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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Sierra

Exam 1 Study Guide FNR 251

Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Rod N. Williams

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Notes for exam 1 on Monday, February 8th, 2016
Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Rod N. Williams
Study Guide
Ecology, amphibians, reptiles, forestry, Natural Resources
50 ?




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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Sierra on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FNR 251 at Purdue University taught by Rod N. Williams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 02/06/16
LECTURE 1 Amphibian and Reptile Evolution OriginalArtist Re prod uction rights 0 bta inable from www03 oon8tockcom quotOk now whatquot The Origin and Evolution of Amphibians Lissamphibia Ichthyostegalia I Nectridea Tetrapoda Amphibia 39 Aistopoda Microsauria Gymnophiona Anura Temno39spondyli Caudata Baphe dae Anthracosauria Anthracosauroidea Batrachosauria Cotylosauria Seymouriamnrpha Diadectnmorpha Synapsida Mesosauria Parareptilia Amniota Eureptilia Reptilia Lissamphibia Why land Unexploited food resources Aquatic habitat niches occupied No predators on land lots of food sources Lack of Large Terrestrial Predators primitive plants amp invertebrates r spur 3quot 39 L t t 39 C g quot gigthrz f I 11 quot I I I I i a s quot 3 39 75K v i 1 r 3 v V A U 39 39 a 39 MN a W 39 i ir wmlzlt l rt l39 I I h 39 39 r i 5 V v 1 A a 7 R l V V f 2 39 7 39 39 w 39 n 1quot 4 5 i k Early Tetra pods Addition of Teeth Paired fins to limbs Gills replaced by lungs Early Tetra pods Increased skeletal support Tongue in C re a S e d S e n 5 0 FY 1 1 3 Early a hibian l La rynx for vocalization Larger cerebral cortex II PHYLOGENY AMPHIBIANS b Carboniferous labyrinthodont amphibian Source Vertebrate Biology D Linzey 2001 Era and Period Names and their duration in MYA Era Period begin end MYA Extant Quaternary 230 000 Sa 393 ma nde r5 Tertiary 655 238 amp Fmgs Cretaceous 146 655 3 Mesozoic Jurassic 200 146 Triassic 251 200 Permian 299 251 Carboniferous 359 299 Devonian 416 359 Paleozoic Silurian 444 415 Ordovician 483 444 Cambrian 542 488 II PHYLOGENY AMPHIBIANS Anthracosauria quot WWT V quot fa 39 3 39 pdr39 39 f m s to a 4quot r l Amniota Duverse emnospondyl groups 39 Sardopterygian AVEiii39iifrikf i fmn w 1quotw39li3 39quot quotMs 39 ancestor Witw Devonian Carboniferous Permian PALEOZOIC MESOZOIC cENOZOie 39 1 395 225 65 Geologic time Mya EO39ly anpuc Fv39Clu39mn rmd Ike rise n un p ib mm The 39ctmpori39 39ere 43 wns recent can mm unch39y mm Ike rh 39JHJ JKHS 7 Ike Irrvorurgn Amphibious share the trust rccer l rnmrron oncesh tit the I911 n 57udys cw the Czarbcnurc mws and Fer39nuzm rjenodt nf 129 Pelee7 nanJ I Ill355139 Fe l39 e quot3 WV 1L39vZCIC Source Vertebrate Biology D Linzey 2001 Origin of Salamanders Tiktaalik Late Devonian 375 mya Canada 2004 Discovery Predated Ichthyostega by 5 12 meters long my 0 Tiktaalik lVIost remarkable feature front pair fins with wristlike structure 39 Spiracles primitive nostrils lungs as well as gills 1St tetrapod with proper neck enabling greater flexibility during short bouts on land Ichthyostega Late Devonian 370mya Greenland quotroof fish 5 ft 50 lbs Fish amp Amphibian features Webbed feet Ability to breathe air for short periods Crocodilelike early amphibian Aquatic amp Terrestrial Structurally some features that would appear in later reptiles Diplocaulus Middle late Permian 240230mya Greek quotdouble stalk Wide V shaped boomerang head Navigate strong currents Facilitate rapid opening for suctiongape feeding 3 ft long 510 lbs IVIodern Salamander Families Amphiumidae Sirenidae Upper Cretaceous Cryptobranchidae Protidae Salmandridae Paleocene Plethodontidae Pleistocene The Origin of Anura Frog Evolution Trends Modifications forjumping Vertebral column short and inflexible Reduction Presacral vertebrae Increase rigidity absorption of landing Transfer Energy directly to hindlimbs Hindlimbs elongated for hopping Vusces modified forjumping Frog Evolution Trends Modifications forjumping Pelvic girdle enlarged strengthened and anchored to vertebral column No ribs No tail as adult Overall body truncated Amphibamus Late Carboniferous 300mya Greek for equal legs Swamps Europe amp N America 6 in few ounces 33 Presacral vertebrae Gerobatrach us Early Permian 290mya 2008 Texas quotfrogmanderquot mixture salamander amp frog 2 fused ankle bones Backbone intermediate Large tympanum Wide froglike skull Likely transitional form 240275 mya splitting frogs and salamander Triadobatrachus Early