History 1B Midterm Winter 2016
History 1B Midterm Winter 2016 History 1B
Popular in Introduction to Western Civilization: Circa A.D. 843 to circa 1715
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Popular in History
This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Friday February 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 1B at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Mcclendon in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Western Civilization: Circa A.D. 843 to circa 1715 in History at University of California - Los Angeles.
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The Carolingians Did not last Large political in uence Charlemagne s leadership was not enough Other forces led to the fragmentation Charlemagne was what it was fueled after Expand the territory under Christian control His Conquests Became known as king of the Franks and combat Long and bloody campaign Baptized Saxons forcibly Ransacked others in large numbers Ruled over most of the Christiaan territory in western Europe Christmas day 800 Charlemagne was crowned king of the Roman Seas Gained the status of the byzantine empire Papacygave them a powerful protector but also let to a battle over who was more powerful Carolingian Renaissance Solidification and preservation of knowledge Education was expanded created more schools Had to convince the churches since they had the monopoly Very basic education no higher learnings Charlemagne brought scholars to his court Alcuin of York was one of Charlemagne s court scholars 0 Worked to edit the bible for any errors 0 Also tried to regulate literacy in church and convinced Charlemagne to expand schools Carolingian minuscule was a new script created during this time period 0 Much cleared than other scripts 0 Upper case and lower case letters distinguished also used spaces 0 Helped less literate people read Under developed empire Very rural fewer substantial towns Poor infrastructure Not as economically developed The empire was too big for Charlemagne to try to control himself 0 Depended on personal loyalties to rule 0 Tried to ensure the loyalty by giving them gifts like land opportunity to plunder 0 When the territorial expansions slowed less gifts could be given so the other rulers were not as loyal 0 Even before he died the empire was struggling 0 Part of the cause was bad luck Louis the Pious 0 Charlemagne s son 0 Not nearly as commanding as his father 0 Personality wasn t the same either 0 Granted himself jurisdiction over everything 0 This made the churches mad 0 Louis banned the partying wing at his court which made him less likeable O Undermined because it basically stopped expanding 0 He couldn t get people to be loyal to him or like him Primogeniture 0 Left his entire empire to his first born son 0 Younger sons were not happy about this decision 0 They threw their father off the throne but he came back 0 After louis died it went from bad to worse because the internal fighting continued 0 The two younger brothers made a pact so they could unite against their older brother 0 Lothair the oldest son surrendered to his brothers 0 They agreed to the treaty of the vergon and split the empire into thirds 0 This created warfare over boundary disputes Economic and Social Costs 0 Old empire was plagued by invasions 0 Ninth and tenth century raids 0 A lot of it had to do with the Vikings 0 Vikings came in large numbers and needed land for their large populations More about Vikings 0 Geography had a lot to do with where they conquered 0 The kingdom was being picked apart by invaders 0 Very ferocious attacks 0 No warning raided the people had an obscure appearance 0 Viking ships were faster than anything else Europe had dealt with 0 They were scary for their choice of targets monasteries and churches because those had a lot of valuable items 0 Weren t Christian themselves 0 Changes in their raids O Raids turned into invasions 0 Defense mounted against them by Alfred the Great 0 Turned their attention elsewhere because they didn t like the people fighting them back Other issues 0 Magyar invasions were also a problem 0 Byzantine s kicked them out so they went to Hungary and further as time went on Attacked unfortified places such as villages They didn t have the supplies to keep raiding so they went back and turned to agriculture End of Carolingian Empire The combination of these raids that finished off the empire This was possible because they couldn t mount a sufficient defense Even though the family feuding was an issue it can t be blamed for the entire demise They best way to defend would have been the sea but the navy was not advanced enough for this to be effective The empire broken down because the people that lived in the empire didn t like protection from someone they had never seen Feudalism manorialism and the emergence of feudal monarchies Monday January 11 2016 Chief features of feudalism 0 Fiefs and vassals O Lords we39re to give protection to the vassals and the vassals worked the land and were the Warriors for the lord 0 Great lords would Have vassals and their vassals might have their own vassals In theory it was supposed to be simple with the king on too knights beneath the lesser lords on the bottom 0 The reality of the feudal relationship was very complicated with a lot of different relationships 0 Sometimes