Exam one Study guide
Exam one Study guide Psyc 2070
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Khaila Coissiere on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 2070 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Elizabeth Carney Jeffress Thorsteinson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 180 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Exam One Study Guide Chapter One Notes from Class: Hebrews (1000200 BC) o Goal was to procreate and carry on genes to baby o No adultery, homosexual and incestuous relations Greeks (1000200 BC) o First ones to separate love and sex o Male on male o Pederasty – older man coached younger boy o Idea that person penetrating is superior Romans (500 BC700 AD) o Marriage more about social standing o Permissive attitudes about homosexual and bisexual o Wives encouraged husbands to have slaves for sexual release India (beginning about 400 BC) o Hinduism goal to live a just life, marry, procreate o Kamasutra Kama – 4 goals of hindu life Sutra – thread or line to keep things together o If born a female you’re paying for sins in your previous life o Marriage was religious and economic China (beginning about 200 BC) o Homosexual wasn’t frowned upon o If you didn’t procreate “wasting precious semen” o Developed penis rings to maintain erections o Developed sex toys o Tao – basic unity and interdependence of universe Yin: feminine Yang: masculine Early Christianity (about 50 AD) o Jesus – liberal in thinking about sexuality o Later followers established dominant western view of condemnation Middle ages (500 AD1400 AD) o Church influence grows 10501150: homosexuality was present in Europe 1215: church began confession and penance – crack down and shift minds about role of women 1200s: Thomas Aquinas argued sex organs were for procreation; condemned homosexual Islam: A New Religion (about 500 AD) o Patriarchal o Qu’ran says husbands should plow their wives like fields as often as they’d like o Sex is only legal in marriage o Unics – male slaves that have been castrated Exam One Study Guide Public opinion changes o Renaissance renewed sense of joy; women becoming more educated and politically involved o Reformation obligation to reproduce and marriage and love; divorce; saw women as partners with men in everything o Enlightenment – sexual pleasure was natural and desirable; prosecuted gays; free love; increase in pregnancy before marriage 1 out of 5 brides pregnant o Victorian era women prude, kids only speak when spoken to, husbands chivalry, semen was precious and should be conserved; sex only once a month because it causes depression, headaches, and blindness o Puritans put to death for sodomy, rape, adultery, beastiality less females o US (1600s1800s) Advertisement for contraception Sexuality embraced in marriage Antimicsegenation laws passed (no mixing races) Slavery Milestones in 19 century US o Shifting women out of education realm and to stay at home o 1820s: free love movement o 18521904: Mormons practiced polygamy o late 1800s: medical model of sexuality homosexual an illness lasted until 1970 in DSM o Comstock act of 1873: prohibited mailing obscene writing or ads, including contraceptive information and artwork containing nudity o Still advertised but people just had to infer Social Hygiene movement (began 1905) o Promiscuous husbands transmitted STIs to wives o Blood test required for every couple that got married o Shunned if had an STI Sexology (earlymid 20 century) o Recruited people to question them about sex Sexual Revolutions (1920s1960s) o The Flapper o William Wright – sparked sexual reform o It feels good just do it o Plastoy 1953 o 1 clinic called Planned Parenthood or Birth Control Control League o porn became more popular o women could now take birth control pills o antibiotics for STIs Feminism (early 1900s?) Exam One Study Guide o Women have right to choose when they want to become mother, right to sexual pleasure o Led to Planned Parenthood (1 birth control clinic) o Birth control league 1921 o Margaret Sanger Gay Liberation o Don’t ask don’t tell eliminated o Peverts o Medication o Cures o 1970 Golden Age of Gay Liberation st o 1971 1 gay pride parade in Atlanta o 1980 fight pandema of AIDS o 2013 DOMA was struck down o June 2015 samesex marriage was legalized nationwide Book: Chapter Two Notes from Class: Psychoanalytic theory o Sigmund Freud – founder o Case studies o Libido – sexual motivation o Thanatos – aggressive motivation o Components of personality Id – pleasure center/instinctual drives Ego – realism Superego – social/parental views o Five Stages Oral – mouth (birth1) Anal – bowel and bladder elimination (13) Phallic – genitlia (36) Latency – dorment sexual feelings (6puberty) Genital – sexual interests mature (pubertydeath) Behavioral therapy o BF skinner Operant conditioning – behavior followed by reinforcement or punishment o Ivan Pavlov Classical conditioning o Behavior modification o Aversion therapy – zapped enough times divert person from “bad” behavior Social learning theory o Albert bandura o Developed from behaviorism Exam One Study Guide o Modeling and imitation – purely through observation Cognitive theory o Differ in how we process information o How we perceive and conceptualize world o Brain – biggest sexual organ and controls everything we do o RET – rational emotional