swell during sexual response o Highly innervated o Connected to some of the accessory glands § Skene’s gland in particular Female Sexual Anatomy • What do we call female genitals? o What we call female genitals can be illuminating about how society treats women • External Structures: The Vulva o Mons Pubis (pubic mound) § Fleshy mound of tissue at the very top of the female genital structures § Covered with pubic hair § Sensitive to sexual stimulation o Clitoris § Develops from undifferentiated glands § Very sensitive ú Made up of erectile tissue § Protected by the clitoral hood § Clitoral shaft (covered by prepuce) § Externally see glands clitoris and clitoral hood § Internally ú Crus clitoris- come down around vaginal opening. 3in long ú Made of corpus cavernosum- rigid dense connective tissue • Glands of clitoris meet the CC • Hollow chambers that engorge with blood during sexual response • Erectile tissue o Opening of Urethra (urinary meatus) o Labia minora (minor lips) § Develop from labial scrotal swelling § Inner folds § Meet at the clitoris to form the clitoral hood § No hair § Highly innervated and swell during sexual response § Enclose the vestibial o Labia majora (major lips) § Develop from labial scrotal swelling § Outer folds § Two folds of spongy fleshy tissue § Extent from mons pubis down to perineaum (space between bottom of vagina and opening of anus) § May have pubic hair § Highly innervated- a lot of touch sensation o Opening of vagina (introitus) o Opening of Bartholin’s gland § Secrete vaginal fluids during sexual response o Skene’s gland • The vagina o Muscular tube of smooth muscle o Lined with mucus membranes o Walls of the vagina are collapsed and lay on each other until something inserted into it o Four inches deep o Outer third is most sensitive o Inner part of vagina is least sensitive o 2 sets of muscles § circular muscles that wrap around ú sphincter vaganae • round muscle • not a well-defined sphincter ú levitator anae • smooth muscles • have some voluntary control but not much • can be contracted and relaxed § Pubic coxegyal muscles ú Controlled § Smooth muscle of walls ú No voluntary control o Hymen § Thin membrane of skin at the opening of the vagina § Different forms of hymen (type and how much opening) ú Cribiform: tissue not solid and porous ú Annular: large opening ú Septate: opening with a strand of skin that runs down ú Imperforate: mostly closed § Cultural baggage: ú Some cultures believe hymen is sign of virginity • If in tact- virgin • Not true because of different forms and can tear with different activities o G-spot § Ernst Graffenburg discovered the G-spot § Located 1/3 way into vagina in the vaginal wall § May swell during sexual response ú Highly innervated ú Connected to some of the accessory glands • Skene’s gland in particular • Inside vagina o Remnant of the hymen o Cervix § Cervical opening- where sperm swims up to uterus to fertilize eggs § Where uterus lining is shed during menstrual cycle o Speculum o Cervical fluid o Vaginal rugae o External cervical os • Uterus ( Müllerian tube system developed) o Hollow structure size of a pare § 3 in by 3in in women not pregnant o 3 layers of thick muscular walls § outer: perimetrium ú thick coat that keeps uterus together § middle: myometrium ú thick smooth muscle § inner lining: endometrium ú highly vascular ú sheds itself during menstrual cycle ú endometriosis: inflammation of inner walls o accommodates embryo during gestation § flexible muscular structure § also called the womb § provides nurturing environment for the fetus o parts § body of the uterus § top part: fundus § os: opening of uterus to the cervix o common cite of disease § uterine cancer ú vulnerable to cancer because a lot of cell growth in the endometrium § fibroid tumors ú non-cancerous § endometriosis o remove uterus by hysterectomy • 2 ovaries o seated in lower abdomen o ovarian ligament- connects ovary to the uterus o size of almonds o undifferentiated gonads into ovaries o produce gametes: eggs/oocytes § during ovulation: ovum released and pop of from uterus § hormonally controlled process to produce ovum o make estrogen and progesterone o process of making an egg § oocyte § make a follicle § then corpus luteum ú meiosis § produce ovulating egg and Barr bodies § occurs between ovary and fallopian tube • fallopian tube o come off of the fundus of uterus o hollow open tubes o space between F tube and ovary o finger-like projections around the ovary: fimbriae § have cilia § create a current to move egg from ovary into the fallopian tube o if there are sperm in the fallopian tube the egg can become fertilized • internal and other structures o urethra: tube through which urine passes o urethral opening: right below clit above opening of vagina o perineum: area between genitals and anus o pelvic floor: pelvic girdle with muscles that support all these structures o anus • secondary sex characteristics o breasts § provide milk for nourishing infants § primarily composed of fatty tissue that supports the mammary glands ú mammary glands: 15-25 lobes of mammary glands in each breast ú release milks through the ducts to common opening: nipple § nipple surrounded by areola ú areola stimulation produces milk ú sensitive to cold and engorges with blood during temperature changes ú variability of how sensitive the areola is o breast