Triassic 250mya Madagascar Triple frog Proto frog First fossil frog Vieraella Early Jurassic 200 mya Argentina Earliest true frog May belong to modern family Leiopelmatidae Classic froglike head amp large eyes legs modified forjumping Triadabatrachus Vieraella Paleobatrach us Cretaceous to Tertiary 1305 mya quotancient frog Europe Completely aquatic inhabited swamp basins Volcanic gases preserved soft tissue 395 Resembles present day Xenopus Extant Amphibian Lineages Millions of years before present 350 300 1 i 250 l 200 l 150 l 100 i 50 PALEOZOIC MESOZOIC CENOZOIC Devonian CARBONIFEROUS Mississippian Pennsylvanian PERMIAN TRlASSlC JURASSIC CHETACEOUS TERTIARY l 1 x H l Eusthenopteron erichthyi ae Ichthyostegalia 1 Edopoidea l I Colosteidae l l Nectridea Aistopoda r 4 Embolomeri l 4 Baphetidae A Microsauria F H Limnoscelidae Osteolepilormes E ryopoidea Triadobatrachus Dipnoi Rhadinosteus Prosairus Brachyopoidea l E ocaeciia Trimerorhachoidea l l Trematosauridae Marmorerpeto l Chigutisauridae 39 Notol l I e l l atrachus oglossidae Paleobatrachidae Pipidae Ka 39 Pelobalidae Rhinophrynidae Bufonidae Hylidae Leptodactylidae Paleo Eo Oligo Mio Pli Limnodynastidae Ranidae Rhacophoridae Microhylidae Caeciliidae f Albanerpelontidae Jarus l l Prosirenida Proteidae Amphiumidae E g Sirenidae l Scapherpetonidae l Batrachosauroididae Valdoiriton Cryptobranchidae Salamandridae Dicamptodontidae Ambystomalidae Plethodontidae FIGURE 32 Geological occurrence oi Some early tel mpods including extinct md living iniphihians Ahhrevi JIlUHS for jenoZoic epochs are Paleo Paleocene lilo Eocene ligo Oligocene lio Miocene and Hi Pliocene Pleistocene is the narrow unlabeled epoch on the lhr right side ol39the chart rmOACwm m gtXOZOltlt ltltI OIgtwgtOmwmOmu gtSuIwgtZm gt338 omo gtsmxltEm msmzomscm Review of Terms Lecture 2 V Anatomical Features Costal groove Dorsolateral folds Nasolabial groove Parotid glands V Reproductive and Developmental Terms Amplexus External fertilization Eft Explosive breeder Aggregate breeder Internal fertilization Neotenic development Tadpole V Habitat Term Fossorial General Information for Each Taxonomic Group V Morphological characteristics V Habits amp Habitat V Reproduction amp Development V Diet V Geographic distribution VPresent in Indiana El V Conservation status V Photographs of representative species Order Gymnophiona Caecilians lchthyophis kohtaoensis Purple Caeciian Gymnopis multiplicata Order Caudata or Urodela Salamanders 5 QT st j sk vtg jx SALrStzo 3 i i quot quot 3 11 31 Hwy f N 6 C Salamanders Famin Sirenidae Sirens Western Lesser Siren Siren in termedia 1ampvg 2 51 DAVE a Salamanders Sb Family gyptobranchidae y Hellllbendan39 Eastern Hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis Eag am I3 3 a39 egamensm Ozark 339 3 ENE b Salamanders amp 577 7 i MUdPUppy or Waterdog Necturus maculosus SPE CIA L CONCERN d Salamanders W9 Family Ambystomatidae Mole Salamanders Eastern Tiger Salamander Ambystoma tigrinum Spotted Salamander Ambystoma maculatum e Salamanders 9 Family Plethodontidae Lungless Salamanders Fourtoed Salamander Hemidactylium scutatum Green Salamander i f I 39 Aneides aeneus 39 363quot if 53 f Salamanders N Family Salamandridae Newts g Central Newt Notophthalmus viridescens Iouisianensis Redspotted Newt Notophthalmus viridescens viridescens A Eft B Adult Anuran Diversity Currently 45 families 5500 species Taxonomy is constantly changing Species discoveries Genetic technologies I Order Anura Frogs and Toads Cranial Crests Dorsolateral No Fold Fold Parotid Glands E39i r 1 i quotquot 1 Warts e Frogs and Toads Family Leiopelomatidae Tailed Frog Tailed Frog Ascaphus truei d Frogs and Toads S Family Scaphiopodidae Nearctic Spadefocg Toads Eastern Spadefoot Scaphiopus holbrookii SPECIAL CONCERN b Frogs and Toads M Family Hylidae Tree Frogs g b Frogs and Toads Family Hylidae Tree Frogs 9 t Jam Scx ik 9 Im Sf d anla ch TC A nm an SP 90 mm Fe C Gav Fam a Frogs and Toads g W Family Bufonidae Toads 9 5 s o o v D I American Toad Anaxyrus americanus Marine Toad RhineIa marina c Frogs and Toads Family Ranidae True Frogs Bullfrog Lithobates ca tesbeianus f Frogs and Toads Family Dendrobatidae poison frogs Golden Poison Frog Phylloba tes terribilis LECTURE 3 Origin of Reptiles Hu nail mum dummmm K s39anu ullml Reptiles Taxonomy and basic characteristics Increasing modifications to land Limbs muscles Increasing brain size cerebrum and cerebellum More effective jaw Skeletal structure improved Skin tough covered with Well developed lungs Amniote egg Era and Period Names and their duration in MYA Era Period begin end MYA Quaternary 230 000 Tertiary 655 238 Cretaceous 146 655 Mesozoic Jurassic 200 146 Triassic 