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Theatre History II Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Samantha Notetaker

Theatre History II Exam 1 Study Guide TH 3321.251

Marketplace > Texas State University > TH 3321.251 > Theatre History II Exam 1 Study Guide
Samantha Notetaker
Texas State
GPA 4.0

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These cover what the teacher outlined as us needing to study, but in my own words and formatting. This covers German, US, British, Italian, and French Theatre pre-1900. Enjoy!
Theatre History II
Kevin Tyson Gates
Study Guide
Theatre History II, texas state university
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Notetaker on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to TH 3321.251 at Texas State University taught by Kevin Tyson Gates in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
Theatre History II 18  Century Italy/France 1. Baroque­ drama/emotion, asymmetry, dynamic, ornate, mix of rectangular and  curvilinear space 2. Renaissance­order, rationalism, nature, symmetry, harmony 3. Design influence of Bibiennas­ angle per, larger scale, asymmetry, rarely used levels 4. Design developments­   Renaissance set design Roman architect: vitruvius’ work vs Baroque lead by  Bibiennas. Discoveries of Herculaneum.   Pompeii inspired new concern with local and historical accuracy, mood added to  design by manipulating light and shadow, sets and curtains were not on angles but appeared to be. 5. 1750­1800­  under Cardinal Richelieu the Academie Francaise, Neoclassicism was established  as the dominant style   preservation more important than innovation  Unity of Time, place of action  Five act structure  Decorum­social status quo  Purity of genre, 24 hrs one location  Universality & morality 6. Alfieri  Wrote tragedies, character with internal conflict in simple plots  Concerned with overthrow of tyranny and Italian independence  7. Voltaire­   most popular write of the time in France  wrote 50+ plays  adds ghosts onstage, violence, spectacle, removes spectators from the stage 8. Diderot­  Helped to popularize ‘middle dramas’ in France (sentimental comedy and  domestic tragedy)  “Theatre works best when it creates an illusion of reality”  Credited by some with inventing 4  wall 9. Marivaux­  Wrote most skillful sentimental comedies  Many of his comedies use commedia characters  30 plays including The Game of Love and Chance 10. Beaumarchais­  Originally watchmakers  Best known for 3 Figaro plays: Barber of Seville, Marriage of Figaro, The Guilty  Mother  Commented on social conditions, expressed lower­class dissatisfaction  French equivalent of laughing comedy 18  Century Germany 1. Educational theatre­ schools began to have performance classes in them 2. Hanswurst­   popular German character in the early 1700s who was developed by Josef Anton  Stranitzky.   Dressed as buffon but sometimes clever  Dressed like beer drinking peasant, or Salburg  Part medieval fool part English clown, part Alecchino  Improvised, scatological humor  In lots of plays based on libretti 3. Gottscheds­  Johann Christoph Gottscheds­critic who insisted that German Theatre should adopt  Neoclassicism, perform translated plays or imitations in order to elevate theatre.  Luise Gottsched­playwright and translator of French plays  4. Neuber­   led her own theater company, insisted on rehearsals and actual learning of parts of  improve  Policed personal lives of actors to protect the company’s reputation  Morally improve standards of company  Worked with Gottscheds from 1725­1739. Wasn’t super successful, but it helped  production values. 5. Production venues­  1650s­when first companies form, they had to tour since cities couldn’t support  them. This meant stages were moveable and would last awhile.  