cancer § fueled by estrogens ú pre-menopausal cancer is faster growing because producing more hormones § obesity is a risk-factor for breast cancer ú fat tissues produce estrogen § screening ú mammography- to screen for cancer ú self-examination • visual and manual examination § treatment ú mastectomy: removing breasts • female sexual hormones o hypothalamus o pituitary gland gonadotropins (impact on gonads) § GTH stimulates the release of estrogens from ovaries § release follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) ú stimulates development of follicle for ovulation in the ovary § luteinizing hormone (LH) ú triggers rupturing of follicle and release of the egg o ovaries § estrogen: stimulate maturation of reproductive organs, menstruation and pregnancy § progesterone: helps to maintain the uterine lining and the vascularization of the endometrium o gonadotropin releasing hormones • the menstrual cycle: four stages o pre-ovulatory preparation (follicular phase) o ovulation § LH § Corpus luteum o Luteal secretion § Corpus luteum secretes progesterone and more estrogen o Menstruation § If ovum is not fertilized uterine cellular material, fluids, and a small amount of blood passes through the vagina ú Dysmenorrhea: pain during menstruation o if it is fertilized § implants in uterine wall and ceases shedding of uterine wall § sometimes in fallopian tube: tubular pregnancy • birth control o interrupts ovulation o can help PMS • menopause o cessation of menstruation o middle life ( 45-55) very variable o not an event, it is a process § slowing down of menstrual cycle before cessation o some have physical symptoms § hormone replacement therapy to replace estrogen to reduce symptoms § hot-flashes because of estrogen’s role in vascular system ú dilation of blood vessels- influx of blood- hot sensation o culture connotations § good because no period § bad because lack of femininity Male Sexual Anatomy • External o Penis § Glans- rounded head of penis ú Frenulum- attaches glands to shaft of penis ú Coronal ridge of head ú Foreskin homologous to clitoral hood § Has corpus cavernosum and corpus spongeosum ú Engorged with blood during sexual response § Urethra- urinary tube ú Runs through corpus spongeosum § No muscles in the penis only at BASE ú Come off of pelvic girdle o Scrotum § External pouch of skin that holds testes outside the abdomen § Testicles ú Male gonads from undifferentiated gonads ú Covered by tunica- thick and tough membrane that holds in seminiferous tubules tightly compacted together ú Seminiferous tubules- make sperm • Exit testicle through epididymis tube § Epididymis ú Warehouse for sperm ú During sexual response, it contracts and squeezes sperm into vas deferens ú Can become infected by STDs • Chlamydia- epididymitis o Perineum Space between scrotum and anus • Internal (Wolfian System) o Seminal vesicles o Prostate glands o Bulbourethral Gland/ Cowper’s gland § All 3 produce semen- fluid that carriers sperm § Cowper coats urethra to make it a friendly environment for sperm ( basic Cowper’s fluid counteracts acidic urine for sperm to be in neutral/basic environment) ú Pre-cum is from the Cowper’s fluid ú Pre-cum DOES HAVE SPERM!!!!!! But not a lot of it o Ejaculatory duct § Joins with vas deferens which then meets with urethra o Vas deferens § Tube that connects to the epididymis which is attached to the testes § Joins up with urethra (common exit) o Semen § Seminal vesicle fluid/ Cowper’s gland fluid • Accessory Glands o Homologous to clitoral glands o Seminal fluid § Nurturing for the sperm’s high metabolism o Seminal vesicles § Small 2 inches § Behind the bladder § Open into ejaculatory ducts- join to vas deferens ú Where sperm enters into seminal fluid o Prostate glands § Behind bladder § Produces seminal fluid § Provides viscous texture of the semen and basic fluid o Cowper’s glands § Coats urethra for sperm § Bulbourethral gland • Erection o When blood is flowing into erectile tissue faster than it is flowing out o Erectile response can happen without any stimulation o When blood flows into CC and CS tissue, pollsters stop blood from flowing OUT of penis as fast • Circumcision o Culturally determined o Controversial § Disfiguration § Hygienic value- less concern about hygiene ú Circumcision reduces HIV infection by 50% • Sperm o Produced in the Testes § Seminiferous tubules have cells that undergo meiosis to produce sperm ú Interstitial cells- stimulated by interstitial cell stimulating hormone and FSH o Sex cells o Parts § Head § Middle piece ú High metabolism ú Powers the movement of the tail § Tail o Carried by semen into F tube and fertilize an egg • Penis facts! o Erect: 5.1 inches in length and 4.9 inches circumference o Flaccid: 3.5 inches in length o No correlation to penis size and anything else! o Normal distribution of penis size § 65% fall between 4 and 6 inches erect o testicular cancer § most common cancer in men aged 15-35 years § early detection and age affect lethality ú more common in young than old men ú more lethal in young men § easily detected early • Male Hormones and “Andropause” o Adrenal glands produce androgens o Hypothalamus and pituitary- LH o LH goes to testes o Testosterone from testicles and adrenal glands go to prostate • Male breast cancer o Rare but it happens


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