Midterm Study Guide for AMH2010
Midterm Study Guide for AMH2010 AMH2010-0002
Popular in The History of the United States to 1877
Popular in History
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ausley Beane on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AMH2010-0002 at Florida State University taught by Tarah Luke in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 392 views. For similar materials see The History of the United States to 1877 in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
American History Tarah Luke Midterm Study Guide (Key concepts) This is an overview of the key concepts from class o Pangaea ü A super continent over 240 million years ago o Beringia ü Land bridge that connects two continents together ü Early Americans were able to walk across to reach America about 30,000 years ago. It is believed they crossed because they were following food and it was purely accidentally. o Subsistence techniques ü The Paleo-Indians quickly found out that their conventional hunting methods would not suffice and need to change their way of hunting. Began hunting smaller game, used bow and arrows, and diversifying cultures. o Three Sisters ü Corn, squash, and beans o Paleo Indians ü First immigrants of America. They were nomadic people who were strict hunters and gathers (fruit, berries, nuts). Generally, the men hunted and the women gathered. Became known as Archaic Indians. o Archaic Indians ü Were hunters and gathers, as well as farmers ü Their name refers to both the time period and the people ü They had a change in hunting and began hunting with traps and hunting smaller game ü Both the Paleo-Indians and archaic had migration patterns, but Archaic tended to return. o Great Plains Bison Hunters ü Hunted a lot of large o Great Basin ü Located in what is now Nebraska, Missouri, Oklahoma area. Nomadic people who followed buffalo for food. o Pacific Coast ü More permanent cultures due to being on the Pacific Coast and having the opportunity to fish. They did not have much agriculture because they did not need it. o Eastern Woodlands ü Located in what is now east of the Mississippi river ü They used deer (whitetail) more many aspects of their lives (food, clothing, weapons, tools) ü They added agriculture (was first in Mexico and spread north). Some crops they grew were squash, sunflowers, tobacco, and corn (became the most important crop to them) ü They used pottery which tells us that they were permanently established because pottery is much heavier to carry than baskets. Nomadic people tended to use baskets and permanently established people tended to use pottery. o Cahokia ü A city that had roughly 30,000 people (probably the largest of the time) ü They were sun worshippers who thought that the chief had great powers and created large mounds for their burial o Southwestern ü Located in what is not Arizona, New Mexico ü Lived in multi-unit dwellings ü Anasazi cultures lived in pit houses and had use of irrigation ü Around 1130, there was a drought for 50 years and the Anasazi culture disappeared ü They did not have written languages, but rather pictures o Mexica ü Had roughly 8-25 million people ü In the Mexican empire, warrior and priest had control over everybody else (warriors were even higher than priests!) ü Worshipped a Sun and War God named Huitzilopochtli o Bubonic Plague ü What is also known as the black death, wiped out 1/3 of the European population ü Those who did not die, thought that they were favored by God and took bigger risk (such as exploring the world!!) o Christopher Columbus ü Columbus set off on three ships: Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria ü Was trying to find a route to the Indies ü First arrives in Canary Island, found Taino Indians (named Indians because he thought he was in the Indies) ü Actually died thinking he had made it to the Indies o Portugal ü May be important to note that a lot of people think that Spain took the lead in exploration, but it was actually Portugal because they wanted to increase their prestige (they were tiny!) o Prince Henry the Navigator ü Son of Portugal King who was one of the first person of royalty to actually promote exploration (wanted gold) o Tainos ü Columbus stumbled across them when he thought he was in the Indies & was incredibly surprised to see them because they were not what he expected o Treaty of Tordesillas ü Because Portugal and Spain were having tension they created the TOT ü Established an imaginary line 1,100 miles west of Canary Islands and said that anything left (west) of the line is Spanish territory and anything right (east) is Portugal’s ü The problem with the TOT is that it left out everybody else! o Ferdinand Magellan ü His voyage was important because it proved without a doubt that Asia was separate from the New World and Columbus did not find an Asian trade route ü He is credited with the first circumnavigation of the world (even thought he didn’t actually finish it) ü Was killed by locals o Columbian Exchange ü A trade with the new world and the old world that consisted of trading