vassals Had more land and were more powerful than their kings 0 The upside of being a vassal to multiple people would be More land 0 Originated In the Carolingian empire aka France and it spread to parts of Italy and England 0 Not found in Spain or Scandinavia O Obligations of a vassal 0 Military service 0 Provide fighting men 0 Attend the lords court 0 Offer hospitality to the lord 0 Financial payments knighting of eldest son marriage of daughter 0 Obligations of the lord 0 Protect the vassal militarily or in court 0 Provide support the fief 0 Relationship could be dissolved if either side wasn39t fulfilling their obligations Manorialism Peasants worked the land and provided the economic support for lords to go to war with each other Lords provided protection to the peasants Peasants gave up their freedom and became tied to the land 0 Was a type of Feudal systems that was imposed in a preexisting feudal system from the Roman Empire 0 Romans used slaves decreasing expansion and Christianity led to the decline of using them on their estates 0 Allowed for social mobility and freedom 0 Peasants still found themselves in need of protection from invaders disease and famine O This caused a significant amount of peasants to go to manorialism so that they could have more security they willingly gave up their freedom to do this 0 They owed the lord work and payment often done through crops 0 If they wanted to move or marry someone who wasn39t already tied to that estate they would need to pay dues to the lord O Weren39t treated as slaves often were not abused Feudal monarchy favorable conditions 0 Increasing populations 0 Western Europe population increased From about 1000 to 1200 it probably doubled to 56 million 0 More children were born more children survived d to adulthood adults lived longer 0 No significant epidemic disease allowing stability and increased pop 0 More land was being farmed no crop disease allowing pop to be fed 0 Greater prosperity 0 Increased trade brought more money into the hands of merchants 0 Rural laborers had more success 0 Growth of towns 0 Centers of wealth 0 Home to professionals like lawyers and notaries O Allowed kings to have money for mercenary armies who were more trained and able to expand 0 Cultural expansion 0 More schools now past elementary school level 0 Architecture tower of Pisa cathedrals in England and Spain Feudal monarchy in France 0 Local warlords were taking responsibilities normally reserved for kings 0 Taxes raising an army holding courts 0 Would expand by conquering other lords 0 Still someone who had the title of King yet no one really cared about them The tradition however was ingrained in the society No one ever thought about not having a king Advantage over smaller lords because they had a lot of land and domain They had a court of nobles and Ecclesiastes 0 Control over some parts of the church monasteries and bishoprics 0 Hugh Capet 0 987996 0 Secured his domain around Paris 0 O O O 0 Used his court to increase the prestige of it 0 Set legal precedence that later kings used to expand their territory 0 Us his right to appoint bishops so that he could assert and spread his authority Robert the Pious O 996 103 1 0 Got along with religious reformers and leaders 0 First king to employ the royal touch where the king would go around touching People to cure them if this disease 0 Set him apart from other nobles and elevated him These kings had their sons crowned king while they were still alive to avoid fighting over the succession of the throne O Dismissed the importance and power of election The practice disappeared soon after Louis VI the fat 0 11081 137 0 Employed the Royal touch 0 Promoted Saint Denis to the patron saint of France 0 Brought more prestige to Paris and therefore the king Louis VII 0 1 1371 180 O Dressed splendidly to distract from hoe little lower he actually had 0 Held splendid ceremonies and parties 0 Policy of allying the monarchy with some of the urban centers in France 0 Extended his domain by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine who had a lot of land 0 However the marriage was annulled and left and took her land with her 0 She married Harry of Anjou later Henry II of England who also had a lot of land By the mid 12th century we see the emergence of the monarchy but nobles still have a lot of power and the people aren39t too keen on having a monarchy Edward the Confessor 0 King in England died in 1066 and left no heir William duke of Normandy William the conqueror took over saying that he had been given permission 0 King Harold was elected instead William was mad so he conquer England to become king both by right of conquest and heredity 0 Because of this every land holder in England became Williams vassal 0 Very wise ruler worked to establish a strong central monarchy that independent nobles couldn39t overwhelm 0 He gave nobles scattered pieces of land throughout the country so they couldn39t build up a large central point of power 0 Forced the nobles to think more in national terms rather than regionally Made sure he kept the customs in force 0 Doomsday book 1086 O 0 Census of everything in England William 11 and Henry I Sons of William became kings Died without any make heirs so the grandson was elected Henry asked for his daughter Matilda to be queen but they didn39t like that idea