PSY 101: Study Guide Exam 1
PSY 101: Study Guide Exam 1 PSY 101
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Psychology 101 Study Guide Exam 1: ______________________________________________________________________________ Topic: ● History of Psychology ● Research method (Quality and Quantity) ● Biological Bases of Behavior ● Sensation & Perception ______________________________________________________________________________ History of Psychology Psychology is the study of human thought process and beh vior Late 1800s ● Germany firsto start the study of psychology ○ Wilhelm Wundt: ■ Psychology as a discipline ■ Founded the first lab for psychology ■ First psychology journal ● America ○ G. Stanley Hall: ■ Created the first psychology lab in America ■ First psychology journal in america ■ Founded APA, American Psychological Association Two structure of teachinStructuralism and Functionalism. ● Structuralism study of tstructure of consciousness ○ Taught by Wundt & Titchner ● Functionalism study of tfunction of consciousness ○ Taught by Hall & ames Transformational Factors ● 1920 impact on psychology ○ Methodological Revolution ● World War II 1938 1948 ○ Applied Psychology ○ Immigrants ● Early 1970s ○ Impact of computer ○ Cognitive Revolution Research method (Quality and Quantity) Types of Research ● Qualitative: ○ Exploring something (no number) ● Quantitative: ○ Describe ○ Compare ○ Test something ● Qualitative: ○ Qualitative Survey ○ Natural Observation ○ Case Study ● Quantitative: ○ Descriptive Research ○ Correlational Research Qualitative Survey ● When? ○ Opinion ○ Attitudes ● How? ○ Question ○ Interviews ● Limitations? ○ Careful construction (Can & will) Natural Observation ● When? ○ To observe public behavior ● How? ○ Observation ● Limitation? ○ Not intervention Case Studies ● When? ○ To study unusual/infrequent phenomena ● How? ○ Interview ○ Observation ○ Records ○ Testing ● Limitation? ○ Generalization Descriptive Research ● When? ○ To learn descriptive information about a group or event. ● How? ○ Records ○ Surveys ○ Interviews ○ Observations ● Statistical Analysis of Descriptive Data ○ Mean (average) ○ Median (after ordering the data, the middle is the median) ○ Mode (most frequent) ○ Percentage (use for categories) Correlational Research ● When? ○ To investigate possible relationship ● How? ○ Since this research is looking for a relationship between two factors, just measure both factors. ● Limitation? ○ Does not tell which way the arrow is pointing (The factor that causes the effect.) Correlation Coefficient = r ● Range of r? ○ 1.00 to 1.00 ● How to interpret r? ○ If there is a relationship ○ Positive or negative? ○ The strength of the relationship? ● Positive relationship: ○ ↑↑or ↓↓ ● Negative relationship: ○ ↑↓or↓↑ ______________________________________________________________________________ 1.00 → 0.60 = Strong negative relationship 0.59 → 0.40 = Moderate negative relationship 0.39 → 0.20 = Small negative relationship 0.19 → +0.19 = No relationship +0.20 → +0.39 = Small positive relationship +0.40 → +0.59 = Moderate positive relationship +0.60 → +1.00 = Strong positive relationship ______________________________________________________________________________ (Note any number above or below the r range is considered not existing, so the relationship have to be between the range.) Experiments ● When? ○ When you wish to draw cause and effect conclusions ● How? ○ Manipulate a variable under controlled condition ● Independent Variables (IVs): ○ The one the experiment manipulates (or varies) ● Dependent Variable (DVs): ○ The outcome thought to be affected by the independent variable. ● Groups: ○ Experimental gets the IV ○ Controlled nothing More than one variable for IV and DV: ● Why want more than one DV in the experiment? ○ Efficiency and “why not?” ● Why want more than one IV in the experiment? ○ Look for interaction ● True Experiment criteria: ○ Manipulate the IV while controlling everything else. ○ Randomly assign participants into group. More tricks/Keywords ● Experiments: ○ Cause, lead to, results in, affects, reduces, increases, ect. ● Correlational research: ○ Relationships, related, linked, associated ● Descriptive research: ○ Describe, demographics, composition ● Qualitative Survey: ○ Opinions, attitudes ● Natural Observation: ○ Public behavior ● Case Study: ○ Unusual or infrequent phenomena Significance Testing of Comparative Data: ● Compare 2 or more group ● Significantly different or just due to chance? ● What’s in a pvalue? ○ Group means ○ Group variability ○ n (number of subjects per group) ○ N (total number of subjects in experiment) ● How to interpret a pvalue? ○ p = probability due to chance (you want the value to be small) ○ pvalues i. p<0.05=significantly different ii. 0.05<p<0.10=marginally significant(withhold judgment and collect more data.) iii. p>0.10=not significant Biological Bases of Behavior Phrenology The link between body and mind is linked to the head. Determine your personality based on the head ● Nervous Tissue ○ Gila cells Provide nutrients; oxygen, structure, insulation, repair ○ Neurons receive, integrate, transmit info ● Neurons chilling out ○ Resting potential is about 70 mV ● Neurons in action ○ Action potential fires when is has more positive charge. ○ It travels down the axon ○ The absolute refractory period is about 1 millisecond where the firing stop ● Postsynaptic potentials ○ Excitatory potential to fire more likely ○ Inhibitory potential to fire less likely ● Putting on the Brakes ○ Reuptake Neurotransmitters are sponged up ○ Enzyme activation Neurotransmitters are broken down ● Example Neurotransmitters & associated with ○ Dopamine: Schizophrenia = too much ○ Serotonin: Depression = not enough ○ Norepinephrine: Anxiety = too much ○ GABA: Overeating = not enough ○ Endorphins: Reduce pain ○ Acetylcholine: Dementia memory loss = not enough ● How Drugs work… ○ Agonist excite (need more) ■ By mimicking ■ blocking reuptake ○ Antagonist inhibit (need less) ■ inhabiting release ■ blocking receptor ● The Nervous System ○ Central Nervous System ■ Nerves in the brain and spinal cord ○ Peripheral Nervous System ■ Rest of the nerves ● Somatic Nervous System ○ Afferent fibers to the brain ○ Efferent fibers from the brain ● Autonomic Nervous System ○ Sympathetic Nervous System mobilizes resources ■ To/From voluntary muscles and sensory receptor ○ Parasympathetic Nervous System conserves resources ■ To/From automatic function ● Central Nervous System ○ Brain/Body communication ○ Determination of speed ■ Type of fiber ■ Distance Traveled ○ Contralaterality ● The Lobes ○ 1) Frontal Lobe Higher level function ■ Decision making ■ movement ■ impulse control ○ 2) Parietal Lobe ■ Tactile ○ 3) Occipital Lobe ■ Visual ○ 4) Temporal Lobe ■ Olfactory ■ Auditory ■ Gustatory ■ Language ● The Brain ○ Phineous Gage survived serious brain penetration ○ Lower brain Unconscious life function ○ Higher cerebral hemisphere Emotion, Drives, Memory, Complex thought ○ Four Fs ■ Fighting ■ Fleeing ■ Feeding ■ Mating ○ Higher Brain (Cerebrum) ■ Cerebral Cortex ■ Cerebral Hemisphere ■ Corpus callosum connect right and left hemisphere ● Hemispheric Specialization ○ Left Verbal ■ Wernicke’s area language comprehension ■ Broca’s area ability to speak ○ Right Nonverbal ■ good to pick up subtle differences ○ It not exclusivity, just specialization ● Flexibility of the Brain ○ Neurogenesis regrow ■ Brain cells of children compare to brain cells of adult. Children can regrow brain cells because the brain pulls from its reserves. ○ Specialization and integration ○ Plasticity Ability to change and “mold” ● Tools ○ EEG Measure electrical voltage (brain wave) ○ CAT & MRI Xray of the brain structures ○ PET Measure brain activity ○ fMRI Measure brain activity without need for radioactive injection. ● Genetics & Behavior ○ Chromosomes ■ DNA ● Genes ○ Alleles version of Gene ○ Genotypes collection of genes that causes phenotypes ○ Phenotypes expression through physical means and to be able to be observe. ○ Dominant Genes the one being express most of the time ○ Recessive Genes the one that is being carried until it expressed when there is no dominant genes. ○ Monogenic regulated by one gene ○ Polygenic regulated by multiples genes Sensation & Perception Sensation Perception ● Sensation Stimulation of sense organ by outside stimulus. ○ Objective ● Perception Interpretation of the sensation ○ Subjective ● Supraliminal perception Being above conscious / on the conscious level ● Subliminal perception Being below conscious / on the subconscious level ● Sensory adaptation Getting use to the sensation ● Distal stimuli Stimuli that lines the outside world about you ○ distance ● Proximal stimuli Stimuli that reaches your senses from the outside. ○ close ● Perceptual hypothesis It makes guesses on the five senses. Vision ● The stimulus is light wave. ○ Amplitude Height, brightness ○ Wavelength Frequency, length, hue ○ Purity Saturation ● The receptors ○ Cones cells colors, bright light ○ Rods cells night vision, dim light ■ Peripheral vision ● Human see the light spectrum of 200 to 750 nanometers ● Human adapt to the dark in about 30 minute ● Human adapt to the light in about 30 minute, but could be a little faster ● Optic chiasm The crossover of the optic nerves. ● Feature Detectors ○ Simple cells picky about width, orientation, position ■ Fire the least ○ Complex cells picky about width, orientation ○ Hypercomplex cells picky about width ■ Fire the most Theories of Color Vision ● Trichromatic color mixing of three colors: red, green, and blue. ● Opponent process theory There are three different colors that control color perception. ● The three color work together to display the many blends of color. All three of the color cones have different sensitivity. ● Higher level visual cells respond with complimentary color. Form Perception Theories ● You have feature cells that respond to different lines. Form Analysis Theories ● “The whole is more than the sum of the part” ● Gestalt theory people tend to group together visual element. Gestalt Principles ● Figure/Ground Divide the background and the figure ● Proximity Near = belong ● Similarity Group similar element ● Continuity Connect point or continue line to straight or slightly curve lines. Continuous action. ● Closure Fill in missing info ● Common Region Group object in common region ● Connectedness Groups that are connected Depth Perception ● Binocular cues: ○ Retinal disparity The closer the object, the more different ○ Convergence crosseye ; How much the eye goes to the same point (only close) ● Monocular cues: ○ Linear Perspective As distance increase, parallel lines will converge ○ Relative Size As distance increase, object size decrease ○ Interposition The closer image will block further image ○ Texture Gradient As distance increase, fine detail decrease ○ Height in Plane As distance increase, height increase ○ Shadowing The more darker the shadow, the more deeper/steeper it look ● Faulty InFlight Perception ○ Late at night ○ Reflective surface ○ See thing small further away ● Perceptual Consistency ○ Color ○ Size ○ Shape Auditory System ● The stimulus is soundwave. ○ Amplitude Decibel (dB) ○ Wavelength Pitch in Hertz (Hz) ○ Purity Timbre ● Human hearing capacity is 20 to 20,000 Hz ● Theories of Pitch perception ○ Place theory Where the vibration occur on the membrane. ○ Frequency theory Depend on how much (rate) the membrane is vibrating ○ Entire membrane vibrates, but peak eventually ● Auditory adaptation adapting to sound ● Cochlear implants For impaired ears ○ Connected to temporal lobe. Gustatory System ● The stimuli is soluble chemical ● Receptors ○ Taste cells on taste buds (in papillae trenches) ● Regeneration ○ 10 days lifespan ● Four primary tastes ○ Sweet ○ Sour ○ Bitter ○ Salty ● Extra ○ Umami ○ Fatty Olfactory System ● The stimuli is soluble chemical ● Receptors ○ Olfactory celia ● Olfactory adaptation Getting use to smell ● Olfactory/gustatory interaction having the perception of flavor. Without the other helping, the taste of food will not be able to be determine. The Tactile System ● The stimuli are ○ Thermal ○ Chemical ○ Mechanical energy (push, pull, etc.) ● Receptors ○ Nerve cell ● Four basic skin senses ○ Temperature ○ Pain ○ Pressure ○ Touch ● Phantom limb the filling of a limb even if it was amputated. CIP (Congenital Insensitivity to Pai inability to feel pain Identify Know the different kinds of research Know independent variable and dependent variable Know Control and Experimental group Identifyquality and quantity research method Know the Gestalt Principle andDepth Perception Know the structure of theNervous tissue, Brain, Eyeball, and Ear
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