Theatre History II Exam 1 Study Guide
Theatre History II Exam 1 Study Guide TH 3321.251
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Notetaker on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to TH 3321.251 at Texas State University taught by Kevin Tyson Gates in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Theatre History II 18 Century Italy/France 1. Baroque drama/emotion, asymmetry, dynamic, ornate, mix of rectangular and curvilinear space 2. Renaissanceorder, rationalism, nature, symmetry, harmony 3. Design influence of Bibiennas angle per, larger scale, asymmetry, rarely used levels 4. Design developments Renaissance set design Roman architect: vitruvius’ work vs Baroque lead by Bibiennas. Discoveries of Herculaneum. Pompeii inspired new concern with local and historical accuracy, mood added to design by manipulating light and shadow, sets and curtains were not on angles but appeared to be. 5. 17501800 under Cardinal Richelieu the Academie Francaise, Neoclassicism was established as the dominant style preservation more important than innovation Unity of Time, place of action Five act structure Decorumsocial status quo Purity of genre, 24 hrs one location Universality & morality 6. Alfieri Wrote tragedies, character with internal conflict in simple plots Concerned with overthrow of tyranny and Italian independence 7. Voltaire most popular write of the time in France wrote 50+ plays adds ghosts onstage, violence, spectacle, removes spectators from the stage 8. Diderot Helped to popularize ‘middle dramas’ in France (sentimental comedy and domestic tragedy) “Theatre works best when it creates an illusion of reality” Credited by some with inventing 4 wall 9. Marivaux Wrote most skillful sentimental comedies Many of his comedies use commedia characters 30 plays including The Game of Love and Chance 10. Beaumarchais Originally watchmakers Best known for 3 Figaro plays: Barber of Seville, Marriage of Figaro, The Guilty Mother Commented on social conditions, expressed lowerclass dissatisfaction French equivalent of laughing comedy 18 Century Germany 1. Educational theatre schools began to have performance classes in them 2. Hanswurst popular German character in the early 1700s who was developed by Josef Anton Stranitzky. Dressed as buffon but sometimes clever Dressed like beer drinking peasant, or Salburg Part medieval fool part English clown, part Alecchino Improvised, scatological humor In lots of plays based on libretti 3. Gottscheds Johann Christoph Gottschedscritic who insisted that German Theatre should adopt Neoclassicism, perform translated plays or imitations in order to elevate theatre. Luise Gottschedplaywright and translator of French plays 4. Neuber led her own theater company, insisted on rehearsals and actual learning of parts of improve Policed personal lives of actors to protect the company’s reputation Morally improve standards of company Worked with Gottscheds from 17251739. Wasn’t super successful, but it helped production values. 5. Production venues 1650swhen first companies form, they had to tour since cities couldn’t support them. This meant stages were moveable and would last awhile. 1750scourts began to build theatres, which were statesponsored so they would compete against each other Decentralized theater, based off of Comedie Francaise Until 1725 heaving touring, limited to 3 sets, simple costumes 1750 permanent theatres, 6 sets, new play styles meant need for more middle class settings, French influence on costuming 1770 spectacle, detailed sets, chariot and pole, historical accuracy in costumes 6. Lessing’s influencefirst ever dramaturg, first important German playwright, translated French plays for Neuber; wrote his first play for her. 7. Storm and stress movement Sturm und Drang, named for the play Storm and Stress, rebellious movement without a common goal in mind Existed to rebel against unspecified aspects of the Neoclassicism movement Stress individual, emotional turmoil & individuality no shared ideology other than rebellion shock for shocks sake, like Jacob Lenz’s The Soldiers, or Hienrich Leopold Wagner’s The Children Murderess few plays produced, but were read and discussed paves way for Weimar Classicism 8. Kotzebue most popular and performed playwright in the modern world. More popular than published first major play was Misanthropy and Repentance ¼ of plays performed was his Wrote over 200, only about 40 have been translated to English Noted for changing sentimental comedy out for Melodrama Spoke out against AntiSemitism and was assassinated 9. Schiller Wrote The Robbers, couldn’t see first performance leads to him spazzing and going to jail and not being allowed to write again 1794 became friends with Goethe and moved to Weimar Eventually wrote plays about historical events, Was the epitome of Weimar Classicism 10. Goethe Worked in lots of areas Leader of Sturm und Drang movement because of earlier writings Had foot in Romantic movement (fits in all 3 movements, Weimar, Sturm und Drang, and Romanticism) Trip to Italy gave him appreciation and inspiration from the Greeks. Managed Weimar Court Theater in 1791 Wrote Faust (took 50 years and was published in chunks, has two parts) that illustrates mankind’s search for fulfillment 11. Weimar classicism An attempt to capture the spirit of ancient drama Unify single view Audience can perceive patterns (mixing Greek, rationalism, and Sturm und Drang) Use history, myth, verse, like Greeks with local stories Staging