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Contemp Issues in Nutrition

by: Veronica Morgan

Contemp Issues in Nutrition NTDT 10003

Veronica Morgan
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes cover info for exam 1
Contemporary Nutrition Concerns
Dr. Dority
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Veronica Morgan on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTDT 10003 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Dority in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Nutrition Concerns in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas Christian University.

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Date Created: 02/06/16
Nutrition Exam Review Scientific Method – how to get from a question to an answer - Observation and question - Hypothesis = unproven statement that tentatively explains relationships between 2 or more variables - Conduct research to collect data - Results and interpretations - Develop a theory = a tentative explanation that integrates many different findings to further understand and define topic Observational study - Epidemiological / observational study = study a disease as it occurs in the population - Correlation = may suggest cause and effect but does not prove - Lets you have a huge research group - Can lead to false reporting and can lead to missing other factors - Cant prove something exists - Can make research less labor intensive Intervention Study - Experimental = cause and effect - Change conditions and measure results - Can establish cause and effect - Many controls to worry about - Problems with money and ethical issues - Can be hard to study want you want to ex can’t try and give someone heart disease Definitions - Randomization = process of choosing members of the experimental and control groups without bias - Experimental group = group of individuals similar in all possible respects to the control group except receive real treatment - Control group = group that doesn’t receive treatment - Blind experiment = subjects don’t know which group they’re in - Double blind experiment = neither researches or groups know which group is which History of nutrition - Relatively young - Pellagra study example Nutrition = study of foods, nutrients, chemical components, actions, and interaction in body and influence on health - Nutrients = substances obtained from food and used in the body to promote growth, repair, and maintenance - Carbohydrates – 4C/g - Fats – 9C/g - Protein – 4C/g - Vitamins - Minerals - Water - Essential nutrients = body cannot make these nutrients so obtain from food - Water soluble vitamins B, C - Fat soluble vitamins A,D,E,K - Malnutrition = any conditions caused by an excess deficiency or imbalance of calories or nutrients - Over nutrition = calorie or nutrient overconsumption sever enough to risk disease - Degenerative disease = chronic disease characterized by deterioration of body organs from misuse or neglect ex smoking, stress, unhealthy eating - Hunger = psychological need for food - Appetite = psychological desire to eat even when not hungry - Food choices based on taste, availability, income, convenience, personal value, religion, advertising, positive associations - Social group = group people, family who depend on one anther and share set of norms, behaviros, beliffs, and values - Cultre = knowledge, belief, customs, laws, morals, art, literature acquired by members of society and passed along - Ethnic foods – food eaten by a culture Religion and Food -buddhist = dietary customs vary depending on sect. many are lacto- ovovegetarians, because of restrictions on taking a life. Some eat fish and most eat no beef or poultry. Monks fast at certain times of the month and avoid eating solid food after the noon hour. - hindu = all foods though to interfere with physical and spiritual development are avoided. Many are lacto-vegetarians and or avoid alcohol. The cow is considered sacred and never eaten and pork is avoided. -jewish = kashrut is the body of jewish law dealing with food. Kosher denotes all foods that are permited for consumption. Lenghtly list of prohibited food such as pork and shellfish. Laws define birds and mammals and how theyre slaughtered, how foods are prepared, and when they are consumed. -mormon = alcoholic beverages and coffee and tea and caffeine should be avoided. Morons are encouraged to limit meat intake and emphasize grains in the diet. They fast on the first Sunday of every month -muslim = overeating is discouraged and consuming only 2/3 capacity is suggested. Diestery laws are called halal. Prohibited foods are called haram and they include pork and birds of prey. Laws define how animals must be slaughtered. No alcohol and fasting during Ramadan -roman catholic = meat is consumed on Fridays during lent. No food or beverages consumed one hour before communion -seventh day Adventist = most are lacto-ovovegetarians. If meat is consumed, pork is avoided. Tea, coffee, and alcoholic beverages are not allowed. Water is not consumed with meals, but is drunk before and after meals. Followers refrain from using seasonings and condiments. Overeating and snacking are discouraged. US Health Promotion - Healthy people 2020 Dietary planning principles 1. Adequacy 2. Balance 3. Calorie control 4. Moderation 5. Variety -DRI = dietary reference intake: daily nutrient standards, set by NAS 1. estimates energy and nutrients of healthy people 2. desing for different groups of people 3. apply to average daily intakes -RDA = recommended dietary allowance 1. cover 97%-98% of healthy people of age and gender -EAR = estimated average requirements: amount of nutrient recommended to meet the requirements for a nutrient for half of the people of special age group 1. use EAR to set RDA 2. if not sufficient scientific evidence to set EAR, AI is provided -AI = adequate intake 1. based on best estimate of need for nutrient 2. exceeds EAR and possibly RDA -UL = tolerable upper intake level 1. max intake to prevent adverse effect 2. not recommended intake Dietary guidelines = published every five years by HHS and USDA 1. Follow a healthy eating pattern across lifespan 2. Focus on variety, nutrient density, amount 3. Limit calories from added sugars, saturated foods, sodium 4. Shift to healthier food and beverage 5. Support healthy eating patterns for all My Diet - Use to build healthy diet Food Label - Nutrition labeling and education act of 1990 - Must include: name of food, name of manufacturer, quantity, ingredient list, nutrition facts panel - Ingredients list - Nutrition facts panel - Mandaroty = calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbs, fiber, sugars, protein, vitamins A and C, calcium - Don’t have to put a food label if package is less than 12 inches, if its fresh food, if its made in store and sold there - Based on 2000 calorie diet - Takes highest amount of nutrients recommended for a person - If add extra vitamins or minerals they can make a statement on the front of the package Nutrient claims = claims used on food labels to help consumers get an idea of a foods nutritional profile Health claims= statement linked to the nutritional profile of a food to reduce risk of a particular disease, allowed to imply only that the food may or might reduce the risk of disease Table 2.7 1. Less, fewer, reduced = serving provides 25% fewer nutrition than a comparable foo 2. Light, lite = serving provides one third fewer calories than the comparison food or 50% less fat or sodium 3. Low calorie = no more than 40 calorie per serving 4. High fiber = 5g or more per serving 5. Fat-free = less than .5g fat per serving 6. Low-fat = less than 3 g fats per serving 7. Low in sodium -140mg sodium or less/ serving Table 2.8 1. Calcium/ vitamin D – adequate intake may reduce osteoporosis 2. Total fat – a diet low in fat may reduce cancer 3. Sodium – low sodium may reduce blood pressure 4. Saturated fat, cholesterol, trans fat – a low intake may reduce risk of disease 5. Sugar alcohols – low intake may reduce risk of tooth decay


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