251 200 Permian 299 251 Carboniferous 359 299 Devonian 416 359 Paleozoic Silurian 444 415 Ordovician 483 444 Cambrian 542 488 PHYLOGENY AMPHIBIANS a Frogs and j toads Anthracosauria a w 4 w 39 quot quotquotquotquot rf NSYV VF 11 o quotkw we ywygg Lepospondyli l Amniota rquot quot vw quot 7 39 f I 4 l 1 Ichthyoslega 74 affix Rmpidishans Diverse l emnospondyl groups SarCopterygian 39 ancestor Devonian Carboniferous Permian PALEOZOIC MESOZOIC CENOZOIC39 395 225 65 Geologic ume Mya 7 E04quot lel39n n C Irw39CIIJ nfsn and Ihe tise a JTT quotHEb sun The mm min ahare 431 wm39 lecem can nmn omen3 mm Ike 1h amt slums c w l hworuun r Arnph DiO39l39 33910quot 19 39I IV39J fC CQI I L39x IIWY Cnn 39JnCC SIW 39 fi the Ian I unaided 4 ffu r3rbnuvt nus and 39 IIIJN L n39jHCHJ Hf WP PCI 39I j guJ M Tnossx poem the Mu wan Source Vertebrate Biology D Linzey 2001 Inodenmrnanunam see Chapter 9 x K x 390 PHYLOGENY REPTILES Crocodilians Snakes Dinosaurs It Ar39 quotI 139 1 Iquot r I i fhyosaurs z J r DIAF SIDS If 5 r quot Mam 1 V We urged 39 Tertiary to present uEsozac csuozotcm 5 65 3eoerctuneh yrago Source Vertebrate Biology D Linzey 2001 Early Reptiles A r i A Anapsid 1St Reptiles no temporal fenestrae B Synapsid C Diapsid Larger stronger jaw muscles Crocs Snake Lizard Tuatara Extinct dinosaurs pterosaurs icthyosaurs DisagreementTurtles anapsid type Mammals PHYLOGENY REPTILES Modem mammals see Chapter 9 see Chapter 8 Modern buds Crocodmans Snakes Stem amniotes 3970th to present CENOZOIC 39 Geologic tame My ago Source Vertebrate Bi3ogy D Linzey 2001 Early Reptiles Amniotes Casineria Early Carboniferous 340mya Salamanderlike early tetrapod 5 digits with Claws 1St amniote Ancestor to amniotes Amniotes Eggs survive out of water Disperse onto drier land 1st Lizards Hyanomus Carboniferous 315 mya Canada Perhaps earliest known reptile Among first amniotes anapsid Small lizardlike 812 in Fossil with distinct toe amp scales Numerous sharp teeth lnseotivorous diet Mesozoic Age of the Reptiles Explosive Radiation of Reptiles Most numerous amp largest Dominant Terrestrial amp Aerial Animals Also Formidable marine predators Mammals x r Mcdorn mammals quot 39 see Chapter 9 l quot I39g Crocodrlians 39 l s gt Sau schians 7 9 Snakes r f I 9r misc g r xx V Prerros tars r V r V397 4 l I dThyosauvs v i F1 tquot J f39 Jul r if quot quot Mescsaurs I l 39 V 7 i k 1 Iz 39 r igqgguw Wflfl I A rxmAf A 39 AMAM1 AAQ I wf x f39 oA A5 AxAv N A 4 ANAPSIDS 7quot 7 A i 39 g 39 7 39 Trlasslc Jurassic Cretaceous Tenlary to present ussozmc 7 7 I cenozom 65 Archosauromorphs Ruling Reptiles of Mesozoic Early Diapsid amniotes Ancestral to Crocodilians Birds Turtles Euparkeria ancestry of Archosauromorphs From Early Triassic resembled Short necked monitor lizard Dermal bone armor Part of lineage leading to Dinosaurs Crcccdyllans Surviving Archcsaurs 39v du c Early ancestors Jurassic to mid Cretaceous Stomatosuchus 36ft swamps N Africa Sarcosuchus Flesh crocodyle 40ft Super Croc Lepidosauromorphs 2nd Major Diapsid lineage Ancestral to Squamates Lizards Snakes Tuatuara First Appear late Permian Tuatuara Sphenodontia Living Fossils Triassic o e s c e n oi e oi fro m b e a k h e ad e d M reptiles Rhinocephalia 1St Sphenodontian Brachyrhinodon tayori Europe Similar to modern Tuatuara Exception skull more broad robust w Extant Endemic to new Zealand Anapsids turtles Triassic Basic body plan Odontocheys Proganocheys Jurassic Eieanchelys Cretaceous Archeon Odontocheys Late Triassic 220 mya E Asia shallow marine waters near shore 2008 Predates Proganocheys by 10 mys toothed shell Proganocheys Late Triassic 21 Omya Prior to 2008 most well known early turtle 3ft75lbs Possess few teeth Modern turtle lack Eieanoheys Late Jurassic 165160 mya W Europe Scotland Earliest pond turtle 2008 Discovery Archeon Late Cretaceous 7565 mya Oceans of N America Ruling turtle 12 ft 2 tons Large flipperlike arms amp legs Leathery Shell Closest living relative Leatherback Millions of years before present 300 250 200 1 50 1 00 50 O I I I I I I PALEOZOIC MESOZOIC CENOZOIC PERMIAN TRIASSIC JURASSIC CRETACEOUS TERTIARY Pennsylvanian Paleo E0 Oligo Mio Pli Ophiacodoniidae Synapsida P h I d I Cryptodira I I Mesosaundae r4 roganoc 9quot ae Pleurodira Pareiasauria procolophonoid I 39 Cla udrosaurus sau rcpteryg a Ichthyosaurla Kayentachelys h Dinosauria C t h d Pterosauria l l ap or w as I Paleomyrfs Alligatondae Crocodylidae I I Araeoscelididae 39 39 I l Kuehneosauridae Gawal39dae I Gephyrosaurus Petrolacosaurus Sphenodontida I I Diadectomorpha EUDOSBUHdae Iguania I Arld I eosaurus Gekkota l lSeymouriamorpha I E Angurmorpha N Pallguana Amphisbaenia 2 Q Najash a I Scincidae Paramacellodldae I Serpentes Aigialosauridae