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CSU - BC 103 - Life 103, week 3 notes - Class Notes

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CSU - BC 103 - Life 103, week 3 notes - Class Notes

School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Professor: Jennifer Dewey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: Life 103, week 3 notes
Description: These notes cover all the material on fungi from the past week.
Uploaded: 02/06/2016
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background image Life 103 Notes  *adapted from the lecture slides of Dr. Dale Lockwood*  Fungi  •  Fungi  -Fungi are diverse and widespread 
-They are essential for the well being of most terrestrial ecosystems (see 
ecology notes for more on ecosystems) because they break down organic 
material and recycle vital nutrients 
-In spite of their diversity, fungi share key traits, most importantly the way 
in which they derive nutrition 
•  Fungal Nutrition  -Fungi are heterotrophs (see protist and algae notes for more on 
heterotrophs) and absorb nutrients from outside of their body 
-Fungi use enzymes to break down a large variety of complex molecules 
into smaller organic compounds 
-Enzymes excreted break down 
 
~Lignin (oxidases)    ~Carbohydrates (cellulases)    ~Phosphates (phosphatases)    ~Proteins (proteases)      *Note, all the above names in parentheses are types of        enzymes, hence the suffix –ase   -Human uses of fungal enzymes 
 
~Effects of climate change    ~Beer production    ~Wastewater treatments    ~Paper production  •  Body Form   -The most common body structures are multicellular filaments and single 
cells (yeasts
-Some species grow as either filaments or yeasts; others grow as both 
•  Fungal Morphology  -The morphology of multicellular fungi enhances their ability to absorb 
nutrients  
-Fungi consist of mycelia, networks of branched hyphae adapted for 
absorption 
-Most fungi have cell walls made of chitin  
-Some fungi have hyphae divided into cells by septa with pores allowing 
cell-to-cell movement of organelles 
-Coenocytic fungi lack septa (see textbook figure 31.3) 
•  Some fungi are carnivores  -Hyphae can act as nooses, nets, or sticky traps 
-Hyphae penetrate victims  
•  Mycorrhizae are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant  roots 
background image -Ectomycorrhizal fungi form sheaths of hyphae over a root and also 
grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex 
-Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi extend hyphae through the cell walls of 
root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane 
•  Specialized Hyphae in Mycorrhizal Fungi  -Some unique fungi have specialized hyphae called haustoria that allow 
them to penetrate the tissues of their host (see textbook figure 31.4) 
•  Mutualist dynamics  -The fungus gains access to carbohydrates 
-The plant gains an increased ability to uptake water and minerals 
•  Fungus Reproduction (see textbook figure 31.5 for life cycles)  -Fungi propagate themselves by producing vast numbers of spores, either 
sexually or asexually 
-Fungi can produce spores from different types of life cycles  
-Fungal nuclei are normally haploid, with the exception of transient diploid 
stages formed during the sexual life cycles 
-Sexual reproduction requires the fusion of hyphae from different mating 
types 
-Fungi use sexual signaling molecules called pheromones to 
communicate their mating type 
-Plasmogamy is the union of two parent mycelia  
-In most fungi, the haploid nuclei from each parent do not fuse right away; 
they coexist in the mycelium, called a heterokaryon 
-In some fungi, the haploid nuclei pair off two to a cell; such a mycelium is 
said to be dikaryotic  
-Hours, days, or even centuries may pass before the occurrence of 
karyogamy, nuclear fusion 
-During karyogamy, the haploid nuclei fuse, producing diploid cells 
-The diploid phase is short-lived and undergoes meiosis, producing 
haploid spores 
  -Reproducing without a partner       ~Molds produce haploid spores by mitosis and form visible mycelia       ~Yeasts reproduce asexually by simple cell division and the          pinching of “bud cells” from a parent cell  •  Five Major Groups of Fungi   -Chytrids  
 
~Chytrids (phylum chytridiomycota) are formed in freshwater and      terrestrial habitats    ~They can be decomposers, parasites, or mutaulists    ~Chytrids are unique among fungi in having flagellated spores,         called zoospores     ~Chytrids are a paraphyletic group    ~Chytrids and Amphibians       -Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infects thousands of         species of amphibians   

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Professor: Jennifer Dewey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: Life 103, week 3 notes
Description: These notes cover all the material on fungi from the past week.
Uploaded: 02/06/2016
6 Pages 23 Views 18 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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