goods, ideas, and people ü Old world à new world § Christianity, iron goods and technology to make it, domesticated animals (cows, etc.), the wheel, sailing ships, fire arms, and diseases (diseases wiped out a lot of cultures…) ü New world à Old world § corn, tomatoes, potatoes, syphilis, tobacco (tobacco became VERY popular) o Hernan Cortés ü Finds gold in in Mexica colony o Malinali/Marina ü The Tabassco people assume Cortes in a god and gives him 20 young women, one of them being Marina who later marries Cortes ü Marina allowed Cortes to make friends with the natives because she spoke so many languages o Montezuma ü Hears about the white man and assumes they are a god named Quetzalcoatl (god who made people) that has returned and gives Cortes a large disc of gold (which makes Cortes extremely happy) o Hernando de Sota ü In 1539, De Soto begins looking for gold and makes it around Florida. o Francisco de Cornado ü Around 1540, sets off to explore the American Southwest in search for wealth (doesn’t find anything because he dies in 1542 in Kansas) o Encomienda ü A system where the encomendero would rule over the Indians and everything in that area ü in theory the encomendero is supposed to feed, clothe, house and give the Indian population Christianity and in return the Indians would give to the encomendero tribute (gold, silver, food products, peacock feathers, spices) and labor, but in reality they subjected them to overwork and mistreatment ü Spanish soon come to realize that maybe the real treasure is not gold or anything like that, but the Indians themselves as their workers o Encomendero ü Spanish “town owner” who is in charge of the Encomienda o Repartimiento ü Introduced a rule that limited the number of hours Indians were required to work because people were upset over their mistreatment ü “Instead of working 365 days, you can only work 45 days a year” ü Encomendero did not really care what it said because the royals were across the sea (only really started to take effect when old Encomendero’s died off) o Protestant Reformation -Martin Luther ü Catholic Church ü 95 theses v claimed catholic church is fake v thought priests were unnecessary to get to heaven v thought service was all in Latin v became foundation for protestant reformation v God intended believers to seek repentance and that faith alone, and not deeds, would lead to salvation v distributed throughout Germany and then made their way to Rome v Bible in Latin v Catholic church is too involved in second hand matters (people and other countries…) -Pope Francis o Charles V ü Holy Roman Emperor (also known as Charles I King of Spain) ü Thought Luther was a Devil worshipper and began to fight against protestants to make himself the holy Roman Emperor. He eventually just ended up making Spain go bankrupt and forcing them to borrow from other countries o Northwest Passage ü Was a water route between Atlantic and Pacific Ocean along northern th coast of North America and was basically the obsession of the 16 century o Martin Frobisher ü Attempts to find northwest passage or Mexico or Peru, instead goes to North Canada where he thinks he find an amazing amount of gold only to find out later it is fools gold o Roanoke ü Founded by Sir Walter Raleigh who brings 100 people to live in the colony and leaves the colony under control with John White. A short time later, White leaves to go get more supplies and comes back THREE years later and finds that the colony is completely gone o Virginia Company ü A joint-stock company (company whose stock is owned jointly by shareholders) consisting of Knights, gentlemen, and lords ü Is used to try to get rid of idler (people without jobs) problem ü Going to give everyone jobs in Virginia! o Enclosures ü The reason there was a lot of idlers ü Farmers begin to lose jobs when wool became a big market and sheep herders thought to close off their land to stop letting sheep wander o Jamestown ü First English colony established by 140 men ü They begin to fight with Indians and soon realize that Virginia may not be as ideal as they thought. The fighting stops when Indians say “we wont fight you, if you don’t shoot cannons at us” o John Smith ü Kidnapped by Powhaten ü In a ceremony Powhaten wants to adopt John Smith as a segregate chief o Powhaten ü Chief of Eastern Woodland Indians ü Rescued Jamestown when they decided to trade with them o Pocahontas ü Powhaten’s daughter ü Relationships between the colonists and Indians sour when they force Pocahontas to convert to Christianity and marry John Rolfe o Chesapeake ü In 1617, Native Americans no longer dominate because Europe has taken over ü Previously they had only sent over jewelers and gold workers and not farmers or carpenters, but they send them over now ü Became very interested in growing tobacco o Tobacco ü Becomes an expensive crop and people start to realize that it might be the gold that they came looking for and by the end of the 17 century, Chesapeake farmers have mastered tobacco farming o Headright ü Legal grant of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America ü