Chapter 1 Study Guide
Chapter 1 Study Guide AGRI 313
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Notetaker on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AGRI 313 at Fort Hays State University taught by Dr. Keener in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology of Domestic Animals in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Fort Hays State University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
AGRI 313 Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide Ch. 1 The Cell, Structure and Function 1. Know the definition of anatomy. ◦ Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts. 2. Know the definition of physiology. ◦ Physiology – the study of the functions of the body. 3. Know and understand the basic functions of the different cell structures or organelles. ◦ Cell Membrane -contains the cell & separates the cytoplasm of the cell from the interstitial fluid located between the cells. ◦ Nucleus – control center for the chemical reactions & reproduction ◦ Endoplasmic Reticulum ▪ smooth – synthesizes lipids & enzymes ▪ rough – synthesizes proteins ◦ Goli apparatus – produces enzymes … lysomes ◦ Mitochondria – energy production ... citric acid cycle ◦ Lysosomes – contains digestive enzymes & disperses them throughout the cytoplasm 4. Be aware of the different stages of mitosis. ◦ Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase 5. Know and understand the basic components involved with RNA and protein synthesis. ◦ RNA is synthesized from DNA in the nucleus, then transferred into the cytoplasm 6. Be aware of the early embryological development immediately following fertilization. ◦ Zygote forms & develops into morula & then blastula. Blastula develops a cavity called a blastocele. The trophoblast of outer cell layer contributes to the fetal placenta. 7. Know and understand the different components involving germ layer development. ◦ Endoderm inside organs (GI tract, Liver, Lungs) ◦ Mesoderm skeletal system, muscle ◦ Exoderm hide, hooves, mammary glands, nervous system 8. Know and understand the functional relationship associated with basic units of structure within the body. ◦ Cell > Tissue > Organs > Body Systems 9. Know the four basic body tissues. ◦ Epithelial – lines surface of the body & body cavities, forms glands & other structures such as hair, skin, & hooves. It comes from endoderm & ectoderm. It's not vascular & acquires nutrition & eliminates waste by diffusion through blood vessels in connective tissue. ◦ Connective (blood) ▪ loose – penetrates between organs to fill space & bind structures together. Allows for movement relative to each other. Allows for movement of muscles relative to each other. Makes up superficial fascia. White fiber, yellow fiber, reticular fibers, amorphous ground substance ▪ dense – contains the same fiber elements as loose connective tissue. Dense regular & dense irregular ◦ Muscle – made up of fibers that contract ◦ Nervous – consists of cells with projections that transmit electrical signals 10.More on epithelial & connective tissues. ◦ Epithelial – classified by number of cell layers & surface cell shape. ◦ Glands – Exocrine (excretions to the outside of the body & utilizes ducts. Must be provided with ducts.) endocrine (secretes within the body & do not utilize ducts) described by their secretory functions: holocrine (skin sebaceous glands), merocrine (salivary glands), apocrine (mammary glands). ◦ Mucous membranes – lines the hollow organs & cavities that open on the skin surface of the body such as digestive tract, respiratory tract, urinary tract, reproductive tract. Originates from ectoderm & endoderm ◦ Serous membranes – lines the body cavities & cover the surfaces of related organs. The surface epithelium is mesothelium which provides fluid that moistens & lubricates. ◦ White fibers – appear as wavy ribbions & is strong & inelastic. ◦ Yellow fibers – long cylindrical threads or flat ribbions. Tend to regain shape ◦ Reticular fiber – highly branched inelastic fibers. Embedded in amorphous ground substance. Around nerve cells, muscle cells, & fat cells. ◦ Amorphous Ground Substance – without shape ◦ Dense Regular – tendons (arranged in parallel bundles) ◦ Dense Irregular – collagenous fibers are interwoven & compacted forming a dense matting 11.Know and understand the various directional terms. ◦ Cranial – toward head ◦ caudal – toward tail ◦ rostral – involving head, toward nose ◦ dorsal – pertains to the back of the animal ◦ ventral – pertains to the the underside of the animal ◦ medial – middle or center ◦ lateral – away from the middle ◦ superficial – near the surface ◦ proximal – nearest the center when referring to a limb ◦ distal – farthest the center when referring to a limb 12.Be aware of the various body cavities. ◦ Cranial ◦ Vertebral ◦ Thoracic ◦ Abdominal ◦ Pelvic 13.Know and understand the different anatomical aspects of the thoracic pleura. ◦ See picture blow 14.Know and understand the location of the peritoneum and the associated anatomical structures. ◦ Lines Abdominal cavity
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