Stephen came to the throne in 1135 but the whole time Matilda was plotting against him Matilda39s son Henry II was pushing to be named heir to the throne Reform of the early medieval church Wednesday January 13 2016 Christianity Conversion of Western Europe began in the 6th century Was very shallow in many places people were more attached to the miraculous aspects of it not the daily responsibilities Priests were poorly educated Most lay people didn39t know any priests personally Revival of towns led to the r establishment of Christianity and more intensification Concern and discontent with the state of the church led to calls for church reform even the papacy wanted reforms popes were advocating for church and societal reform More priests in the parishes starting in the central Middle Ages more priests in communities than government officials Monks monasticism O Transcribe things Ran schools Prayed Acted as counsellors to monarchs Supplied troops O Aristocrats used this for a holding position for their sons 0 O O O Bishops were appointed by aristocrats The papacy was normally rotated to different families in Rome These lay families taking over the religious positions led to neglect in religious duty and simony the selling of church offices 0 The common people were supposed to look up to the church and the bishops to look to the pope 0 By 1100 the church was mostly secular and when Christianity became more intense for a lot of people for various reasons people wanted reforms William p duke of Aquitaine O Founded monastery at Cluny O Placed under direct papal control supposed to be void of any and all secular control 0 Set an example and more of this type popped up Henry 111 10381056 0 Concerned with church reform went to Rome to figure out what to do 0 At this point there were 3 men all claiming to be pope Henry was frustrated so he brought his army and dissolved them of their ideas of being pope and anointed a new line of popes who were interested in church reform 0 Pope Leo IX 0 Successful because he would travel around to assert his authority 0 Wanted to stop simony his presence caused tensions O 1054 one of his representatives took a decree to Constantinople that excommunicated the eastern patriarch there so the patriarch excommunicated the pope Caused a split between the western and eastern churches 0 Henry III left his 6 year old son Henry IV in power with his mother as regent 0 Not smart because it weakened the control of the monarch but was good for those who wanted to reform the church 0 Papal election decree 1059 was passed during this time stated that the cardinals would instate the new pope Secular people were not allowed to have a say caused opposition from aristocrats and emperors Major step to break free from control of lay people 0 Investiture controversy who gets to appoint the clergy 0 Pope Gregory VII 10731085 0 His appointment wasn39t in line with the papal election decree but he was still good 0 Attacked the practice of simony thought to bind the church to the secular world in an unhealthy way and clerical marriage they were worried that marriage would lead to the clergy being involved in the secular world too much and neglect their religious duties also possibly because they didn39t want the possessions and offices of the church to go to heirs O Rejected any ideas of secular people in uencing church decisions 0 He excommunicated Henry IV and therefore exerted his dominance by being able to see who was fit to be a ruler in this world and who was not 0 He told the aristocrats to stop associating with Henry which they fully agreed to do so that they could gain power for themselves The ne king was elected disrupting the idea of a hereditary kingship starting the tradition of elected officials which continued until the Holy Roman Empire dissolved 0 Henry IV stood outside in the snow until the pope forgave him he then took over the throne again and renewed his struggle with church reform 0 Pope Urban II 10881099 0 Devoted a lot of attention to the papacy 0 Thought that excommunication was very dramatic in the moment but lacked long term effects 0 Tried to stir up rebellion against Henry 0 Called up the first crusade to do so 0 Henry v 11051125 0 Successor to his father Henry IV 0 More tranquil reign than his father 0 Gave up efforts to gain full imperial power and r ached an agreement with the church on how to split up power Pope urban II 1 6 9593 O Concordat of worms 1122 0 Henry gave up lay investiture bishops were only spiritually elected and the pope allowed the emperor to give bishops and clergy symbols of their dominions 0 Didn39t exactly end the struggle because there were some loopholes that caused contention Frederick Barbarossa 11521190 0 O 0000 Elected to the throne by the aristocracy Realized he wouldn39t be able to have as much power as emperors did in the past so he encouraged territorial princes to expand their territory and power Wanted more land and money to be sort of indirectly und his control Enlarged his own royal domain by taking over towns and monasteries Extended imperial control over places in Italy threatened the power of the pope The pope joined forces and frustrated Fredericks plans Henry VI 11901197 0 O 0 Married the heiress of Sicily in southern Italy Threatened the popes control in southern Italy Resources started to be drained so Henry