Used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists o Indenture ü Labor system where people paid for their passage to the New World by working for an employer for a certain number of years ü At the end of their contract they received freedom dues (“bonus”) that could be corn, new outfit, etc. ü Allowed for more tobacco growing ü Mostly men who were unskilled and could not find a job anywhere else (skilled workers had shorter contracts because they were skilled) ü Important to note that they were not slaves o Yeoman ü Small scale farmers o Planter Elite ü Farmers who are self serving and only care about themselves v Could be important to note that the first half of the century is a battle between free and indentured and second half is between rich and poor (yeoman and planter elites) o Slave society ü It was easy to tell the difference between slaves and indentured servants because before it was hard to tell the difference between yeomen and indentured servants o Society with slaves ü Society becomes more about free vs unfree with slaves ü People preferred slaves over indentured servants because even though they were more expensive you could buy them for life, use slaves longer, they promise a perpetual labor force (children of slaves become slaves) o Bacon’s Rebellion ü Nathan Bacon is a yeoman farmer who is mad about the treaty (un-named one that declares that any land that has not been cleared out by white people is Indian’s territory) ü Elected into the House of Burgesses and pass Bacon laws ü Governor named Berkley labels Bacon as a traitor and decides to attack everyone but dies really quickly ü Doesn’t actually change the basic problem in society (rich vs poor) … o Barbados ü Start importing slaves to grow sugar because it was four times more expensive so people who grew it made a lot of money o English Reformation ü As a result of a disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, the Church of England or the Anglican Church created which was separate from the Catholic Church and left little room for religious freedom o Puritans ü Puritans were strong believers in separation of church and state because they thought the government was dirty and corrupt (PUR(E)itans). They believed that public life should be conformed to God’s laws at all times. They did not believe in songs, holidays, dancing, things like that. o Pilgrims ü Were religious separatists (puritans who had left the church of England) who came over on the Mayflower. o William Bradford ü Led the pilgrims over on the mayflower ü “Mayflower compact used the Puritan’s self governing religious congregation as the model for their political structure” o Separatism ü People of religion felt alienated from central government and began looking to gain more political control ü They wanted to separate themselves from Church of England ü Pilgrims were separatists o John Winthrop ü Envisioned a “city upon a hill” in which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world ü Massachusetts Bay colony o Predestination ü God has already predetermined whether you are going to heaven or hell, doesn’t matter what deeds you commit, its already determined ü Sets you up with a lifetime of uncertainty o “the elect” ü Calvinistic belief that there is a group of souls who God selected to be predetermined for Heaven. o Roger Williams ü Around 1630, he became friendly with Indians and thought they were being treated unfairly and takes it up with the Massachusetts government (strike one). He becomes minister of a church in Salem and says that they do not have to go to church all the time and that not everybody should be forced to go to church (Strike 2) and says he does not not believe its right to force non-Christians to go to church. As a result, they banish him and he forms Rhode Island where everyone is welcomed. o Anne Hutchinson ü She was a very persuasive and neighbors flocked to her, which made Puritan leaders angry She often questioned some of the Puritan teachings and in 1638 she was kicked out of church where she goes to Rhode Island, but even Williams thinks she is too crazy and goes to NY where she is killed by Indians. o Halfway Covenant ü Unconverted child of the church could be members, but only half way (they could be baptized, but had no voting rights or communion) ü Importance is it shows historians how watered down puritan society had become because they would accept all these people who hadn’t been converted o Quakers ü People who sought refugee in Pennsylvania. They were different than Puritans in that they were open-minded, believed in equality, had loose religious practices, and lived a simple life style o Navigation Acts ü England began restricting the colonies by saying they couldn't trade with other countries and only allowing the colonies to only trade with England or other colonies. To regulate colonial shipping, the acts said that only English ships would be allowed to trade in English and colonial ports and that all goods destined for the colonies would first pass through England.
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