Review of Terms Lecture 13 VAII Era Period and Epoch Names V Anapsids Diapsids Synapsids V Anurans Caecilians Caudata V Crocodylia Lacertilia Squamata Testudines V Archosaur V Anthracosauria Ichthyostega Lissamphibia V Archosurians Lepidosaurus V Tetrapods LECTURE 4 TAXONOMY WITH CHARACTERISTICS REPTILES I T39YI CI39quot 5 I r P I rd 1 I quot y American Alligator Alligator mississippiensis General Information for Each Taxonomic Group V Morphological characteristics V Habits amp Habitat V Reproduction amp Development V Diet V Geographic distribution Present in Indiana V Conservation status W V Photographs of representative species Order Testudines or Chelonia Turtles 3 Guar 39 5 39 H Jmera a 1 INN h g 3 A 13 V39 quot 10 quotj I x 39 39 L n Pcctoro l k quotJerk Ma39s l r 1 momma z K7Margmasa l gglf39a V 1 Furmm z Cc39stols 5 39 f l quotal 9 I 39 39 Ventral View Dorsal View a Order Testudines Families Cheloniidae and Dermochelyidae Sea Turtles Atlantic Leatherback Sea Turtle Dermochelys coriacea coriacea ma 3 em b mm U H Tm U nmua T pm 3 9 am II n 9 l as 0 mm 0 mm 3 cm H mw Idae igator Snapping Turtle Macroclemys temmincki All b Order Testudines 39 Chelydr 39 Fam Eastern Mud Turtle Kinosternon subrubrum subrubrum ENDANGERED d Order Testudines Families Emydidae Basking Marsh and Box Turtles o It 7 5 K I O a v Ornate Box Turtle Terrapene ornata ornata Le Order Testudines Families Testudinidae Tortoises Desert Tortoise Gopherus agassizii kquot i o 5 A N quot 039 n u I 9quot n 1 E u a s s p in quot39u r O r 4H 151 13 A I npt 39 u v 5 Eastern Spiny Softshell Apalone spinifera spinifera b Order Crocodylia Families Crocodylidae and atoridae Alligators and Crocodiles Crocodile Osteoderm fossil American Crocodile American Alligator Crocodylus acutus Alligator mississippiensis a Order Squamata Suborder Laoertilia Lizards Typical Lizard 4395 I w 1 g 139 l a C39aws 2 Scales 39 g Salamanders 39 7 7 have smooth I f 1 k39 Z of S In quot39I39 51quot quot No Claws Underside of Thigh salamander Femoral Pores Foot Movable Ear No movable Eyelids Eyelids No Ear Openings Opening b Suborder Lacertilia Family Gekkonidae Geckos c Suborder Lacertilia Family iguanidae Iguana Galapagos Marinelguana Ctenosaura hemiopha short Amblyrynchus crlstatus crested spinytailed iOIuana Phrynosomatidae spiny lizards Northern Fence Lizard Sceloporus undulatus Tean Horned Lizard httpWWWUVutUbCeDCCCJDmWamhwzgEH6TXFKZHK Phyrnosoma cornutum frillneck lizard Chlamydosaurus kingii 339D lt83 m 339 33a QJQ 5quot Hz 30 6 To DO 390 l Moloch horridus The Thorny Devil Agami dae Polychrotidae anoles and friends q t a b quot er 39 3 5 A 3 a t k nquot 91 I o 7 Q 1 p 11 w 39 H 39 O A a s in a lt u 39 3 b m Q 4 u o 1 x o d Suborder Lacertilia Family Anguidae Glass or Alligator Lizards Western Slender Glass Lizard Ophisaurus attenuatus attenuatus llle Suborder Lacertilia Family Helodermatidae Beaded Lizards From top to bottom An adult a two yearold and a yearling Mexican Beaded Lizard Heloderma horridum Size Comparison Male on the left Female on the right f Suborder Lacertilia Family Tiidae Whiptails and Racerunners Prairie Racerunner Sixline Raceruner Aspidoscelis sexlineatus Aspidoscelis sexlineatus viridis g Suborder Lacertilia Family Scincidae Skinks I39m 39 v 391 is 139 39 a 5 quotOPI ampv A An Fivelined Skink Ground Skink Plestiodon fasciatus Scincella Iateralis H u 3 39 3w 4 11 h iiquot v A quot39 11131 IV Order Squamata Serpentes Snakes HEAD SEA 3 39 ionro Much 50000 39quotKuon 5 939 cm Honu quot aunt ourh quot539me rqhnu 395 Irmg Chg 5305 OF HEAD I Dunk Home mm V quotquot0quot El n3h E E ii 39V upu tmousmss 3 ML 397 W a sz J 39 Female Tapers from Anus L1 541fny 11151 TF Hrf39 a H 12quot Male Stout at base DL differ133439 39 3 e A WIw lll2WJ 1 Stumptail Lost via accident Va Order Squamata Family Boidae Boas Amazon Basin Emerald Tree Boas Boa constrictor Coralus caninus Vb Order Squamata Sistrurus ca tena tus ca tena tus Family peridae Viper 7 I e 2 i 39 A v 39 4 0 quot 39 I39 39 u I U I a I If u 4 39 D Timber Rattlesnake Crotalus horridus horridus IVC Order Squamata Family Elapidae Cobras Coral 39r w w l qquot a quot5 1 5 039 113 7 1m Western Coral Snake Micruroides euryxanthus Harlequin Coralsnake Micrurus fulvius Vd Order Squamata Family Colubridae Snakes Ve Order Squamata Famil Natricidae Snakes Kirtland s Snake Clonophis kirtlandii Redbelly Water Snake Nerodia erythrogaster Family Vf Order Squamata Dipsadidae Snakes Review of Terms Lecture 3 V Anatomical Features Aposematic coloring Carapace Cloaca Hemotoxin Jacobson s Organ Neurotoxin Osteoderms Plastron Reproductive and Developmental Terms Temperaturedependant sex determination Oviparous Ovoviviparous Viviparous