idealized, used ensemble actors 610 rehearsals, but Goethe would rehearse with actors for months before shows Courts subsidized the costs of theatre (mix of genres in shows to please the courts) Goethe acted in innovative ways as a modern director Divided stage into grid to block Would keep time of show using conductors wand Charge actors for messing up Blocking based on ‘making pictures’ African Theatre 1. Traditional African performance Each culture has its own traditions Words are the least important part Emphasis on other ‘languages’, like drums, dance, song Lots of audience interaction and improve Our version of European theatre was forced on Africa if colonial period 2. Issues facing playwrights Which language to use A published play with poor audience reaction was more influential than successful unpublished play Politics and censorship 3. Soyinka Nigerian, Yoruba family Studied in the UK and wrote for the Royal Court Won 1986 noble prize Mixed Western and African Theatrical elements Wrote Death and the King’s Horsemen i. Conflict between modern and traditional ii. Need for sacrifice for selfknowledge 4. Fugard One of most significant South African playwrights Wrote the Blood Knot, Master Harold..and the Boys Venues: snake pit, fruit market 5 . Strong Breed Theatre 18001850 1. Melodrama’s background Cultural changes in Europe led to Industrial revolution Democratic revolutions Urbanization Cities makeup changing Rebellions throughout Europe in 1848 Theatre numbers drastically decreasing 2. Pattern/appeal of melodrama Virtue under siege Bad guy gets poetic justice in the end Suspenseful plots with thrilling escape Quick conversions Hero with comic relief as ally Plots device (abduction, coincidence, hidden papers, mistaken identity, hiding identity) Music, song, and dance Pop culture’s response to Neoclassicism 3. Pixerecourt playwright, usually included dogs, insisted on control over staging, used large spectacles on stage like trains or lava 4. Romantic Theory Believes in Higher Truth God is too vast for human mind to understand All things are part of one whole Infinite variety is valued rather than reducing it to a single form (opposite of Neoclassicism which stresses form) Duality of human existence, body/soul Doesn’t need to be just comedy or just tragedy Society is a corrupting force, closer to nature means closer to God/Truth Noble savage Emotion and instinct is more important than reason 5. Romantic theatre Art gives us a chance to look at truth, which raises our awareness of what is potential Seeing the Truth requires Genius, so the “artist” is superior to the rest of the world 6. Schlegel Published and founded magazine with brother in 1798 called Das Athenaum Began debate about romantic ideas Translated Calderon, Dante, and Shakespeare First professor Sanskrit in Europe and translated Bagvadgida Feuded with Kotzebue over silly plays Wrote article entitled The Hyperborean Jackass 7. Kleist Wrote The Prince of Homburg in 1811 and play events were based on a real story but changed to benefit the playwright 8. Tieck Put romantic ideals on stage Difficult to put such esoteric qualities on stage Put fairytales on stage to satirize rationalism Used ‘twilight’ imagery Wanted more realistic acting Using Elizabethan staging, thrust, Hired someone to look at the plans of the Fortune Theatre to build London during Renaissance Artist unity through strong director, which was hard with star actors Shakespeare with Elizabethan staging Antigone with Greekstaging Kaiser Octavianusmost famous work on how Christianity took over Europe Primary contributions were translating Shakespeare and using Greek and Elizabethan staging 9. Buchner Died before 24 Wrote influential plays, but were forgotten and found and published after his death Wanted realistic acting Woyzeck, Danton’s Death, Lenz Would be influential in naturalist and expressionist movements 10. Hugo In preface to novel, Cromwell, wrote what became the French Romanticism’s manifesto Called for ugly alongside what is beautiful in theatre to resemble life Wrote Hernani Romanticists fight against the Classicists at the theatre Claquespeople placed to respond and encourage audience to react appropriately Breaks the unities (time, place, action) Less proper language to the higher class Subplots Not in one location Les Burgraves, fails in 1843 and symbolically signals the end of Romanticism movement in France 11. Scribe’s “wellmade play”a structure or formula for how to structure a play Late point of attack Exposition at the beginning Immediate inciting incident Too obvious exposition Conflict between hero and antagonist with reversal “scene a faire” scene that must be done, where hero wins and secret is revealed Final denouement after climax Perfect example of wellmade play The Glass of Water 12. Theatre Regulation Act of 1843 gave licensing power to the local authorities to remove the Lord Chamberlain’s monopoly on the control of theatres productions. It meant he had to give a reason for denying play 13. Gothic melodramas Had element of horror involved (Lewis) 14. Performance Conditions in France Gas lighting until 1822 Playwrights began to get royaltys Hugo began use of whole stage Actors utilized furniture Run of show might last 100 Line of businesses began to change star actors 1840 meant historically accurate costumes Daguerre invented diorama 1855 over 28 theatres in France 15. Baille wrote few published plays but were wrongfully considered closet dramas. She was most respected