1750s­courts began to build theatres, which were state­sponsored so they would  compete against each other  Decentralized theater, based off of Comedie Francaise  Until 1725­ heaving touring, limited to 3 sets, simple costumes  1750­ permanent theatres, 6 sets, new play styles meant need for more middle class  settings, French influence on costuming  1770­ spectacle, detailed sets, chariot and pole, historical accuracy in costumes 6. Lessing’s influence­first ever dramaturg, first important German playwright, translated  French plays for Neuber; wrote his first play for her. 7. Storm and stress movement­   Sturm und Drang, named for the play Storm and Stress, rebellious movement  without a common goal in mind  Existed to rebel against unspecified aspects of the Neoclassicism movement  Stress individual, emotional turmoil & individuality  no shared ideology other than rebellion  shock for shocks sake, like Jacob Lenz’s The Soldiers, or Hienrich Leopold  Wagner’s The Children Murderess  few plays produced, but were read and discussed  paves way for Weimar Classicism 8. Kotzebue­  most popular and performed playwright in the modern world. More popular than  published  first major play was Misanthropy and Repentance  ¼ of plays performed was his  Wrote over 200, only about 40 have been translated to English  Noted for changing sentimental comedy out for Melodrama  Spoke out against Anti­Semitism and was assassinated 9. Schiller­  Wrote The Robbers, couldn’t see first performance leads to him spazzing and going to jail and not being allowed to write again  1794 became friends with Goethe and moved to Weimar  Eventually wrote plays about historical events,   Was the epitome of Weimar Classicism 10. Goethe­  Worked in lots of areas  Leader of Sturm und Drang movement because of earlier writings  Had foot in Romantic movement (fits in all 3 movements, Weimar, Sturm und  Drang, and Romanticism)  Trip to Italy gave him appreciation and inspiration from the Greeks.  Managed Weimar Court Theater in 1791  Wrote Faust (took 50 years and was published in chunks, has two parts) that  illustrates mankind’s search for fulfillment 11. Weimar classicism­  An attempt to capture the spirit of ancient drama  Unify single view  Audience can perceive patterns (mixing Greek, rationalism, and Sturm und Drang)  Use history, myth, verse, like Greeks with local stories  Staging idealized, used ensemble actors  6­10 rehearsals, but Goethe would rehearse with actors for months before shows  Courts subsidized the costs of theatre (mix of genres in shows to please the courts)  Goethe acted in innovative ways as a modern director  Divided stage into grid to block  Would keep time of show using conductors wand  Charge actors for messing up  Blocking based on ‘making pictures’ African Theatre 1. Traditional African performance­   Each culture has its own traditions  Words are the least important part  Emphasis on other ‘languages’, like drums, dance, song  Lots of audience interaction and improve  Our version of European theatre was forced on Africa if colonial period 2. Issues facing playwrights  Which language to use  A published play with poor audience reaction was more influential than  successful unpublished play  Politics and censorship 3. Soyinka­   Nigerian, Yoruba family  Studied in the UK and wrote for the Royal Court  Won 1986 noble prize  Mixed Western and African Theatrical elements  Wrote Death and the King’s Horsemen i. Conflict between modern and traditional ii. Need for sacrifice for self­knowledge 4. Fugard  One of most significant South African playwrights  Wrote the Blood Knot, Master Harold..and the Boys  Venues: snake pit, fruit market  5 .     Strong Breed­ Theatre 1800­1850 1. Melodrama’s background­   Cultural changes in Europe led to  Industrial revolution  Democratic revolutions  Urbanization  Cities make­up changing  Rebellions throughout Europe in 1848  Theatre numbers drastically decreasing 2. Pattern/appeal of melodrama  Virtue under siege  Bad guy gets poetic justice in the end  Suspenseful plots with thrilling escape  Quick conversions  Hero with comic relief as ally  Plots device (abduction, coincidence, hidden papers, mistaken identity, hiding  identity)  Music, song, and dance  Pop culture’s response to Neoclassicism 3. Pixerecourt­ playwright, usually included dogs, insisted on control over staging, used  large spectacles on stage like trains or lava 4. Romantic Theory  Believes in Higher Truth  God is too vast for human mind to understand  All things are part of one whole  Infinite variety is valued rather than reducing it to a single form (opposite of  Neoclassicism which stresses form)  Duality of human existence, body/soul  Doesn’t need to be just comedy or just tragedy  Society is a corrupting force, closer to nature means closer to God/Truth  Noble savage  Emotion and instinct is more important than reason 5. Romantic theatre  Art gives us a chance to look at