LECTURE 5 ENERGETICS AND METABOLISM THE ECTOTHERMIC LIFE IMPORTANT TERMS Activity Temperature Range Mean Activity Temperature Operative Temperature VHomeothermy VACCIimation xThermoregulation INTRODUCTION VEctothermic Reptiles amp Amphibians Primary heat source is external Heat is not always available More economical VEndothermic Birds amp Mammals Primary heat source is internal Do better in cold environments More expensive la Basic Energetics Energy Budget g a a f lloatio 39 mei t activity 1 R if all a iiiiliity time 1quot j Eiohyai ai E39l mlltifl ll i39lm t LH 7 IE I Hi i 3 ii ed 7 EHEE I g a3 yw ultimatum l f Starla Mia all Ll lgeetiwg erirmanoe RESELer environment aging ii r l HE J llJ r g Engrgy net a simi lat F l l A 2 39Lm39lEH 7 Somali demgrahio Ei lt il l merit M Mating rplpolrttinities S Predation i i High oi g Emir l tmeni 39 mrtality 3in time budget Source Herpetology 2nol Edition Zug Vitt and Caldwell 2001 Lb Basic Energetics Energy Budget TABLE 53 VAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAV Example of an Annual Energy Budget for the Painted Turtle Cbtysemys picta Percent utilization Maintenance Production Year of life Energy used Rest Active Growth Eggs Storage 1 962 49 44 6 0 l 3 4526 48 43 8 O 1 5 8183 51 45 3 0 1 7 1 1 779 5 1 46 2 0 l 8 15913 43 3 8 2 15 2 10 18233 43 40 1 14 2 12 19089 44 41 lt1 14 0 14 19969 45 40 lt1 14 0 Modi ed from Congdon et a 1982 Note Energy used kl kilojoules is the tOtal amount metabolized not the total amount consumed table condensed by deleting alternate years Painted Turtle Chrysemys picta II a Thermal Interactions and Heat Exchange in Ectctherms Heat exchange with the environment occurs via xRadiaticn VCcnvecticn VCcnducticn II b Thermal Interactions and Heat Exchange in Ectotherms SURFACE AREA VS VOLUME LENGTH SURFACE VOLUME OF SIDE cm AREA cm2 cm3 RATIO 1 6 1 61 4 96 64 151 10 600 1000 061 20 2400 8000 031 II c Thermal Interactions and Heat Exchange in Ectotherms 1000 1 35 C 20 100 Lizards 03 E 50 J 5 95 0 C 10 WC 5 4 Alliphib ans I I I I 5 10 100 1000 Mass 9 Source Herpetology 2nol Edition 209 Vitt and Caldwell 2001 Ai IATIE EMF AMPHIMH U Etllllll lg A A r Dire eu ghl I J4 i uh gt 39F 7 i Ehavimal FESEJE NEE leanr lllmm F f f i warm water 4 m r Jmneeeeeeefl I ee mm mmw l LL L eimralazi llg i 3El Ilngy l39Ul39 Emem r1 933 c lrlucllve e l G r a lie Ell lj lurem warel 353 exchange Source Herpetology 2nol Edition Zug Vitt and Caldwell 2001 ll e Heat Exchange Terrestrial Amphibians x W DIUHHAL AH MHME AMF HIJIJAH r 7 7 7 quot 35 rmware 1 U e 3r f mi 1 39 nial3quot Thermal radialinn L EH 1355 mm l l ph l a 391 r a r Elem slur ight SEE Ema am J lr39EallleclE JEunlighl r f Water large 395 u U quot Ednueclive f Thermal raldialr m w 1 E mlrmlmgmj a hfealrga l r Gamenus r r BEGHIELII E e Eaeew A 1 E i l ng 9 39v 5 Equot r r v 531113er quotTalc w M 39 Ef pgmlwg fi lregig il lg Thermal Iral 39ll heal GEE Ewi39w lur generalgarages f w L A id r 39 Erinrm E g tli lll mmelzrm t Elij39 lilllilal f 1 Emlflal1l i ijil39Eil i l La rm ii lung fllea lzwnrlm wirln J r l er fr lr gr u 1quot Thermal radialim i lrmum g kg hullsle ill39l EilllJ39E lrm mil Source Herpetology 2nol Edition Zug Vitt and Caldwell 2001 ll f Heat Exchange Reptiles Direct radiation ll 9 Heat Exchange SecretiveNocturnal Amphibian amp Reptiles Emmeeetive heal gain Er39n JESS P H EUHMHHHE quot I J A L h ail 1 maimreg mmy quotIi 1 m 39lrlalla e Exchange a LLW Iiral ld f 1 r w E hang rl m rm W m l Ll l tl l i L irm emwrmmenl E ll i l g Source Herpetology 2nol Edition Zug Vitt and Caldwell 2001 III a Temperature Ranges and Tolerances ray 390 cx 6 9 60 2 29 D 27 K 9 rb 2 r OO 90 0 2quot V 0390 4 4 06 V I J Activity range Preferred J i lt Minimums Maximums gt FIG URE 1 05 VAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAYAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVA Pro le of bodr temperature characrcristics of an CCtOthCl m m H tl 352 Ei r lll alhj we a an l fltlzutlat r gsllutm E it 251 24 r Kl llit ti tnirlm l iii2 23 E lm r a a 4 quotl 11 TH dinette 1 rt 3 a Mtg liming ESE H r TFJJEJ EHZ39IFHEJ 155 35 2E5 Strawrm utt lirmtt 1955 Du lman tfll Trunk RENEE 411 34 it 213 13 39lld tl f Er Ill 1932 39 E timat l b lu aw has quot1 Source Herpetology 2nol Edition Zug Vitt and Caldwell 2001 Iquot b Temperature Ranges and Tolerances Active Body Temperature ATR varies depending on VTaxa Habitat Season V Genetics V For most the range is between 27 C and 35 C few reptiles have ATRs lt 20 C IV a Regulation of Body Temperature xRegulation of body temperature is due largely due to behavioral adaptations Amphibians terrestrial handle regulation differently because of moist skin Low resistance to water