wasn39t able to use the new territories to his advantage Died early and left his young son in power Over saw the administrative part of the church Canon law church law was developed By the 12th century the church had organized itself with the pope clearly at the top 1Pope Cardinals Archbishop Bishop Priest abbotabbess Monknun Monasticism was an effort to elevate the quality of spiritual life in Christian society The very first months had withdrawn from the world in response to what they called complacency toward the church St Benedict called for a withdraw from the world in order to better serve God Even this monasticism got caught up in the secular world Monks lives and taught in this world and were even landlords for the secular world Monastic houses doubled in number from the 1100s to the 1200s The Cistercian order Emphasized a rigorous version of the benediction rule Organized when a group of monks organized a new monastery in Citeaux France because they were disillusioned by the actions of their old monastery Lived very simply only had one robe Spend more time in private prayer 0 Not very elaborate buildings 0 Built their houses way out in the country 0 Supported themselves by having laymen that would work the fields 0 Became very successful business men with winecrops metal working etc 0 Found It hard to remove themselves from the world because of this 0 Bound together by a representative council of each house helped them maintain their strict lifestyle 0 Developed a new model for Christianity 0 Spread all throughout Europe Bernard of clairvaux 0 10901 153 0 Popular man known for his great mind 0 Became a known figure in the secular world 0 Known for activism helped to settle a disputed papal election 0 Advocate or the crusades 0 Created the Knights Templar knights who would assure safe passage for pilgrims trying to go to Jerusalem 0 Told people they could have a personal elation ship with God 0 Portrayed Christ and Mary in more personal and human terms than had been done before allowing people to feel like they could really pray and talk to these gods First house of Carthusians 0 Very strict lifestyle for the monks 0 All lived in separate cells met for meals only once a week 0 Fasting was required at least once per week 0 Not as popular but still a new order that rose up Female monasticism 0 Changing image of women 0 The cult of the Virgin Mary was spreading rapidly made her more approachable 0 Literature had made objects of admiration in ways not seen before 0 More women started joining the monasteries O Males still vastly outnumbered females probably around 51 0 Males were better off financially and supported more 0 How woman joined 0 Possibly aristocratic families who couldn39t get a dowry or marry their daughters put her there 0 Intellectual aspirations that wouldn39t be achieved outside the convent 0 Escape arranged marriage Hildegard of Bingen 0 10981179 0 Joined a nunnery at 8 took her vows at 14 0 Became an abbess then left to start her own monastery 0 Started writing down divine revelations she said to have received 0 Became very famous and was highly regarded by royalty and was consulted by them 0 Saints were abundant local saints were popular and saints cults were founded Thomas Becket 0 Archbishop of Canterbury In 1770 the king had some people go and murder hum 3 years later he was declared a saint He was buried in Canterbury and his tomb was said to become a place of miracles Viewing Mary was the most popular Saint during this time period 0 Miracles started to be attributed to her 0 Monasteries named her as their patron saint 0 She was looked at with fascination a don was relatable because she was human yet higher up because she was Christ s mother OOO Relics 0 Holyreligious items Indulgences 0 Sold with relics 0 Reduction of punishment for sin 0 Related to the doctrine of purgatory souls went here when they weren39t sent to hell yet they weren39t quite ready for heaven indulgences would shorten the time in purgatory 0 Given for charitable act Pilgrimage 0 Points to strengthening of Christianity because it was very popular 0 Jerusalem was the most popular place 0 Canterbury Rome Santiago de compostela we39re other popular places to go 0 Spiritual quest sort of vacation for the as well 0 Financial dimension 0 Cost money for foodboard 0 Inns along the routes spring up 0 Badge of St Thomas becket was often bought to show people you actually went 0 The most important book for Christianity and this region 0 Clergy used it for everything they did 0 Very few vernacular versions people were discouraged from reading the bible out of fear that they would Misinterpret it because they hadn39t been properly trained 0 Instead scenes were painted on church walls so that people could learn Sermons 0 Early sermons were focused on fire and brimstone and he39ll 0 Later focused on practical morality and living a good Christian life Clergy were supposed to use the bible to create sermons but many of them were illiterate themselves Th6 SCVGII sacraments l Qt tOr t Baptism Ceremony that gave a person membership in the Christian church without it they could not receive salvation Marriage Not a sacrament until the twelfth century not surprising given the prominence of celibacy Eucharist Brought Christians as close to Christ as possible symbols of Christi body and blood Transubstantiation