theory – reinforce our own beliefs taking something positive and reinforcing it Humanistic theory o Striving for selfactualization Biological theory o Medical procedures o Hormone replacement Evolutionary theory o Goal – to reproduce and maximize spreading of genes Feminist theory o Society influences understanding of sexuality o Based on patriarchy Queer theory Sociological theory o How society influences sexual behavior Research methods o Case studies o Interviews o Questionnaires and surveys o Direct observation o Participant observation o Experimental methods o Correlational methods o Internetbased research methods Early sex research o Psychiatry o Richard von KrafftEbing: Psychopathia Sexualis – interested in homosexuals and bisexuals o Magnus Hirschfeld – advocate for homosexual rights Automatic not subject to social influence Evelyn hooker o Compared heterosexual and homosexual men and couldn’t distinguish between the two o Study led to homosexuality from DSM in 1973 Alfred Kinsey o Interviewed 18,000 subjects Kinsey Studies o Face to face – average of 300 questions o Volunteer bias Exam One Study Guide o Effect of race and education o Acquiescence bias o Social desirability bias o Demand characteristics Masters and Johnson o Started using female prostitutes o Studied female masturbation with light and camera on dildo o Four stage model – excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution o Books were medically written Book: Chapter Three Notes from class: Goals of communication o Communicate the message o Relational goal o Identity management (tone) Types of communication o Verbal o Nonverbal Body language Facial expressions Importance of communication o Social penetration theory – “onion” theory – starts with little things and build up like what you like, what you don’t like, etc. o Relationships problems often because of poor communication causing anger and frustration Communication and gender o Genderlects – fundamental differences in how men and women communicate Report vs. rapport talk Communication and culture o Individualist vs. collectivist – society focused on individual’s needs or society’s needs o Low context vs. high context – are you gonna be direct or beat around the bush o Nonverbal communication Sexual communication o Expressing consent o Using right vocabulary o Selfdisclosure Importance of listening o Sex is better when relationship is better o Relationships are better when communication is better o Communication is better when listening is better o Sex is better when listening is better Exam One Study Guide Active listening o Complete, undivided focus o Nonverbal cues o Checking for understanding o Validating Book: Chapter Four Notes from class: Gender vs. Sex o Gender – how person identifies themselves o Sex – biological what you’re born with Genital, chromosomes Prenatal development o Chromosomes Girls have XX Boys have XY o Primitive gonad development SRY gene testes “default” is female pattern o mullerian duct system – feminine no hormones needed o wolffian duct system – masculine T stimulates this system Mullerian inhibiting hormone (MIH) induces regression of mullerian system Sex differentiation External genitalia More females born every year Harder to carry a boy Single continuum Disorders of Sexual Development o Types: hormonal or chromosomal Hormonal can be treated with hormone therapy o Hormonal Congenital adrenal hyperplasia – adrenal glands doesn’t break down enzymes Androgen insensitivity disorder o Chromosomal Klinefelter syndrome (XXY) Turner syndrome (XO) Gender debate o Nature vs. nurture Nature – gender traits: biologically determined Exam One Study Guide Nurture – gender roles: culturally defined behaviors Gender role theories o Evolutionary theory – evolution and nature affect how people adapt to their environment o Social learning theory – modeling and learning from parents and society o Gender schema theory – cognitive mechanisms that organize thinking about gender o Cognitive development theory – dependent on a child’s level of development (different ideas at different stages) Gender role socialization o Learn what to play with based on gender by age two o Boys have more severe consequences when deviate from norm gender role behaviors Masculinity and femininity o Androgyny – combination of masculine and feminine traits Gender Spectrum o Transgender/transsexual People identify with gender opposite from birth sex Sex reassignment surgery Hormone therapy o Gender queer Person who isn’t male or female has different gender o Crossdresser – people who dress in opposite genders clothes for comfort and relaxation o Transvestite – people who dress in opposite genders clothes for sexual satisfaction for themselves o Drag queen/drag king – people who dress in opposite genders for entertainment of others o Bigender – person whose gender is both male and female o Agender – one who has no gender at all o Genderqueer – gender different from male or female o Third and fourth – two genders that exist outside of male and female o Gender fluid – one whose gender identity can change o Intersex – group of conditions where there is a discrepancy between the external genitals and internal genitals o Identity – brain o Attraction – heart o Expression – outward appearance o Sex – genitals Book:
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