loss Tb largely tracks Te but a couple of degrees cooler due to evaporation Reptiles can be exposed to sunlight without excessive water loss IV b Regulation of Body Temperature Other physiological morphological adaptations Adjustment of blood flow to skin Adjustment of heart rate VColor changes Special adaptation seen in leatherback turtles IV 0 Regulation of Body Temperature 70 I i O Fquot l i 60 5 e o i 39 o O o 50 39 3 O i l o i r quot 5 0 0 39 3 a v 1 t E Warming 3 3 A 5 g E 30 t o l O l E O o i E r f I Spiny Softshell i o o Apalone spinifera 10 O 9 o f o o 9 O o o lCooling 39 O 0 l 0L l 1 l i l E l I J t l l l l 1 i 15 20 25 30 35 Body temperature C Figure 735 The heart rate of a softshelled turtle weighing 650g The heart rate measured at any given body tempera ture was much higher if the turtle was being heated than if it was undergoing cooling The animal was in water during both heating and cooling Smith et al 1981 IV d Regulation of Body Temperature Regulation of Body Temperature Through Behavioral Adaptations Figure 3216 haw a lizam regulaics sis nous temporath 15534339 l Ute 511039 7 9 21kquot Card absoros the mm 5 heat image is hear Mute yawning thc rest of its body protected from coal 39r orrang an Late it Will emerge to task At noon witf ls cody 1e Toerature high it seeks 333399 l39om 72139 sun 39v ir cr the air temperature drops in the late 31197003quot 39 emerges and 43933 carai e to the un s 39ays f igjv l o 39 s pquot i l g I I r 4 I a b 39 N 39 u A I b Naming A 39 Lam afternoon V a Dormancy Dormancy response to temperature extremes usuallylhot and dry In deserts freeznng or below In temperate regions VSoaphiopus active 1 monthyear in Arizona Thamnophis for 4 monthsyear in Manitoba Dormancy can occur in three different forms Hibernation Freeze Tolerance VEstivation V b Dormancy V1 Hibernation Tb largely allowed to track Te except that metabolic activities slowed even more than normal for a given temperature xAnimals move during hibernation xAquatio hibernation V c Dormancy V2 Freeze tolerance Freezing is lethal to all but a few species ice crystals destroy cells and extracellular fluid freezes and dehydrates cells A few species eg Hya crucifer are freezetolerant and surVIve extracellular freezmg V d Dormancy 3 Estivation VAnimals inhabiting desert and semidesert environments VPhysiclcgy is not well known Animals retreat to deep burrows with high humidity and moist soils and reduce their metabolism All life process breeding etc are greatly accelerated in these species Review of Terms Lecture 5 V Active Body Temperature ATR VConduction Convection Radiation V Dormancy Estivation Freeze Tolerance Hibernation V Ectothermic Endothermic Homeothermic V Energy Budget V Inertial Endothermy V Surface Area LECTURE 6 PHYSIOLOGY amp SENSORY SYSTEMS Carmina artery Trunc us N X anpr0us s 39 Q 7 Syszemc Pulmo artery 39 v 39 cutaneous artery Tcpu39mo cutaneous M Pulmonary arteries 39 veins Spua vquot Left atnun valve quot Sums venosus nght quot quot x atan Rngm atnun Awiculo COHJS ventrcJlar arter 03 15 valves Vcntncic Basic Physiology Organ Systems V Circulatory System V Respiratory System Sensery System and Organs Reproductive and Digestive systems covered in other lectures a Amphibian Circulatory System Circulatory System Va Heart b Blood vessels Vc Lymphatic system la Amphibian Circulatory System A Heart xAll amphibians have a three chambered heart Twc atria One ventricle xStructure highly variable clue to Cutaneous Pulmonary respiration a Amphibian Circulatory System A Amphibian Heart Lung 39 xyg eriatEdi bitmi D39E39D ygiE t f himj at m my 1 its my la Amphibian Circulatory System C Lymphatic Systems xLymphatio network of vessels is an open system containing both Lymphatic vessels Open cavities or sinuses Lymph hearts present in amphibians VFound at venous junctions Contractile structures with valves that prevent backflow and speed up flow from lymph into veins la Amphibian Circulatory System D Blood Red blood cells nucleated 39 A 39 9L 39 v 59 39 b quote R lb Reptilian Circulatory System A Heart xNo single model The typical reptilian heart consists of three chambers Two atria One ventricle divided into 3 chambers orcava b Reptilian Circulatory System LAA 7 A Turtle Heart c MR b Reptilian Circulatory System Y A Turtle Heart b MR lb Reptilian Circulatory System B Vessels Blood vessels are similar to those present in adult amphibians with minor differences adaptations V Lymph system is an elaborate drainage network of microvessels and sinuses Lymphatic hearts are present but valves are rare bidirectional flow C Blood V Red blood cells are nucleated lc Amphibian Respiratory System A Lungs Lungs similar in form to other