part of the service where the priest turned the wine and bread into the actual blood and esh of Christ People stopped consuming it so the church said you had to at least once a year Many people them did it on Easter Confession Practiced since the early days in the 12th century the process became very personal Before it was done publicly but now it was just between a person and the priest Had to be done once a year Extreme unction Confession at the moment of death that was said to still allow for salvation Holy orders Confirmation Historians have always been very critical of the European crusaders Said to be a long war of intolerance and ignorance On the 900th anniversary there was a reconciliation walk The pope asked for formal forgiveness for the excesses of the crusades Many colleges and organizations have changed their mascot from the crusaders because of the negative connotations Pope urban II Selfish Turks disrupted the usual order of the Muslims holding Jerusalem and the Christians visiting when they wanted to 0 They defeated the Byzantines who then appealed to the pope for assistance in 1071 0 Pope was busy with the investiture controversy so he didn39t help 0 In 1075 another power appealed to him and the pope preached the crusade Most urban people didn39t think much about the crusades or care so to speak 0 They knew that the Muslims thought Christ was a prophet but it wasn39t clear how they fit in with Christianity Council of Clermont 1095 O Preached that Christians should go and defend the church and reclaim Jerusalem 0 He promised a plenary indulgence for those who participated and died in the crusade was the remission of all sin and the first instance of this 0 People got very excited about the call and it seems like the pope hadn39t thought it through very well 0 1096 0 Four large armies ascended under papal leadership 0 Probably 10000 men each mostly composed of French soldiers 0 The armies split up and decided to meet at Constantinople where they thought they would be warmly welcomed 0 However the Byzantines didn39t to want to reclaim Jerusalem they just wanted money and food for troops Thy were extremely unruly in contrast to the disciplined Byzantine army Ordinary people in Constantinople were forced to offer room and board to the crusaders Many people died from disease hunger or fighting each other However they were able to defeat the Turkish armies They established Edessa Antioch Tripoli and Jerusalem There wasn39t a unified force of Muslims some allied with the crusaders Knights of St John hospitallers Knights of the Templars Templars Edessa o The state of Edessa fell prompting the second crusade 11471149 Conrad III Louis VII and Baldwin III of Jerusalem 0 Couldn39t agree where to go or what to do 0 This lack of unity contributed to the failure to recapture Edessa 0 Also the Turkish forces were a lot stronger 0 Did not crush the zealous spirit of the Christians Third crusade 0 Prompted by the recon quest of Jerusalem in 1887 0 Still have high profile leaders around Europe joining this crusade 0 Frederick Barbarossa 0 Richard I lion heart 0 Philip Augustus 0 Frederick Barbarossa decided to take a land route to Jerusalem which left the troops decimated Frederick also died on the way 0 Richard and Augustus made it to the outskirts of Jerusalem couldn39t agree on anything and fought the whole time So they got mad and just went back 0 Richard was taken prisoner by the Holy Roman Empire and England had to pay a ransom to get him back Fourth crusade 11981204 0 Called by pope innocent III 0 There was no dramatictragic event that led him to call this crusade 0 Some argue that he called it to reinvigorate religious life in Western Europe 00 O O O O o The church was having a problem with Heresy at this time 0 Even the monastic wing wasn39t living up to its ideals 0 They were supposed to go to Jerusalem and recapture it ended up in Constantinople Fifth crusade against the Egyptians didn39t amount to much marked the end of pope involvement By the 13th century the crusading has waned significantly However it39s still a hot topic 0 Seems to go against the morals of Christianity 0 Thought to be unprovoked 0 White supremacy religious intolerance Crusades resulted in the persecution of European Jews as well 0 Until the crusades the two groups lived together and were peaceful 0 The first crusaders attacked Jewish towns and settlements in France Albigensian Crusade 12091229 0 Having a common belief system became increasingly important 0 With the intensification of Christianity the boundaries between orthodox and unorthodox became clearer and sharper 0 Increasingly troubling to authority of the church 0 Pope innocent 111 first sent preachers to the albigensians to try and reign them back in but it didn39t work so he called a crusade on them It was very cruel and very bloody Reasons people went 0 A lot of religious zeal 0 Some wanted landmoney especially the second born sons 0 Promise of indulgences if you died 0 Shifting fighting spirit from fighting each other to uniting against a common enemy Emergence of the mendicant orders and contemplative orders 0 They were trying to restructure the church for its benefit 0 Quest for a deeper spiritual experience 0 They went out into the secular world to preach Mendicant Order Francis of Assisi 0 Gave up his aristocratic standing