female playwright of Romantic era 16. Kemble family Acting dynasty that ruled English stage John Kemblemanaged Covenant Garden from 17881817. Started acting in 1776 and considered greatest English speaking actor Sarah Kemble Siddons from 1782 was greatest tragic actress Charles Kembletook over Covenant Garden when John retired Frances Kemblewrote and translated play. Noted for writing Notes on Some of Shakespeare’s Play Noted for classical style (stateliness, dignity and grace) 17. Kean Cared about emotions Excelled at villains Ignored grace and nobility 1814 appeared at Drury Lane First major English actor to tour the US from 1810 to 1812 Worked as star performed instead of with company in 1820s 18. Aldridge Began his career with the African Company in NY Got tired of being discriminated against so they would emigrate to England 1825 he had top billing in England and then went onto tour much of Europe Played critically acclaimed Othello 19. Macready Combined Kembles dignity with Kean’s passion Know for his lengthy pauses (stop to collect thoughts before he began his speeches) Managed Covenant Garden at one point and then Drury Lane later on Watned specific blocking and actual acting in rehearsals First push for historical accuracy Restored some of Shakespeare’s texts High standards as an artist, not financially successful. 20. Vestris Actress, singer, and dance, managed Olympic theatre Coordinated design elements together Shortens bill till it ended at 11 Used box sets with real props High standards as an artist, but not entirely financially successful. 21. Star Actorsactors who would travel around to different companies. 22. Box setsones where audience is the fourth wall 23. Historical accuracyfirst push in sets with Macready U.S. Theatre to 1900 1. First play, theatre first play performed in English controlled North America was Ye Bare and Ye cuba, first theatre was built in Williamsburg, VI in 1716 1752 beginning of professional theatre in the US William Salaams troupe from England, used british representatives 2. Theatre centers Used showboat tours, major cities have 24 theatre English stars would sometime tour 3. Forrest After his success in NY he toured UK and played 10 months on Drury Lane Socialized with Macready and Charles Kemble 4. Astor Place Riots On May 10, 25 were killed, 120 injured Immigrants and nativists against city’s police and state militia at the opera house 5. HallamDouglass First fully professional theater company in the US and merged with David Douglass company and toured 6. Cushman First native born star of American stage Actor/manager who played Lady M opposite Macready Did breaches roles According to Browning, she made vows of celibacy with Matilda to dress alike and have a female marriage 7. Native Character types native Amiercan, Yankee, city boy, 8. Minstrelsy acts where groups would paint their faces as a clown or fool, until 1920s 9. Uncle Tom’s Cabin George Aiken wrote the adaptation From 18521853 ran over 30 performances By 1900, 500 touring groups were performing it Once there was 5 at one time in London 10. Booth greatest American actor of 1800s Opened Booth’s Theatre Introduced new staging methods Eliminated apron and moved all action behind proscenium Free plantation, removed rake, wing, and groove 11. Daly Drama critic, manager, playwright, first recognized director Tyrannical control Fines formed company in NY and London 12. MacKayeplaywright, actor, manager Wrote 30 plays Helped established the first school of acting in the US Flameproof curtain, theater seats, nebulator Made 3 theatres in NY Theatres from 18501900 1. Modernism shift from absolute relative values, in search for truth. More artistic th movements in the 20 century than all the previous periods of history combined 2. Marx Wrote the communist manifesto Attacks what is common about religion, economics, and social norms Increased the public’s concern for the poor or oppressed Tendency to discredit existing forms as constructs of the bourgeoisie 3. Comte abandon metaphysical explanations, replace based on observation and analysis Sociologysolve social problems scientifically Father of psychology Coined altruism 3 stages of societal development: theological (younger generation follows what older generation said), metaphysical, positive (science and logic) 4. Darwin Wrote On The Origin of Species Challenges the Bible Heredity and environment determine human choice and limit our responsibility 5. Freud Writings enter public discourse Basic human instincts are aggression and sexuality Socially unacceptable feelings are buried in the subconscious Emphasis on dreams influencing nonrealistic drama 6. Delsarte Teacher in singing and declamation, composer Taught method of movements and gestures based on human interaction Emotional connection to gestures 7. Dumas fils serious didactic treatment of contemporary issues, but conform to conventional morality Used Scribes wellmade formula Illusionist staging st Improved lighting 8. 1 phase of realism (principles, drama, staging) Begins in France as a conscious movement Art must depict truthfully real physical world Must be impersonal and objective Based on direct observation of contemporary life Change in subject matter Critics say it is immoral, they say that society is immoral 9. Changes in staging practices (repertory to long run, regional theatres to comboination companies, actormanager to rise of director) 10. Free plantation
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