vertebrates Air moves in and out by a buccopharyngeal force pump mechanism VSome have no lungs Other surfaces for air exchange a Buccopharyngeal cavity b Gills Vc Skin C Amphibian Respiratory System 5 4 i s 39 a 393 CJ39 V B Breathing in Amphibians d Reptilian Respiratory System A Lungs Reptiles also have simple saclike lungs Small sacs faveoli radiate outward from large central chamber VSnakes have single functional right lung left is nonfunctional d Reptilian Respiratory System A Lungs Breathing in reptiles mostly occurs by expansion and contraction of intercostal muscles muscles VCrocodilians have diaphragms as well Vln turtles breathing is accomplished by abdominal and pectoral girdle muscles Other surfaces for air exchange a Buccopharyngeal cavity V b Skin a Sensory Systems and Organs Functions of Sensory system a Maintenance of homeostasis b Find prey VG Escape Predators Vd Find mates Sense organs are integrated to the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems b Sensory Systems and Organs Amphibians A Cutaneous a Lateral line system Aquatic species mostly larval stages VSeries of pores aligned as a line on head and trunk Lines are formed by neuromasts b Other Receptors Pain Temperature Pressure and touch mechanoreceptors b Sensory Systems and Organs Amphibians B Ears Outer ears are usually absent xTympanum ear drum at surface VMiddle ear Vlnner ear b Sensory Systems and Organs Amphibians B Ears Middle ear has two auditory pathways a TympanumColumella Pathway for airborne sounds b ForelimbOpercular Pathway for seismic sounds b Sensory Systems and Organs Amphibians B Ear Anatomy Auditory SG39THCII39CJadr canais Utnculusu Ovai wi rm 0 R Eustacl39nan tabs Phavyv x b Sensory Systems and Organs Amphibians B ForelimbOpercular Pathway C Sensory Systems and Organs Reptiles A Cutaneous V a Pit Organs Boas and pythons VCrotalidae snakes b Other Receptors Pain Temperature VMechanoreceptors C Sensory Systems and Organs Reptiles B Ears V Outer ear VMiddle ear Vlnner ear llc Sensory Systems and Organs Reptiles C Eyes V Large and well developed in most reptiles VPupils are circular to elliptical Most reptiles have color vision cones and rods Parietal eye Pineal organ is sister organ capable of photoreception and melatonin production Capable of perceiving light and integrating photoperiod and hormone production llc Sensory Systems and Organs Reptiles D Nasal Organs V Sensory area olfaction principally in roof and dorsal walls of nasal cavity VJacobson s organ Found near nasal cavity and odor particles carried from tongue oral cavity to organ via duct E Other Organs VSimilar to those in amphibians Review of Terms Lecture 6 V Circulatory System Atria Cava Lymph Hearts Lymphatic SinusesVentricle V Respiratory System Buccopharyngeal Cavity Cutaneous Respiration Diaphragm Faveoli Intercostal Muscle Pulmonary Respiration V Sensory System Columella Forelimbopercular Pathway Lateral Line System Mechanoreceptors Neuromasts Nictitating Membrane Parietal Eye Pit Organs Propioreceptors Tympanum Tympanuncolumella Pathway Vomeronasal Organ Jacobson s Organ rmoacwm m gt uIwgtZ mmUwOUCOjO Qw0ltltI gtZU Umlterust l Reproduction and Life Histories Amphibians have evolved diverse solutions to enhance their reproductive output and offspring survival For example a Amphibians display a spectacular diversity of reproductive modes b Fertilization can occur inside or outside the body of females Vc Development can be direct or indirect ll Gametogenesis and Ovulation n most amphibians two sexes 326 are needed for reproduction VGametogenesis is a major feature of sexual reproductive preparations Involves the division and growth within the ovaries SB and testes 8 through hormonal activation ll Gametogenesis and Ovulation xVitellogenesis is a very important process in egglaying vertebrates VAooumulation of nutrients in the cytoplasm of the developing egg Rapid growth of ootooytes ll Gametogenesis and Ovulation Ovulation occurs when the follicular and ovarian walls rupture As eggs pass through the oviduct protective membranes are deposited around them Amphibian eggs are anamniotic VEggs are expelled singly in gelatinous masses or strings ll Gametogenesis an Ovulation L V V 3 v r 39 quot 39 39 y I S r H I gt I I 39 I 39 I 4 I x or l p a r 39 l 39 u s s w Iv Eggs frd an American Toad deposited as long strings lll Fertilization Fertilization is defined as the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote During mating many sperm can reach the egg but only M will penetrate it and fertilize it exception are salamanders which have internal fertilization Two types in amphibians a external b internal lll Fertilization 1 External Fertilization