after having a series of religious experiences that urged him to follow a more simple life style 0 Showed his change by stripping off his clothing which was a way to give everything he had been given back to his father 0 Lived a very poor life attracted a lot of followers 0 Orders of Friars minor 0 Franciscans 0 Lived among ordinary people 0 Preached and helped the poor 0 Did missionary work to try and improve the quality of Christian life O Novitiate 0 The structure of the church set by Francis before his death 0 Reemphasized the idea of living in poverty 0 Eventually falls apart over disputes about property and people not liking how the leaders were acting Dominic de Guzman 0 Concerned about the Albigensian heresy thought that persuading people with a new religious order would stop heresy 0 Received papal approval for the orders of the preachers or Dominicans Sometimes called black Friars O Took vows of poverty but their chief purpose was preaching 0 Schools taught Friars so they could go teach correct Christian doctrine O Elaborate structure of government 0 Born out of his desire to save the church from its enemies 0 Clare of Assisi O Daughter of an aristocrat 0 Found the Franciscan message very attractive She wanted to withdraw from an arranged marriage peach and live in poverty 0 Francis thought it would be unseemly to have women begging in the streets and preaching O Founded the poor Clare39s where they would work in leprosy wings and stuff 0 Dominican opened up ranks to women as well 0 Beguines 0 Communities of women who lived in poverty together but didn39t take religious vows 0 Free to leave at any time 0 Arose with a Belgian woman drawn to high ideals of poverty and service 0 Renounced her marriage and gave away all her possessions to work I39m s leper colony 0 Didn t quite spread to England 0 Only all women groupmonastery 0 Some argue that there was a surplus of unmarried women at this time and dowries were Too expensive so women turned to this 0 It also could be a true that they were truly interested in this lifestyle Heretics 0 Challenges to the church become palpable 0 Peter Waldo 0 Sold everything he had and gave it to the poor 0 Embarked on life of poverty Dan preaching 0 Had been a wealthy merchant attracted a substantial following known as the waldensians Were recognized by the pope Started to become more radical in their preaching 0 Attached the church for its wealth preached without licenses O O Labeled as heretics and weren39t able to be eradicated Cathars 0 Albigensian39s 0 Spiritual descendants of Mani a 3rd century preacher who taught about extreme ideas 0 Abstained from all esh Jews 0 Associated with money lenders However it was only a small segment of Jews that did this 0 Envy Jewish community had a school 0 High literacy rates 0 Produced well known scholars contributed to every field of study 0 Church councils prohibited marriage between Jews and Christians sharing meals Jews couldn39t go to Christian doctrine or hold Christian slaves 0 Oppressed during the crusades 0 Charged obscene prices for simple things 0 Papacy started to act against Jews 0 Forced to attend Christian sermons O Rigged debated about religion where the Christians won 0 Animated an antisemitism that has proved to be open of European worse legacies from the Middle Ages 0 Expulsion of Jews from a variety of regions Famine and population 0 13151317 changing weather patterns and famines O Shortened growing season for crops 0 More storms than was common destroyed crops as well 0 Food shortages in Europe Great Famine became a familiar pattern on the rest of the continent later on 0 Known as little ice age 0 Population decline 0 All productive land was under cultivation and some area needles a lot more work to grow food there than others 0 Susceptible to any change in weather patterns easily destroyer 0 Appears that individual land holdings were shrinking 0 People were trying to support themselves on less land than they ever had before their area was so small they couldn39t produce enough food to support their family Epidemic disease 0 Peloponnesian wars 0 Mongols Black Death room ably originated in Central Asia 0 Spread by the Mongols and the changes in economy 0 Debate about what the sickness was 0 Said to be spread throughout Europe by rats and eas o More recently it has been argued that the rat wasn39t responsible because there aren39t dead rats among the people who died from the plague 0 Also says the dies ease spread too quickly for rats to be responsible and it wouldn39t been too cold for eas to spread it 0 Symptoms O Fever swollen lymph nodes lumps on the body 0 With bubonic plague there would be bacteria spread to the lungs and result in coughing up blood Killed 95 of people who had it but wasn39t very common 0 Septicemic was the most common strain of plague Died within a day of contracting the disease Began in Europe when Italian merchants brought it from the Middle East to Germany 0 It appears that entire villages were wiped out 0 At least 2535 million people died 0 Outbreaks continued every decade or so for the rest of the 14th century 0 The population was lowered and remained low until the mid16th century Responses to the Black Death 0 Thought that the body was comprised of 4 humors and the plague would come when these were off balance They could become off balance by the air