Study Guide Anthropology Ch1
Study Guide Anthropology Ch1 ANTH 1213 - 001
Arkansas Tech University
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Drayton Anderson on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1213 - 001 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Rebecca L. Wiewel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO ANTHROPOLOGY in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Anthropology Part 1: Human Nature, Evolution, And Race. Ch. 1: What is Anthropology? o It is the study of human culture and biology over time and across space. Holistic- perspective of Anthropology Religion, family and economics are important parts of Anthropology. Comparative- perspective, what is different and alike about humans? o We do it because we want a better understanding of diversity among humans. Field based- perspective, collect data from people and things of the past. Evolutionary- perspective, change over time seen in humans and other species. Anthropology is focused on culture. o Beliefs, traditions, and values you learn as a member of society. Material Culture- objects made or modified by humans. o Pottery, weapons, etc. Biology and Culture o Capacity for culture is part of our biological heritage o We all have the same capacity for culture Subfields of Anthropology o Biology o Culture o Linguistics o Archeology o Applied Papa Franz- American Anthropology, father of Anthropology Biology o Human biology diversity o Study of human evolution Forensic Anthropology o We use this to solve real world problems such as crimes and cause of death Cultural Anthropology o Study of human of human diversity o What part of change is good and bad? o Study of culture change Linguistic Anthropology o Study of language in its cultural context to examine diversity among society o Who are the people talking? Age? Gender? Archeology Anthropology o Digging things up and studying it o Study of past cultures using remains Applied Anthropology o Represents the intersections the four subfields Anthropology, science, and storytelling o Best truth you have at the moment is why stories are told Evolution Theory o We share common ancestry o Things can change overtime and give rise to new ancestry Charles Darwin- Natural selection o All living things are fixed and unchanging Chain of being- a hierarchical order of all entities; especially: an uninterrupted hierarchy of all beings arranged according to an order of perfection. Lamark’s evolution- species change overtime as individuals transform to make them successful. Biology Basics o Chromosomes o Double stranded DNA strands o 46 arranged in 23 homologous pairs in humans Theory of common origin All similar living species have common origin Laws of life- a universal system of various natural principles, any of which tend to best foster life—in other words, any of which best guides behavior that tends toward the reproductive and survival of some particular gene pool. Evolution by natural selection DNA- contains the genetic code for making proteins Nucleotides; combo of sugar molecule, phosphate unit and base Adenine & Thymine Guanine & Cytosine Mitosis- body cell reproduction o 1 division, makes two identical daughter cells Meiosis- sex cell reproduction o 2 cell division, creates four non identical daughter cells o Each with half of the genetic content of original cell Crossing Over Before the first cell division in meiosis is complete, paired homologous chromosomes can take part in crossing over What happens with this? o Increases variation o Random assortment Principles of Inheritance Gene- DNA coding for a protein that affects the expression of a trait Alleles- Alternate forms of a gene Homozygous- two copies of the same allele (TT or tt) Dominant- is always expressed Recessive- not seen Heterozygous- possess different alleles Genotype- genetic makeup of a person Phenotype- physical parts of a person Punnett Square Autosomal Dominant o From one parent Autosomal Recessive o From both parents Non Medelian Inheritance Polygenic Inheritance: traits affected by multiple genes Graded expression- height, eye color, etc. Pleiotropy- one gene affects multiple traits Evolution Mechanisms Allele frequencies- the genetic makeup of an interbreeding group of individuals known as a population Evolution- A change in allele frequency over time Microevolution o Small short term changes over just a few generations Macroevolution o Larger changes over many generations Evolution is a two stage process o Variation is produced and redistributed o Natural selection acts on this variation Mutation- molecular alteration in genetic material Gene Flow- movement of genes from one population to another and breeding. Mistake in copying causes alteration Genetic Drift- Random sampling error o Happens when: Some individuals contribute a disproportionate share of genes to succeeding generations Founder effect- is a well-known small population Very small numbers of individuals contribute genes to the next generation When population size is decreased and diversity is lost it is called a bottle neck. Recombination- Is what happens during meiosis Natural Selection More offspring are produced than can survive Organisms compete for resources Organisms vary Traits are inherited Natural Selection leads to adaption o A functional shift in allele frequencies due to environmental factors Natural selection favors a single allele; frequency shifts in one direction. Anthropology: Human Variation Is race biologically meaningful? If so then we should see more variation. Race is no longer used in biology There is just one race, the human race. Why don’t other races exist? Human have not been apart from each other long enough for changes to occur. Gene flow has always been present. No gene flow = mutation. Race is a social reality There are differences in network in race in a social setting Long term segregation Human variation and adaption, local selection, pressures Kinds of variation Population level 1. Adaption- local populations adapt through natural selection to their environment. 2. Non- adaptive- characteristics through drift migration, mutation, etc. Individual Cline- geographic difference Skin Color Due to solar radiation Lack of pigment leads to: Skin cancer Folate degradation- When there isn't enough, it can result in an insufficient number of healthy red blood cells (vitamin deficiency anemia). Strong pressures for dark skin where there is a lot of sun. Type of variation: Lactase persistence People who raise their own livestock have a high lactase resistance. Adaptions and Climate Bergmann’s Rule- body size is bigger in cold surface area to volume Allen’s Rule- in the warm an animal will have longer legs In the cold an animal will have shorter legs Helps them to better adapt Responses to heat Evaporative cooling- sweating Acclimation- increased sweating Acclimatization- is the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a gradual change in its environment allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions. Examples: increased heart rate and more red blood cells at higher elevation. Natives adapt better than people moving in and keep their benefits if they more. Examples: larger chest and capacity. Phenotypic plasticity- is the ability of an organism to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment. Macroevolution A species is a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding. Speciation- new species evolve from prior ones. Two permanently separated species can come from this. Gene flow is eliminated Geographic isolation is a term that refers to a population of animals, plants, or other organisms that are separated from exchanging genetic material with other organisms of the same species. Graduation- changes in things over a long period of time Fossil Record- A term used by paleontologists to refer to the total number of fossils that have been discovered, as well as to the information derived from them. Can be used to show evolution Punctuated equilibrium- the hypothesis that evolutionary development is marked by isolated episodes of rapid speciation between long periods of little or no change. Regulatory Genes- a gene involved in controlling the expression of one or more other genes. Adaptive Radiation- the diversification of a group of organisms into forms filling different ecological niches.
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