truth, which raises our awareness of what is  potential  Seeing the Truth requires Genius, so the “artist” is superior to the rest of the  world 6. Schlegel­  Published and founded magazine with brother in 1798 called Das Athenaum  Began debate about romantic ideas  Translated Calderon, Dante, and Shakespeare  First professor Sanskrit in Europe and translated Bagvadgida  Feuded with Kotzebue over silly plays  Wrote article entitled The Hyperborean Jackass 7. Kleist  Wrote The Prince of Homburg in 1811 and play events were based on a real  story but changed to benefit the playwright 8. Tieck  Put romantic ideals on stage  Difficult to put such esoteric qualities on stage  Put fairytales on stage to satirize rationalism  Used ‘twilight’ imagery  Wanted more realistic acting  Using Elizabethan staging, thrust,   Hired someone to look at the plans of the Fortune Theatre to build London  during Renaissance  Artist unity through strong director, which was hard with star actors  Shakespeare with Elizabethan staging  Antigone with Greek­staging  Kaiser Octavianus­most famous work on how Christianity took over Europe  Primary contributions were translating Shakespeare and using Greek and  Elizabethan staging 9. Buchner­  Died before 24  Wrote influential plays, but were forgotten and found and published after his  death  Wanted realistic acting     Woyzeck, Danton’s Death, Lenz  Would be influential in naturalist and expressionist movements 10. Hugo  In preface to novel, Cromwell, wrote what became the French Romanticism’s  manifesto  Called for ugly alongside what is beautiful in theatre to resemble life  Wrote Hernani  Romanticists fight against the Classicists at the theatre  Claques­people placed to respond and encourage audience to react  appropriately  Breaks the unities (time, place, action)  Less proper language to the higher class  Subplots  Not in one location  Les Burgraves, fails in 1843 and symbolically signals the end of Romanticism  movement in France 11. Scribe’s “well­made play”­a structure or formula for how to structure a play  Late point of attack  Exposition at the beginning  Immediate inciting incident  Too obvious exposition  Conflict between hero and antagonist with reversal  “scene a faire” scene that must be done, where hero wins and secret is revealed  Final denouement after climax  Perfect example of well­made play The Glass of Water 12. Theatre Regulation Act of 1843­ gave licensing power to the local authorities to remove the Lord Chamberlain’s monopoly on the control of theatres productions. It meant he  had to give a reason for denying play 13. Gothic melodramas­  Had element of horror involved (Lewis) 14. Performance Conditions in France­  Gas lighting until 1822  Playwrights began to get royaltys  Hugo began use of whole stage  Actors utilized furniture  Run of show might last 100  Line of businesses began to change star actors  1840 meant historically accurate costumes  Daguerre invented diorama  1855 over 28 theatres in France 15. Baille­ wrote few published plays but were wrongfully considered closet dramas. She  was most respected female playwright of Romantic era 16. Kemble family­  Acting dynasty that ruled English stage  John Kemble­managed Covenant Garden from 1788­1817. Started acting in  1776 and considered greatest English speaking actor  Sarah Kemble Siddons­ from 1782 was greatest tragic actress  Charles Kemble­took over Covenant Garden when John retired  Frances Kemble­wrote and translated play. Noted for writing Notes on Some of  Shakespeare’s Play  Noted for classical style (stateliness, dignity and grace) 17. Kean­  Cared about emotions  Excelled at villains  Ignored grace and nobility  1814 appeared at Drury Lane  First major English actor to tour the US from 1810 to 1812  Worked as star performed instead of with company in 1820s 18. Aldridge  Began his career with the African Company in NY  Got tired of being discriminated against so they would emigrate to England  1825 he had top billing in England and then went onto tour much of Europe  Played critically acclaimed Othello 19. Macready­  Combined Kembles dignity with Kean’s passion  Know for his lengthy pauses (stop to collect thoughts before he began his  speeches)  Managed Covenant Garden at one point and then Drury Lane later on  Watned specific blocking and actual acting in rehearsals  First push for historical accuracy  Restored some of Shakespeare’s texts  High standards as an artist, not financially successful. 