quality planet movements and other things that the people the Tried to control to avoid the plague 0 People sought other explanations O God was punishing them 0 People prayed a lot and plead for forgiveness 0 Some people pointed to women as a source of pollution and plague which led many people to drive prostitutes out of the city Flagellants 0 Movement of people started in Rome and spread through Europe 0 Urged people to repent 0 Ritually beat themselves supposed to symbolize the suffering of Christ 0 Condemned by the pope and were gone by 1350 0 Attacks against people in Europe seen as outsides 0 Lepers and Jews were thought to be sources of pollution 0 Jews were accuses of poisoning the drinking water of Christians in order to destroy the church 0 Post plague population had a morbid preoccupation with death 0 O Emphasis was placed on elaborate funerals 0 Funeral monuments were more elaborate during the Black Death 0 Dislocation 0 Economic dislocation accompanied by social disorder 0 In the wake of the Black Death there is a series of urban and rural revolts 0 Everyone was suffering didn39t matter what your social status was 0 There was a labor shortage after the black death O O O O O O O 0 Peasants started to make more money because of this Statute of laborers 135 1 Tried to put wages back to preplague ones Tried to limit the mobility of peasants who would move to a different set of land if they were unhappy with their wages Didn39t do much to lower the wages but slowed the rise of wage Changes also included that they were now only reequipped to pay rent for the land J acquerie 1358 Rebellion of peasants in France Combination of the effects of the plague and the 100 years war Florence ciompi resold in 1378 O Unskilled laborers revolted 0 Wanted to have more wealth available to them 0 King Edward 111 0 Increased taxes to support the 100 years war 0 Burdened the people even more 0 Succeeded by his 10 year old grandson Richard II 0 O O O o Landlords tried to impose old fines and economic structures on the peasantry Peasants revolt of 1381 Kent Essex Cities protected themselves with walls during this period but the rebels were let into the city by sympathetic people Kidnapped two of King Richards advisors Wat Tyler was killed after confrontation with the king and since he was the leader the rebellion was crushed after The revolts didn39t have a lot of long lasting effects on the political and social structure of Europe 0 0 Attack on Jews in Seville 1391 A tracks became more racially based Some people were arguing that even a Jew who converted to Christianity was still a Jew and therefore didn39t have the same rights as true Christians Primary Source Review Annals of Xanten It describes the persecutions by the Vikings beginning in 845 AD to whom the Christians gave money in hopes it would deter them from attacking Gaul However the cloisters of the most of the saints were destroyed and many Christians were led away captive anyway Churches were destroyed and towns plundered Along with these attacks the people of Gaul faces natural disasters such as floods and droughts which inhibited them from becoming strong enough to fight back against the invaders By 848 the invading peoples are simply called heathens All this points to how the people of Gaul specifically saw the Vikings as evil Three Sources on the Ravages of the Northmen in Frankland c 843 912 This source provides a similar view of the Vikings This account is much more detailed in describing the acts of the Vikings and how it affected the people The beginning attacks that are discussed are notable because the people were actually able to fend off these invaders and protect their country However as the attacks continue essentially every year they aren t able to resist A particular battle between the invaders and people is recounted and portrays how the people saw themselves as God s people and the Vikings as inferior heathens through references to God s will and protection over them The people of Frankland felt as though they weren t only protecting their country they were also defending their religion This further depicts the Vikings in a very negative light that is biased because of their beliefs Everything Ravaged Everything Burned The fictional account Everything Ravaged Everything Burned shows the story from the Vikings perspective The main character a male Viking doesn t want to go out and plunder but sees no other option than to leave his wife and do this After reaching the city he and a couple of his friends resist plundering and murdering and instead need to seek help from one of the villagers Although they aren t necessarily violent they are still very demanding that they need to be helped and given food and wine by the patriarch of the household they are in One man demands that he be able to marry the daughter so he takes her back with him This possibly shows how the Vikings were raised the only life they knew was one where you had to demand what you wanted and people would give it to you Although it is clearly morally wrong to pillage and burn entire cities they had few options This source goes in to the poor farmland and simply the lack of other viable options for employment After all the narrator mentions his desire to start a family with his wife and pillaging is the way he can earn enough to do so The Tyranny of