VSimultaneous shedding of eggs and sperm into water Most frogs and Crytobranohoid salamanders VConstrain where the eggs are laid Vmgs males grasp females in back around legs so that his oloaoa is positioned just above female s oloaoa VSalamanders amplexus may occur or males follows females depositing sperm on egg masses Fertilization Tree Frogs Wood Frogs Amplexus in Frogs lll Fertilization 2 Internal Fertilization V Few species of frogs Salamadroid salamanders and all Caecilians Allows eggs to be laid in spot and at time of choice Vmgs require special intromittent organs hemipenis in males for delivering sperm into female s cloaca VSalamanders male produces sperm which are deposited externally Fertilization occurs in cloaca but often is delayed with sperm storage in series of tubules on roof of cloaca called spermatheca Fertilization Spermatophore Spermatozoan acrosome 3 I 4 i M k nucleus 5quot 39 cap tv39T 11 neck quotA 7 quot iv may I 4 39 1 1 234 t I I y I y 39 x 39 f 2quot quot Vquot x L 39l I I A l rr39 r I I t ber undulating r membrane 393 I r am i pedicel 5 i i I39139 f 1 i quot339 t r I K x J quot 391 J 0 i I base 4 H 39 a iquot l X J quot f 39 I I I If x I J vl 39 x x I I 1 l 21 A It u39 y 39 V 1 I 4 39 v39 x i quotl I V 1 quot I V I 39 quot A 39 4 i Spermatophore in a Salamander IV Reproduction Without Fertilization VAsexual Reproduction reproduction occurs without the males genetic contribution and in some taxa populations are 100 females Two types in amphibians a hybridogenesis b synogenesis IV Reproduction Without Fertilization 397 3 a lt73 QBi 9A f fi g r 3 H 1 3 J T T 1 i I M i 59 o i i i 13 Rig gig 7zA Bisexual and Unisexual Reproduction in Amphibians The B in the offspring produced by hydridogenesis and gynogenesis comes from the mother IV Reproduction Without Fertilization Unisexual hybrid Ambystoma complex 5 million years ago species Ploidy number varies V Parental Care Definition Most amphibians show no parental care other than attendance and guarding of eggs Represented by a variety of behaviors 1 nest egg V2 egg brooding V 3 transport V4 feeding of young V Parental Care Australian Gastric Brooding Frog female with froglet male carrying eggs on hind legs Surinam Toad female with eggs on back VI Development Vlmportant terms VExotrophiC VMetamorphosis VPaedomorphosis Va Progenesis V b Neoteny VII Growth Two growth pulses a Embryonic Vb Juvenile VIII Age A Intervals periodicity and not age are important 1 Sexual Maturity V2 Embryogenesis 3 Larval period 9metamorphosis VIII Age AVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVAV Natural Longevity of Select Amphibians and Reptiles Taxon Adult size Age at maturity Maximum age erobrmzclaus Illaanimals 330 84 300 Desmognaraus quadmmaculatw 73 84 124 Eurycm mildews 34 48 96 Bu amen39cmzu 72 36 60 Ram catcsbcimm 1 16 36 96 Ckryrempe pitta 1 19 72 360 Geocbelonegz39 antca 400 132 840 Truevamp 507er 195 50 288 Sphenodon puncmtm 180 132 420 3 Cmmidopboms rtan 80 21 94 Galloti tcblinz39 120 48 132 U ta mmburirma 42 9 58 Diadopbis pmzctatw 23 5 32 180 39s Pz39ruopbis malanoleucu 790 34 180 Sources Salamandets Ca Peterson et 11 1983 Dq Bruce 1988 Organ 1961 Ew Bruce 1988 Frogs 453 Kalb and Zug 1990 Rc Howard 1978 Turtles Ct Wilbur 1975 Gg Bourne and Coe 1978 Gmbb 1971 T5 Frazer et 11 1990 Tuataras Sp Castanet et 31 1988 Liz ards Ct Turner et 31 1969 Medica and Turner 1984 Gs Castanet and Baez 1991 Us Tinkle 1967 Medica and Turner 1981 Snakes DP Fitch 1971 Pmcl Parker and Brown 1980 Nore Body size is for fema1c at sexua1 maturity mm snour vcnt length except carapace length for Cur t s age of maturity for female ImonthSI maximum age 110 IX Dynamics of Reproduction Multitude of patterns geared to the right environment for offspring VAII temperate species are cyclic Tropical species cyclic or acyclic In temperate salamanders two patterns 1 Winterspring mating and egg deposition Ambystomatids 2 Late summerfall mating and spring egg deposition Plethodontids IX Dynamics of Reproduction Mate attraction and selection Location usually not a problem Reproduction is more efficient within home range VCourtship has communication as key Females heavy investment in gametes obligates her to select most fit male Review of Terms Lecture 6 Gametoqenesis anol Ovulation Anamniotic egg Gametogenesis vitellogenin anol vitellogenesis Ovulation Spermatheca Spermatophore Polyspermic Fertilization Arnplexus Fertilization internal external Hemipenis Paedomorphosns Reproduction without Fertilization Asexual reproduction Gynogenesis Hybridogenesis Development and Growth Exotrophic Metamorphosis Neoteny Progenesis Parental care


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