20. Vestris  Actress, singer, and dance, managed Olympic theatre  Coordinated design elements together  Shortens bill till it ended at 11  Used box sets with real props  High standards as an artist, but not entirely financially successful. 21. Star Actors­actors who would travel around to different companies. 22. Box sets­ones where audience is the fourth wall 23. Historical accuracy­first push in sets with Macready U.S. Theatre to 1900 1. First play, theatre­   first play performed in English controlled North America was Ye Bare and  Ye cuba,   first theatre was built in Williamsburg, VI in 1716  1752­ beginning of professional theatre in the US William Salaams troupe  from England, used british representatives 2. Theatre centers­  Used showboat tours, major cities have 2­4 theatre  English stars would sometime tour 3. Forrest  After his success in NY he toured UK and played 10 months on Drury Lane  Socialized with Macready and Charles Kemble 4. Astor Place Riots­  On May 10, 25 were killed, 120 injured  Immigrants and nativists against city’s police and state militia at the opera  house 5. Hallam­Douglass­  First fully professional theater company in the US and merged with David  Douglass company and toured 6. Cushman  First native born star of American stage  Actor/manager who played Lady M opposite Macready  Did breaches roles  According to Browning, she made vows of celibacy with Matilda to dress  alike and have a female marriage 7. Native Character types­ native Amiercan, Yankee, city boy,  8. Minstrelsy­ acts where groups would paint their faces as a clown or fool, until  1920s 9. Uncle Tom’s Cabin­ George Aiken wrote the adaptation  From 1852­1853 ran over 30 performances  By 1900, 500 touring groups were performing it  Once there was 5 at one time in London 10. Booth­ greatest American actor of 1800s  Opened Booth’s Theatre  Introduced new staging methods  Eliminated apron and moved all action behind proscenium  Free plantation, removed rake, wing, and groove 11. Daly­  Drama critic, manager, playwright, first recognized director  Tyrannical control  Fines formed company in NY and London 12. MacKaye­playwright, actor, manager  Wrote 30 plays  Helped established the first school of acting in the US  Flame­proof curtain, theater seats, nebulator  Made 3 theatres in NY Theatres from 1850­1900 1. Modernism­ shift from absolute relative values, in search for truth. More artistic  th movements in the 20  century than all the previous periods of history combined 2. Marx­  Wrote the communist manifesto  Attacks what is common about religion, economics, and social norms  Increased the public’s concern for the poor or oppressed  Tendency to discredit existing forms as constructs of the bourgeoisie 3. Comte  ­abandon metaphysical explanations, replace based on observation and analysis  Sociology­solve social problems scientifically  Father of psychology  Coined altruism  3 stages of societal development: theological (younger generation follows what  older generation said), metaphysical, positive (science and logic) 4. Darwin­  Wrote On The Origin of Species  Challenges the Bible  Heredity and environment determine human choice and limit our responsibility 5. Freud  Writings enter public discourse  Basic human instincts are aggression and sexuality  Socially unacceptable feelings are buried in the subconscious   Emphasis on dreams influencing non­realistic drama 6. Delsarte­  Teacher in singing and declamation, composer  Taught method of movements and gestures based on human interaction  Emotional connection to gestures 7. Dumas fils  ­serious didactic treatment of contemporary issues, but conform to conventional  morality  Used Scribes well­made formula  Illusionist staging st Improved lighting 8. 1  phase of realism (principles, drama, staging)  Begins in France as a conscious movement  Art must depict truthfully real physical world  Must be impersonal and objective  Based on direct observation of contemporary life  Change in subject matter  Critics say it is immoral, they say that society is immoral 9. Changes in staging practices (repertory to long run, regional theatres to comboination  companies, actor­manager to rise of director) 10. Free plantation


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