a Construct In The Tyranny of a Construct Brown argues that the terms feudalism and feudal society are vastly overused when describing Medieval Times and for the most part inaccurate Historians had been too eager to find some similar formula so to speak that would be compatible with the diverse civilizations during this time period Brown argues that the simple fact of the matter is there is no cookie cutter mold for these societies that would warrant such a blanket term and that historians were too reaching when finding the similarities used to bolster the idea of feudalism The power of the pope and kings in some regions was much more prevalent than others This would be a factor that disrupted the feudal system that is often characterized by nobles and peasants entering into agreements for protection and support that the common ruler in many cases a King was too weak to provide There are some historians who agree with Brown whereas others claim that the term is accurate Among those who agree there is debate on how to remedy the situation The idea that medieval society operated under feudalism has been thoroughly ingrained in textbooks and curricula at all levels of education This brings up many questions which of the many definitions of feudalism should be taught Seeing as it is such a compleX concept should it be taught in elementary school for simplicity If so how should educators go about re teaching something that has become a fact to the students All of these are valid points that Brown brings up She is clear in her thought that the term feudalism is used inaccurately and diminished the integrity of history for this time period She closes by saying that one solution to this confusion would be to change the curriculum of this time period from early on This would allow for regions with strong central governments and those with weak ones to be given equal discussion and thought As a result the notion that a feudal system was wide spread would no longer be present and instead students would be taught about how different regions responded to different circumstances leading to a more comprehensible and holistic view of the Medieval Times Charter of Homage and Fealty 11 10 0 a translated contract of a vassal to his lord in France 0 Provides insight as to what was important for the people of France such as protection and loyalty Feudal Oaths of Fealty Fulbert of Chartres On Feudal Obligations 1020 To William duke of the Aquitanians From bishop Fulbert About The responsibilities of vassals and lords Vassals needed to swear loyalty to their lord protect and respect his lord he should be honest and defend his lordhis lords land Lords need to behave reciprocally toward his vassal and protect him Nicetas Choniates The Sack of Constantinople 1204 Who a byzantine historian named Nicetas Choniates About describes the events of the fourth crusade He paints the crusaders in a very negative light saying they were ruining the name of Christ and pillaging the temples and churches He also says that there was a lot of rape captivity and crime throughout because of the crusaders coming and invading Chronicles of the Crusades Composed by soldiers who fought in the Holy Wars these two famous French chronicles are among the most important portrayals of both the dark and light side of the two hundred year struggle for possession of Jerusalem The first trustworthy and fully informed history of the Crusades Villehardouin39s Conquest of Constantinople describes the era of the Fourth Crusade the period between 1199 and 1207 during which a planned battle with Moslem forces ironically culminated in war against Eastern Christians that led to the sacking of Constantinople The Life of Saint Louis by J oinville was inspired by the author39s close attachment to the pious King Louis and focuses on the years between 1226 and 1270 It provides a powerful personal insight into the brutal battles and the fascinating travels of one nobleman fighting in the Sixth and Seventh Crusades Boccaccio The Decameron When 13131375 Who historian Giovanni Boccaccio About The effects of the black death on European society The people went to great efforts to try and rid the city of the disease by segregating the sick from the rest of the people carrying around herbs praying all the time and blood letting The plague disrupted societal order by breaking apart families and causing the people to have an altered view of death The ornate funerals with a lot of people all gathering together were no longer because there was just so much death The Black Death and the Jews When 13481349 Who various historians talk about the black death and how if affected jews About There was a conspiracy going around that the Jewish people had a conspiracy that included poisoning the wells of Christian communities in order to attack Christianity as a religion The government officials didn t really believe this or want to do much about it but they were overwhelmed by the peoples demands that the Jews be punished Ultimately jews were tortured until they confessed and then burned unless they baptized Jews were also expeellled from the land Some of the account says that the people didn t really think the Jews did this but because so many people owed money to them they wanted to absolve their debts and wealth
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